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from an approved college or scientific school, and the knowledge of
French, German, Latin, physics, chemistry, and biology above
indicated.



Applicants for admission will receive blanks to be filled out
relating to their previous courses of study.

They are required to furnish certificates from oflScers of the
colleges or scientific schools where they have studied, as to the
courses pursued in physics, chemistry, and biology. If such



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Oenerai Plan of Instruction. 15

certificates are satisfiictory, no examination in these subjects will
be required.

Candidates who have not received a degree in arts or in science
from an approved college or scientific school, will be required to
pass, at the beginning of the session, first the matriculation exami-
nation for admission to the collegiate department of the Johns
Hopkins University, and then examinations equivalent to those
passed by students completing the Chemical-Biological course
which leads to the A. B. degree in this University.

No one will be admitted to advanced standing without furnish-
ing evidence that these terms of admission as regards preliminary
training have been fulfilled, and that courses equivalent in kind
and amount to those given here, preceding that year of the course
for admission to which application is made, have been satisfac-
torily completed.

Hearers, not candidates for a degree, will be received at the dis-
cretion of the Faculty.



GENERAL PLAN OF INSTRUCTION.



The course of instruction is planned for those who have received
a liberal education and the training in physics, chemistry, and
general biology which has been specified. The required period of
study for the degree of Doctor of Medicine is four years. The
academic year begins on the first of October and ends about the
middle of June. There are short recesses at Christmas and Easter.

The first two years of the course are devoted mainly to the
fundamental medical sciences, a large part of the time being spent
in practical work in the laboratories. In the latter two years
medicine, surgery, obstetrics, and the various specialties are studied
in the Clinical Laboratories, the Dispensary, and the wards of the
Hospital.

The principal studies of the first year are anatomy, including
normal histology, microscopic anatomy, embryology, physiology,
and physiological chemistry. The study of anatomy and of
physiology is continued in the second year. Throughout the



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16 General Plan of Indmdion.

second year general pathology, pathological anatomy, and pharma-
cology are studied. A practical course in bacteriology, with the
chief emphasis upon its hygienic and pathological bearings, is
given during three months of this year.

Upon the basis of thorough training in the medical sciences,
pursued during the first two years of the course, the student
should now be well fitted to undertake the study of practical
medicine and surgery.

During the third year the general principles of medicine,
surgery, and obstetrics are studied, and clinical instruction in
medicine and surgery is given. The study of certain special
branches of medicine is also begun. Leading features of the
work of this year are the courses in the Clinical Laboratories and
practical work in the Dispensary.

During the fourth year the practical study of medicine, surgery,
and obstetrics is continued, and instruction is given in gynecology
and the various special branches of medicine and surgery, viz :
dermatology, diseases of the nervous system, genito-urinary dis-
eases, laryngology, ophthalmology and otology, paediatrics, and
psychiatry. In this year the students serve as clinical clerks and
surgical dressers in the wards of the Hospital and are in daily
attendance at special classes in the Dispensary. They will also
attend cases of labor in the obstetrical wards of the Hospital, and,
under proper supervision, in the homes of patients. For the ward
and dispensary work the class is divided into small groups.

Instruction in hygiene, legal medicine, and medical history is
provided during the course.

Work in the dissecting room, in the laboratory, and at the bed-
side, demonstrations, clinics, lectures, and recitations are the main
features of the methods of instruction. Simply didactic lectures
occupy a subsidiary position, as compared with instruction by reci-
tations and demonstrations and especially by practical work in the
various laboratories, in the Hospital wards, and in the Dispen-
sary. In consequence of the high standard of admission, the
classes are not likely to be excessively large, and abundant oppor-
tunity is therefore afforded for practical work for each student
and for personal contact between teacher and student.



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Laboralories and Clinical Opporhmitiea. 17



LABORATORIES AND CLINICAL
OPPORTUNITIES.



The nature of the practical work requires that each student,
during each year of the course, shall be supplied with a microscope.
Every student is recommended to purchase a microscope. Each
student who does not possess a microscope is furnished with one
which he retains for his own use throughout the academic year,
at a yearly rental of five dollars.

The Physiological Laboratory is in the Biological Building of
the University, which is a large four-story structure well arranged
and equipped for its special purposes.

The Anatomical and the Pharmacological Laboratories occupy
the Women's Fund Memorial Building, which was erected in
1894 upon a large plot of ground owned by the University oppo-
site the Hospital. This is a commodious building, three stories
in height, constructed for the accommodation of the various ana^
tomical laboratories. In the basement is a cold-storage plant for
the preservation of bodies for dissection. The first story is for the
present occupied by the department of pharmacology, which is
well supplied with the necessary collections and apparatus for the
practical and experimental study of this subject. The two upper
stories are fitted up with all the necessary apparatus for instruc-
tion and research in embryology, histology, and gross anatomy.
Instead of one large dissecting room, there are a number of small
dissecting rooms, which thus afibrd the best opportunity for the
work for which they are intended. There is a good collection of
anatomical preparations, models, casts, and diagrams available for
the use of students. This building contains rooms for photo-
micrography and for dark-room projections.

The Pathological Laboratory is a four-story building on the
grounds of the Hospital. This building contains the morgue and
the autopsy theatre, the pathological museum, and rooms for in-
struction and research in bacteriology, pathological histology, and
experimental pathology. The class rooms are commodious and
2



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18 Laboratories and Clinical Opportunities.

well lighted. There is ample supply of material for study in all
departments of pathology and in bacteriology.

The Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry occupies for the
present the third story of the Pathological Building.

The Clinical Laboratories are in the Hospital buildings. The
Hospital has recently received a generous gift of money for the
construction and equipment of a clinical laboratory. It is ex-
pected that the new building will be ready for use in the autumn
of 1896.

Abundant clinical material is afforded by the Johns Hopkins
Hospital and Dispensary. The Medical Department of the Uni-
versity is in close connection with the Hospital, and derives sig-
nal advantages from the resources of this institution. The clinical
amphitheatre and operating rooms are in the Hospital buildings.

The new lying-in department of the Hospital will be in opera-
tion in the autunm of 1896.

Practical instruction in the study of mental diseases is given by
the Professor of Psychiatry and the Associate in Neuro-Pathology
in the City Asylum at Bay View.

In the main building of the Hospital is a medical library with
full sets of medical periodicals. The various special laboratories
possess also appropriate libraries. These, as well as the libraries and
reading room of the University and those of the Peabody Institute,
are available without charge for the use of medical students.

Three associations, the Hospital Medical Society, the Historical
Club, and the Journal Club, which are open to students, meet in
the Assembly Boom of the Hospital, one each Monday evening
throughout the academic year.



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Courses of Instruction. 19



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION.



The following statements are designed to exhibit the opportuni-
ties and the character of the instruction and practical work in
each department. Schedules of the hours and other details of the
exercises are furnished to the students at the beginning of each
annual session.

Anatomy.

The instruction in Anatomy is in charge of Dr. Franklin P.
Mall, Professor of Anatomy, with the aid of Dr. Lewellys F.
Barker, Associate in Anatomy, and Dr. J. Williams Lord, In-
structor in Anatomy.

The course in Anatomy consists of vertebrate embryology,
histology and histogenesis, and gross and microscopic human
anatomy. The course in histology is completed during the first
year. That in gross anatomy begins, in October of the first year,
with osteology and continues with practical anatomy during the
first and second years. It is recommended that the student com-
plete the greater part of one dissection of the body during the
first academic year.

The instruction in histology and microscopic anatomy consists mainly
of practical work in the laboratory, but it is supplemented by a series of
morning lectures with demonstrations, exhibitions of charts and models, and
dark-room projections. The course begins October first and continues until
March fifteenth. The regular class work is arranged so as to occupy three
full forenoons each week and additional time is provided for special work in
technique and for recitations. The elementary tissues are studied chiefly by
teasing, dissecting, macerating, and digesting, in the early part of the course,
and later the architecture of the organs and the search for morphological
units in these are taken up. In the study of the organs emphasis is laid on
the naked-eye appearances of the tissues, and the student is at all times urged
to pass as gradually as possible from the macroscopic appearances to the
microscopic pictures as seen with high powers. The work which the stu-
dent has before him in subsequent years is borne in mind and extensive use
is made of human tissues. Throughout, the attempt is made to direct the
student's training along the lines which will be most serviceable to him in
his physiological and pathological studies.



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20 Qmrses of Instruction.

The course tennioates witl\ the finer anatomj and histology of the central
nervous system and the sense organs, to which six weeks' time is allotted and
during which the student is familiarized with some of the modem methods
of neurological investigation. Text-books in English, French, and German
are used in the course, and the student is referred to original articles in the
literature in each department of the subject and is encouraged to read and
abstract some of them.

In connection with the work in histolofcy, considerable attention is paid
to the morphological and histogenetic relations of the tissues, with the aim
of throwing as much light as i)os8ible upon the developmental relations of
the tissues and the bearing of these upon human anatomy in generaL

From March 15 to June 1 considerable time is available for review or for
additional work in this subject.

Parallel with the above course that on Human Anatomy is given.

The anatomical course begins the first of October with demonstrations and
recitations in osteology. A complete set of bones is loaned to each student
for the first year to enable him to become well acquainted with the bones
of the human body.

Human anatomy is taught in the dissecting-room, as soon as the cool
weather sets in. The laboratory is furnished with a cold storage apparatus,
which provides a constant and abundant supply of excellent anatomical
material.

The work of each student is conducted independently of that of all others.
It is continuous until he has dissected and studied the whole body, and then
he may rework any portion of the body or undertake special dissections.
During the winter months of the first two years of the course sufficient time
is available for the thorough study of anatomy by dissections.

Applied anatomy is taught by the professors or instructors in various
practical branches of medicine and surgery.

In addition to the systematic courses given in anatomy, every opportu-
nity is offered to advanced students who are prepared to undertake original
investigations. The laboratory is well provided with apparatus and material
for experimentation upon animals, as well as for research in vertebrate
embryology, histology, neurology, and anatomy. The new anatomical
laboratories in the Women's Fund Memorial Building are large enough to
meet all these requirements. There is an abundance of well lighted and
well ventilated rooms. There are many models and charts, a cold storage
apparatus for the preservation of anatomical material, and an extensive
photographic outfit.

Physiology.

The instruction in Physiology is under the charge of Dr.
William H. Howell, Professor of Physiology, assisted by Dr.



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Courses of Instruction. 21

George P. Dreyer, Associate in Physiology. The course extends
from January 1 of the first year to January 1 of the second year.

The work consists of lectures, experimental work in the
laboratory, demonstrations, and recitations. The lectures are
fully illustrated by experiments and demonstrations given in
the lecture-room. Weekly recitations are held upon the subject-
matter covered by the lectures.

The laboratory course is arranged to occupy six hours a week
for about twelve weeks. In this course the students are required
to perform the simpler experiments upon muscle, nerve, circula-
tion, and vision, making use of the various graphic methods em-
ployed in physiology. The work is intended to give an idea of
the methods used in experimental physiology, and to furnish also
that basis of actual acquaintance with facts which is necessary for
intelligent reading.

In addition to the foregoing exercises, which comprise the required
work, students are given opportunities to participate in the more adyanced
courses carried on in the laboratory, and intended primarily as graduate
work. These courses are as follows: A physiological journal club meets
weekly to discuss the recent literature in animal physiology and histology.
A physiological seminary meets weekly during the year. The object of
the seminary work is to study carefully by means of lectures or readings
some special part of physiology. The topics chosen vary each year. An
advanced course of laboratory work is arranged, — intended to teach the
methods of physiological demonstration and research. This course is under
the control of the professor of physiology, and is not limited as to time or
amount of work, with the exception that assistance from the professor must
be arranged for by definite engagements. It is designed for those who
expect to become teachers or investigators in physiology, pathology, or
pharmacology, and the number permitted to take it is necessarily limited.
For purposes of research the laboratory is well equipped.



Physiological Chemistry.

The instruction in Physiological Chemistry is under the charge
of Dr. John J. Abel, Professor of Pharmacology, and of Thomas
B. Aldrich, Ph. D., Instructor in Physiological Chemistry, with
the aid of an assistant.

Instruction in this branch is given by laboratory work, illus-
trated lectures, and conferences of a less formal character. The



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22 Caursea of Instruction.

work in the laboratory begins the first of March and continues,
with daily exercises, until the end of the first year of the course.

In the lectures the substances that have been isolated from the flaids
and tinsoes of the body are considered chiefly with regard to their con-
nection with physiological processes. The physical and chemical properties
of these substances and their chemical relationships also receive due
attention whenever they promise to throw light on animal metabolism, for
it is thought that a treatment of the subject which emphasizes the chemical
properties of the constituents of the body, will best prepare the student to
meet important questions that will arise later in his study of pathology,
pharmacology, hygiene, and practical medicine.

The laboratory instruction covers the following ground :

1. The isolation of the more important constituents of the various tissues
and fluids of the body, of its secretions and excretions in health and in
disease, and the study of such of the physical and chemical properties of
these constituents as are of most importance from the physiological point
of view.

2. Selected qualitative and quantitative methods employed in the study
of the various tissues, the products of gastric and pancreatic digestion, the
urine, blood, bile, biliary and renal calculi, milk, pus, and faeces.

3. The synthetic formation of some of the constituents of the body, such
as urea, uric acid, hippuric acid, cholin, leucin, etc., — when the student has
completed the work under 1 and 2.



Pharmacology and Toxicology.

The instruction in Pharmacology is under the direction of
Dr. John J. Abel, Professor of Pharmacology, with the aid of Dr.
Albert C. Crawford, Assistant in Pharmacology. The instruction
is given in the second year of the course by illustrated lectures
and by laboratory work. Pharmacology is taught by both lectures
and experiments, and students will themselves arrange apparatus
and perform experiments under the immediate supervision of the
professor in charge, or of his assistant.

The practical work includes such topics as the action of drugs on the
heart, vessels and vasomotor apparatus, on the respiratory apparatus, brain
and spinal cord, voluntary and involuntary muscles, kidneys, salivary and
sweat glands, intestines, liver, etc. The chemical side of Pharmacology
also receives due attention. The fate of druses in the organism, their influ-
ence on the metabolism of the body and the manner of their excretion are
fully treated in lectures and illustrated whenever possible.



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Churaea of Instruction. 23

A course of lectures, with demonstrations in Toxicology, is given in the
second half-year.

Pharmacy is also treated in a short course of illustrative lectures.

Actual practice in prescribing and dispensing drugs and in the employ-
ment and application of the various therapeutic agents used in medicine
is obtained in connection with the practical clinical work of the third and
fourth years.

Pathology and Bacteriology.

The instruction in Pathology and Bacteriology is under the
charge of Dr. William H. Welch, Professor of Pathology, with
the cooperation of Dr. Simon Flexner, Associate Professor of
Pathology, of Dr. George Blumer, A^istant in Pathology, and of
an Assistant in Bacteriology.

General and Special Pathological Anatomy, General Pathology,
and Bacteriology are taught by lectures, recitations, demonstra-
tions, and laboratory work. Instruction is given in the methods
of making post-mortem examinations and of recording in proper
protocols the results. These courses continue throughout the
second year. The laboratory work occupies three half-days a
week throughout the year.

The Autopsies are held in the Pathological Building and are witnessed
by the students of the second, third, and fourth years.

The course in Bacteriology precedes that in Pathology. It begins in
October and continues for three months, occupying three half-days a week.
It is a practical laboratory course in which the students become familiar
with the preparation of culture media, the principles of sterilization and
disinfection, the methods of cultivating, staining, and studying bacteria, the
biological examination of air, water, and soil, and the important species
of known pathogenic micro-organisms. The hygienic, as well as the patho-
logical, relations of bacteriology are considered. A course of lectures de-
voted mainly to the consideration of infection and immunity is given dur-
ing the period of practical work in bacteriology.

The principal subjects in General Pathology are taken up systemati-
cally and taught as far as practicable by actual demonstration and experi-
ments. Gross Morbid Anatomy is studied at the autopsy table and by
demonstration of fresh and preserved specimens. Pathological Histology
is taught as a part of Pathological Anatomy, the description and demon-
stration of gross lesions being accompanied by the microscopical examina-
tion of the same lesions. Much use is made of frozen sections of fresh
organs. The course begins with the study of inflammation, and in regular
order the pathological anatomy and histology of the difierent tissues and



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24 Courses of Instruction.

organs of the body are taken op. Microscopical sections are given to be
stained, mounted, and carefully studied and drawn. Inbtruction in the
technique of making pathological examinations, including the methods of
pathological histology, and practice in pathological diagnosis are afforded.

A recitation is held once a week throughout the year. Didactic lectures
are given upon subjects which can not be satisfactorily treated in the labo-
ratory.

In addition to the courses for undergraduate students, opportunity is
afforded for advanced work and special research in Pathological Histology,
Experimental Pathology, and Bacteriology. For these purpose's the Patho-
logical Laboratory is well equipped with the necessary apfiaratus and ma-
terial.

Medicine.

The instruction in this department is under the charge of Dr.
William Osier, Professor of Medicine, with whom are associated
Dr. W. D. Booker, Clinical Professor of the Diseases of Children,
Dr. H. M. Thomas, Clinical Professor of Diseases of the Nervous
System, Dr. W. S. Thayer, Associate in Medicine, and Drs. Frank
R. Smith and T. B. Futcher, Instructors in Medicine.

The teaching is in the Dispensary, in the Clinical Laboratory,
and in the Wards.

The work of the third year is as follows :

I. Demonstrations in Medical Anatomy and Physiology. These com-
prise a review of the Topographical Anatomy of the viscera, and a
consideration of the normal functions and physical signs of the organs in
health, so far as they relate to practical medicine.

II. Instruction in History-taking. After a brief didactic introduction,
the students learn the method of history-taking, by obtaining the anam-
nesis of patients in the Dispensaries.

III. The Practical Study of the Symptoms and Signs of Disease. The
work of the year consists largely in a systematic study of the symptoms of
disease. For this purpose the patients in the Medical, Neurological,
and Children's Dispensaries are utilized. The teaching is objective and
practical. The student learns the use of the instruments of precision
employed in clinical research — the Stethoscope, Microscope, Opthalmo-
scope, etc. — by daily routine manipulations.

IV. Clinical Laboratory. During two afternoons of the week through-
out the session, the class meets the instructor in the Clinical Laboratory and
studies systematically the methods of examining the urine, sputum, blood,
fsecen, gastric juices, etc.

V. Recitations. At stated intervals recitations are held in which the
progress of the student is tested, and in which theoretical considerations are
discussed.



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Courses of Instruction. 25

The work of the fourth year will consist of:
I. General Medicine.

1. Ward-work, in which the atudenls, acting as clinical clerks, will be
assigned beds and take the histories of new cases as admitted, and be re-
sponsible (under the direction of the house physician and the first assistant)
for the ward notes.

2. Ward Classes. The students will make the visit with Professor
Osier on three days of the week at 9 a. m., and in this way will be enabled
to study in a routine manner the progress of the cases. Special instruction
will be given in the methods of treating diseases.

3. Recitations. (Drs. Osier, Booker, Thomas, and Thayer).


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