John Williams White.

An illustrated dictionary to Xenophon's Anabasis, with groups of words etymologically related online

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Online LibraryJohn Williams WhiteAn illustrated dictionary to Xenophon's Anabasis, with groups of words etymologically related → online text (page 1 of 39)
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University of California.



Received, ^August, i8g8.
zAcc&ssion No. /; £ .»3 /^S" Class No. .^ ..sS .../.^






Professor of Greek,


MORRIS H. MORGAN, Ph.D. (Harv.),

Assistant Professor of Greek and Latin,
IN Harvard Univerbkcy.

f university]

Kal 07} KaPy'o^ve^i rwy ompCarwu ou

fffJLLKpbv Tvyx^vei ov fiddrj/Ma. Plat. Crat. 384 b.


18 92.

Copyright, 1891,

All Rights Reserved.

Typography by J. S. Gushing & Co., Boston, U.S.A.
Presswork by Ginn & Co., Boston, U.S.A.


This Dictionary has not been compiled from other vocabularies
and lexicons, but has been made from the Anabasis itself, on the
basis of an independent collection and examination of all the
places where each word occurs. The editors have aimed to give
all words found in the principal editions of the Anabasis now in
use, including Dindorf's fourth edition and Hug's recension of
the Teubner text, as well as the editions of Kriiger, Vollbrecht,
Rehdantz and Cobet, and Goodwin and White's edition of the first
four books.

In the definitions, they have intended to give all the meanings
that each word has in the Anabasis, beginning, when possible, with
the etymological meaning, and passing through the sirnpler varia-
tions to the more remote. Each meaning or group of meanings is
supported by at least one citation. The number of citations given,
except in the case of conjunctions, particles, pronouns, and prepo-
sitions, is determined by the importance of the word as shown by
the frequency of its occurrence in the Anabasis. When a word
is of common occurrence in all the books (as "EXXrjv and epxo-
(lai), this is indicated by a row of one or more citations from
each book. But a few words, like KaTa/catVco, though not common,
are cited at length because their treatment in lexicons has been
defective. Under each word the first passage in which it occurs is
always cited. When but one citation is made for a word, that
word is found only once in the Anabasis.

In treating of the derivation of words, special attention has been
given to their connexion with one another and with related words
in Latin and English. Because of the importance of this subject,
etymological explanations have for the most part been removed
from the body of the Dictionary, and added at the end in the form

of one hundred and twenty-four groups of related Greek, Latin,
and English words. These groups include the greater number
of the words in the Anabasis, presented in the natural order of
their development from a common element. The groups are not
complete for the entire language, since they contain in the main
only words found in the Anabasis and selected Latin and English
words. For a fuller treatment, Vanicek's GriecJnsch-Latehiisches
Etymologisches Worterbuch may be consulted, as well as the books
named on page 247. These groups should be specially and sepa-
rately studied. Too little attention is given to the manner in
which pupils acquire their Greek vocabulary. The result is often
a confused half-knowledge of the meaning of words. The acquisi-
tion of a vocabulary becomes both easy and interesting, if the
method is used which recognizes the great advantage of grouping
words that are related.

At the end of many articles are placed phrases or idioms of
special difficulty or interest in which the given word appears. Li
selecting English equivalents for these phrases, as for the words
themselves, the editors have been governed by a desire to keep
the Greek ideas alive, and to avoid that strange dialect which
seems to have been devised by the Adversary for the express
use of schools, and which has done much to make Greek (and
Latin also) a dead language indeed. Further, at the suggestion of
a well-known teacher, Latin equivalents have been given for many
Greek words and phrases, in the hope of encouraging the compara-
tive 'study of the two languages in schools. Latin words, unlesw
included within squar-e brackets, are of course not necessarily ety-
mological equivalents.

Simple constructions that follow a given verb, such as the
'dii'ect' or 'indirect object,' are not indicated unless some other
construction also is found in the Anabasis w-ith this verb. When
more than one construction is found, at least one citation is given
for each. It may be thought that some articles are swelled beyond
their due limits by the statement of constructions at length, but
the editors have preferred to risk this criticism rather than to be
too brief. They believe, too, that the fulness with which such
words are treated will be found of real assistance by many teach-
ers, especially by those who teach Greek composition by means of
exercises based on the Anabasis.

Among the ' principal parts ' of verbs, only those tenses have
been admitted of which forms are actually found in Attic prose or
poetry before Aristotle. To ascertain the facts has been a task of
no little difficulty, since, except for the ' irregular verbs,' the present
attempt has not before been made in a Greek dictionary. Yeitch's
well-known work has been of great assistance, and so have various
indexes to the most important authors. But there must still be
many Attic forms not yet catalogued. No tense, however, is here
given which is not represented by a form in some Attic author.

Under geographical words, the modern name, when it differs
from the ancient, is generally added in parenthesis (see e.g/'AXvi).
As many of these names are Turkish, the following vocabulary
may be of service. It is taken from Dr. Sterrett's preface to his
Ejngraphical Journey in Asia Minor, in Vol. II. of the Papers of
the American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

Ak, white. Kieni, village.

Boy ilk, large. Kilisse, church.

Dagh, mountain. Kizil, red.

Hissar, castle. 8ii, water, large river.

Irmak, large river. Tchai, small river.
Kara, black.

The Greek vowels a, i, and v, when long, and all long vowels in
Latin words, are marked with the usual sign wherever they occur
in the Dictionary. The same mark is placed on the penult of
English transliterations of Greek and Latin proper substantives
and adjectives in all cases where the pupil is in danger of giving
the English word the wrong accent.

The editors hope that the illustrations and the articles on man-
ners and customs, on military organization and equipment, and on
other topics relating to the objective side of old Greek life, may
help to arouse the pupil's interest as he reads Xenophon's graphic
account of the achievements of the Ten Thousand. As works of
art, some of the illustrations leave much to be desired, but they
may nevertheless serve to make Xenophon's narrative seem more
real to the youthful reader. The sources of the illustrations are
stated on page 243 ff.

The publication of this book discharges an obligation which
Mr. White rashly assumed many years ago. He would not be able


to meet it now if his colleague, INIr. IVIorgan, had not come to his
aid. Mr. White begs to acknowledge his obligations for assist-
ance when the book was in the early stages of making, to Gardiner
M. Lane, Esq., of Cambridge, to Dr. F. B. Goddard, of Columbia
College, and to Professor F. L. Van Cleef, of the University of
Wisconsin. Both editors would acknowledge their more recent
indebtedness for valuable help to Mr. Charles B. Gulick and to
Miss Lucy A. Paton.

Cambkidge, Dec. 1, 1891.


When a verb is 'regular' and all the six 'principal parts' are
found in Attic Greek, only the present and future tenses are given,
followed by etc. The parts of ' irregular verbs ' are given in full, so
far as they occur in the authors, as well as all the existing parts of
those 'regular' verbs of which some parts are not found in Attic.
The theme is inserted among the 'principal parts,' just after the
present tense, unless the verb is of the First or Variable-vowel
class. A hyphen prefixed to a tense signifies that the tense occurs
only in compounds. The parts of a compound verb are not given
if the simple verb occui-s in its proper place in this Dictionary.

The form of the genitive is given for substantives of the A-
declension, the gender is indicated in the 0-declension, and both
genitive and gender are given in the Consonant-declension.

The derivation of the word is indicated in square brackets just
before the definition. When the root or word given in these
brackets is in heavy-face letter, refer to the Groups of Related
Words alphabetically arranged (p. 247 if.). If a word is given in
light-face type in these brackets, without further statement, refer
to that word in its proper alphabetical place in the body of the
Dictionary. If no square brackets occur, the derivation of the
word is unknown or its etymological connexion is doubtful. Eng-
lish cognate words are printed in small capitals, English borrowed
words in heavy-face letter. (See p. 247.)

For information in regard to the illustrations, see p. 243 ff.

The following Abbreviations are used : —

abs. — absolute, absolutely. adv. = adverb, adverbial, adverbi-

acc. = accusative. ally.

ace. to = according to. antec. = antecedent.

act. = active, actively. aor. = aorist.

adj. - adjective, adjectively. apod. — apodosis.

appos. = apposition, appositive.

art. = article.

attrib. = attributive.

c/. = confer, compare.

comp. = comparative.

cond. = condition, conditional.

conj. = conjunction.

contr. — contraction, contracted.

dat. = dative.

def . = definite.

dem. = demonstrative.

dep. = deponent.

dim. = diminutive.

dir. = direct.

disc. = discourse.

Dor. = Doric.

edit. =r edition, editor.

editt. = editions, editors.

e.(j. = for example.

end. = enclitic.

Eng. = English.

esp. = especial, especially.

etc. = and so forth.

f., ff. = follovs^ing (after numerical

fem. = feminine.

fin. = sub fine.

freq. = frequently.

fut. = future.

gen. — genitive.

ibid. = in the same place.

i.e. = that is.

impers. = impersonal, imperson-

impf. = imperfect.

imv. = imperative.

indef . = indefinite.

ind., indie. — indicative.

indir. = indirect.

inf. = infinitive.

interr. = interrogative, interroga-

iutr. = intransitive, intransitively.
Lat. = Latin,
masc. = masculine,
mid. = middle.

Ms., Mss. = manuscript, manu-
neg. = negative,
neut. = neuter,
nom. = nominative,
obj. = object,
opp. to = opposed to.
opt. = optative,
p., pp. = page, pages,
part. gen. = partitive genitive,
partic. = participle,
pass. — passive, passively,
pers. = person, personal.
Pers. = Persian,
pf . = perfect,
pi. = plural,
plpf . = pluperfect,
poet. = poetic,
pred. = predicate,
prep. = preposition,
pres. = present,
pron. = jironoun.
prop. = proper, properly,
prot. = protasis.
q.v. = which see.
refl. = reflexive, reflexively.
rel. = relative, relatively.
R. = root.
sc. = scilicet.
sing. = singular.
subj. = subject,
subjv. = subjunctive,
subst. = substantive, substantively,
sup. = superlative.
s.v. = snb voce.

trans. = transitive, transitively.
voc. = vocative.


d-, an inseparable particle, (1)
negative, orig. ava-, afterwards dv-
(which is its usual form before
vowels, whereas d- is used before
consonants), gives the word to
which it is prefixed a negative
meaning, Lat. in-, Eng. un- ; (2)
copulative (older form a-, in a.-6p6os,
d-Tra^, d-Trds, d-nXoos, q.V.) signifies
union, Eng. together ; (3) euphonic
or prothetic, a phonetic element
occurring especially before two
consonants, but also before simple
liquids, nasals, and f, merely facili-
tates pronunciation.

a, see 6s.

aParos, ov [R. Po], not to be
trodden. Of mountains or a coun-
try, impassable, for men or horses,
iii. 4- 49, iv. i. 20, 6. 17 ; of a river,
not to be crossed, except by boats,
not fordable, v. 6. 9.

'Appo^eXjA^Sj °^i Abrozelmes, a
Thracian, interpreter to Seuthes,
vii. 6. 43.

'AppoKo^ids, a (Dor. gen.), Abro-
comas, satrap of Phoenicia and
Syria, and commander of one-
fourth of the king's army, 300,000
men, i. 7. 12. From cowardice or
treachery he abandoned the Cili-
cian Pass at the approach of Cy-
rus, i. 4. 5, though he afterwards
burned the boats used for crossing
the Euphrates in order to impede
his advance, i. 4. 18, cf. i. 3. 20.
At Issi his Greek mercenaries, 400
in number, deserted to Cyrus, i. 4.
3. He did not reach Cunaxa until
five days after the battle, i. 7. 12.

"APvSos, V, Abydns, a city of
Troas, mentioned by Homer, but
later colonized by the Milesians,
on the Asiatic side of the Helles-
pont at the point where the strait is
narrowest, i. i . 9. It was here that
Xerxes built his famous bridge,
and from here Leander swam the
Hellespont to Hero in Sestus.

d-yaYtiv, aYd-yT), d-ya-ywv, see

dYaOos, -q, 6v, good, in the broad-
est sense, as opposed to kukos.
Hence, of persons, good (in war),
brave, valiant, i. 9. 14, iii. 2. 3, v.
8. 25, upright, virtuous, i. 9. 30 ; of
things, serviceable, useful, profita-
ble, excellent, ii. i. 12, iv. 4. 9,
favourable, advantageous, iii. i.
38, v. 7. 10, fertile (of land), ii. 4.
22, auspicious (of a dream), iii. i.
12. As subst., dyadov, to dya06u,
good, good thing, benefit, service,
resource, advantage, blessing, ii. 5.
8, iii. I. 45, vi. i. 20, vii. 7. 52 ; in
the plur., good things, blessings,
means of living, advantages, loealth,
products, iii. i. 20, 22, 2. 11, iv.
6. 27, V. 6. 4, vi. 6. 1, vii. 6. 32.
Phrases : dyadov ri iroieiv Tiva, do
one some service, i. 9. 11, v. 7. 10;
dya06v tl ^ovXeveffdai, take good
counsel, iii. i. 34 ; dyad6v ti i^Tjyei-
a-dai, give good gxddance, iv. 5. 28 ;
dyadd irdaxeii', receive benefits, vii.
3. 20 ; K'aX6s /cat dyadhs, KaXbs Kciya-
0ds, noble and good, possessing the
virtues of a noble man, 'gentle-
man,' ii. 6. 19, 20; iw' dyaeQ,for
one''s good, v. 8. 18. Comp. dfieluuv,



/SeXrfwi', KpetTTuv, sup. dpiaros, /3A-
TiffTos, KpariffTOS, q.v.

d-ydXXb) (d7aX-), d7aXw, ■^717X0,
glorify ; mid., j/Zu?'^ in, |xo(rvvT), ijs [R. Y****]' wctnt
of knowledge, ignorance. Hence
in plur., misunderstandings, ii. 5. 6.


Online LibraryJohn Williams WhiteAn illustrated dictionary to Xenophon's Anabasis, with groups of words etymologically related → online text (page 1 of 39)