PHI BETA KAPPA
ALPHA OF MARYLAND
JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
PHI BETA KAPPA
ALPHA OF MARYLAND
JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
UNITED CHAPTERS OF PHI BETA KAPPA.
List of Officers.
List otf Chapters.
History of the Society.
Constitution of the United Chapters.
ALPHA CHAPTER OF MARYLAND.
Officers of the Chapter.
History of the Chapter.
Constitution and By-Laws.
REGISTER OF MEMBERS,
THE UNITED CHAPTERS
. . OF . .
. PHI BETA KAPPA.
Hon John A. DeRemer, LL. D., President, Schenectady, N. Y.
Prof. J. C. Van Benschoten, LL. D., Vice-President, Middletown,
Rev. Oscar M. Voorhees, Secretary and Treasurer, High Bridge,
Hon. Joseph H. Choate, LL. D., London, Eng.
Hon. John A. DeRemer, LL. D., Schenectady, N. Y.
Hon. Theodore E. Hancock, LL. D., Syracuse, N. Y.
Prof. Samuel Hart, D. D., Middletown, Conn.
Col. Thomas W. Higginson, LL. D., Cambridge, Mass.
Pres. Seth Low, LL. D., New York City.
Editor Hamilton W. Mabie, L. H. D.. New York City.
Prof. Francis A. March, LL. D., Easton, Pa.
Editor Horace E. Scudder, L. H. D., Cambridge, Mass.
Prof. James C. Van Benschoten, LL. D., Middletown, Conn.
Prof. Henry L. Ohalpman, D. D., Brunswick, Me.
Prof. Edwin Grosvenor, M. A., Amherst, Mass.
Prof. Edward Everett Hale, LL, D., Roxbury, Mass.
Col. William Lamlb, LL. D., Norfolk, Va.
Rev. Eben B. Parsons, D. D., Williamstown, Mass.
Pres. Ira Remsen, LL. D., Baltimore, Md.
Pres. Charles F. Thwing, LL. D., Cleveland, O.
Rev. Oscar M. Voorhees, M. A., High Bridge, N. J.
Prof. Adolph Werner, Ph. D., New York City.
Pres. Benjamin Ide Wheeler, LL. D., Berkeley, Cal.
list of Chapters in the Order of tbeir Establishment
Alpha of Virginia,
Alpha of Connecticut,
Alpha of Massachusetts,
Alpha of New Hampshire,
Alpha of New York,
Alpha of Maine,
Alpha of Rhode Island,
Alpha of Ohio,
Beta of Connecticut,
Gamma of Connecticut,
Alpha of Vermont,
Beta of Massachusetts,
Beta of Ohio,
Beta of New York,
Gamma of Ohio,
Gamma of Massachusetts,
Gamma of New York,
Beta of Vermont,
Allpha of New Jersey,
Delta of New York,
Epsilon of New York,
Zeta of New York,
Eta of New York,
Theta of New York,
The following Chapt
by the National Council:
Alpha of Pennsylvania,
Beta of Pennsylvania,
Tota of New York,
Alpha of Indiana,
Alp'ha of Illinois,
Alpha of Kansas,
Gamma of Pennsylvania,
Delta of Massachusetts,
Alpha of Minnesota,
Delta of Pennsylvania,
Alpha of Maryland,
Alpha of Iowa,
Alpha of Nebraska,
Beta of Maine,
Kappa of New York,
Epsilon of Pennsylvania,
Beta of Indiana,
Alpha of California,
Mu of New York,
Zeta of Pennsylvania,
Alpha of Wisconsin,
Epsilon of Massachusetts,
Delta of Ohio,
Beta of New Jersey,
Lambda of New York,
Beta of Illinois,
Alpha of Tennessee,
Alpha of Missouri,
Eta of Pennsylvania,
William and Mary,
December 5, 1776-
April (?), 1781.
September 5, 1781.
August 20, 1787-
May i, 1817.
February 22, 1825.
July 21, 1830.
October 28, 1843.
July 2, 1845.
July 7, 1845-
University of Vt,
March 7, 1848.
August 9, 1853.
June 29, 1858.
Univ'sity, City of N. Y.,
December 23, 1858
June 9, 1860.
July 30, 1864.
CTgeof the City, N.Y.,
July 24, 1867.
August 7, 1868.
February 22, 1869.
April 22, 1869.
May 24, 1871.
July 6, 1870.
June 12, 1878.
May 28, 1882.
ers were organized under Charters granted
Ajpril 13, 1887.
April 15, 1887.
April 20, 1887.
December 17, 1889.
February 18, 1890.
University of Kansas
April 2, 1890.
April 5, 1890.
November 18, 1892.
Univ'sity of M'nesota,
December 13, 1892.
University of Penna.,
October 10, 1895.
University of Iowa,
September 30, 1895.
University of Nebr.,
Decemlber 23, 1895.
January 3, 1896.
February TO, 1896.
June 9, 1896.
November 7, 1898.
University of Cala.,
December 23, 1898.
April 7, 1898
January 20, 1899.
University of Wis.,
February <2, 1899
February 8, 1899
April IT, 1899.
June 7, 1899.
June 24, 1899
July i, 1899.
November 5, 1901.
University of Mo.,
December 5, 1901
February 18, 1902.
ALPHA OF MARYLAND.
1bistor$ of the iflbi Beta Ifcappa Society
THE EARLY DAYS.
The Pni Beta Kappa Society was organized at the College
of William and Mary, Williams-burg, Virginia, December 5,
1776. It was a social club and a literary society. One of the
rules of procedure was, "that four members be selected to per-
form at each session, two of whom in matters of argumenta-
tion and the others in opposite composition." Hon. Stewart L.
Woodford, in his Phi Beta Kappa address at Columbia, 1886,
says that the society was probably suggested by the philo-
sophic clubs which were then common among the collegiate
students of France and the Continent. For many years there
was much uncertainty regarding the moving spirits of the
Society at its inception. One noted orator said "Thomas Jef-
ferson organized the Phi Beta Kappa." Another writer said
'Thi Beta Kappa would oe glad to have Mr. Jefferson's por-
trait in its hall," but there is not a shadow of a line of evidence
to show that he had anything to do with it. These question-
ings were answered by the early records that were published
in the William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Maga-
zine, April, 1896, by its editor, President L. G. Tyler, of the
college. The first minute of the records says : "On Thurs-
day, the 5th of December, in the year of our Lord God one thou-
sand seven hundred and seventy-six, and the first of the Com-
monwealth, a happy spirit and resolution of attaining the im-
portant ends of Society entering the minds of John Heath,
Thomas Smith, Richard Booker, Armst'd Smith, and John
Jones, and afterwards seconded by others, prevailed, and was
accordingly ratified." The record then gives the medal with
its Latin and Greek initials and its "index imparting a philo-
sophical design, extended to the three stars, a part of the plane-
tary orb," and the strong oath of initiation, with 'the society's
general rules of procedure. The first rule says : "That in
every design or attempt, whether great or small, we ought to
* The material for this sketch has been taken from the Phi Beta Kappa Hand-Book
compiled by Rev. E. B. Parsons.
8 PHI BETA KAPPA.
invoke the Deity." The twenty-five printed pages of the "min-
utes" are not greatly unlike those of any college literary socie-
ty of the olden time, with just a trace of the "banquet" in evi-
dence, and no larger element of "politics" than we should ex-
pect 'to find when we remember that Jefferson and the Vir-
ginia patriots were assembled at that time in that same village
of Williamsburg. These are some of the questions of their
''argumentation" : "Whether Brutus was Justifyable in Kill-
ing Caesar;" "Whether the Execution of Charles the First was
Justifyable ;" "The Justice of African Slavery ;" "Whether any
form of Government is more favorable to public virtue than a
Commonwealth." It is evident that the early Phi Beta Kappas
felt there was a place for 'the scholar in politics. It is also clear
that those young men began to broaden their views and to
desire some kind of union with the students of other parts of
the new country. In his delightful essay upon the society as
"A Fossil from the Tertiary," in the Atlantic Monthly, July,
1879, that Past Master of Phi Beta Kappa, Dr. Edward Everett
Hale, says: "The early correspondence of Phi Beta Kappa
shows that the young men who formed it had just such dreams
of union as those fostered by clubs among the educated men of
Germany." With this high purpose they responded to the
call for other chapters of 'the society, saying: "It is repug-
nant to the liberal principles of Societies that they should be
confined to any particular place, Men or Description of Men,
but that they should be extended 'to the wise and virtuous of
every degree and of whatever country."
The first stadium of the new society was destined to be
brief. On January 3, 1781, the British fleet, "bearing Benedict
Arnold and his forces," appeared off 'the coast, and the mem-
bers sealed up their records and delivered them into the hands
of the college steward until the desirable event of the Society's
resurrection." After the war there was no attempt to revive
the society at the old college till 1849, when Mr. Short, the last
president in 1781, at the advanced age of ninety-two, became
"the connecting link with the original society." The society
was again broken up by the war of 1861, the records went to
the Virginia Historical Society, and on the revival of the chap-
ter in 1895 were returned to the old college.
In the interesting record published by President Tyler are
the names and personal sketches of the half hundred members
of the first Phi Beta Kappa. They were men who had an
active share in the stirring affairs of the Revolution, and in
camp and legislative hall performed their part in the contest
ALPHA OF MARYLAND. 9
for freedom. Nearly all of the fifty were in the Continental
army, seventeen were in the state legislature and most of them
for several terms ; eight were members of the convention which
ratified the Federal Constitution, five were members of the
national House of Representatives and two of the national Sen-
ate. Some of the men became leaders in national affairs;
Heath, the first president of the society, was in the legislature
when barely twenty-two, and ten years later in Congress;
Archibald Stuart, member of both houses, presidential elec-
tor and judge, a leading man of the South till his death ; Beck-
ley was clerk of the Convention of 1788, as afterwards he was
of Congress; Bushrod Washington, the favorite nephew of
General Washington, and the inheritor of Mount Vernon, was
an associate justice of the United States; Short, the second
president of the society, was secretary of legation in France
when Jefferson was minister, and afterwards was himself an
eminent diplomatist. The names of Cabel and Clements, Fitz-
hugh and Hardy, Mason and Madison and Lee were well
known in Virginia affairs. Perhaps the most widely known
member of the original fifty was John Marshall, whose record
as lawyer, legislator and Chief Justice is a part of national
THE HUNDRED YEARS, 17811881.
One of the original fifty members of Phi Beta Kappa, at
William and Mary, was Elisha Parmale, a graduate of Harvard
in 1779, who for graduate work had probably gone south on
account of weak lungs. Upon his return to the North he was
authorized to establish chapters of the Society at Harvard and
Yale. The former was voted December 4, 1779, and the latter
five days afterwards. It appears that Mr. Parmale, because of
convenience, instituted the Yale chapter first and then the
Harvard chapter, both some time in 1780 or 1781. At first the
Alpha of Virginia intended to connect the new chapters closely
to itself and to name that at Harvard, Epsilon, and that at Yale,
Zeta, the Beta, Gamma, and Delta having already been as-
signed to Virginia branches which were never started or by
the war were quickly ended. But before the charters were is-
sued a more liberal spirit prevailed, and the new chapters were
called the Alpha of Massachusetts Bay and the Alpha of Con-
io PHI BETA KAPPA.
Under the privileges granted by the parent society each
Alpha was to be at the head of its state, and the concurrent act
of all the Alphas was required to extend the society to other
states. After six years the two Northern Alphas agreed to
give Dartmouth a chapter, and the ''foundation meeting" was
held August 20, 1787, establishing the Alpha of New Hamp-
shire. These three chapters formed the society for thirty
years. When the Morgan craze against Freemasonry 'filled
New England the Harvard chapter yielded to the influence of
John Quincy Adams, Judge Story and others, and abandoned
the oath of secrecy. Edward Everett was sent to a meet-
ing of the Yale chapter to induce them to take similar action.
This chapter agreed to abandon the secret oath, as did Dart-
mouth also. Possibly there came at this point, all uncon-
sciously to the immediate members of that time, a broadening
of views and purposes that in due time brought Phi Beta
Kappa from the limited range of an ordinary Greek Letter Fra-
ternity into the larger ambition of a union of scholars.
The admirable bibliographical description which Mr. Till-
inghast has given of the Phi Beta Kappa orations and poems
at Harvard make us understand how Phi Beta Kappa day has
become the notable day of Harvard commencement week. The
early days of the Yale chapter are well pictured by Mr. George
D. Kellogg in his Historical Sketch written for the Yale Chap-
In 1817 the Alphas united and granted a chapter to Union
College, which became the proud parent of seven new chap-
ters, almost one third of all that were established up to the time
of the United Chapters. Charters to Bowdoin, Brown and
THE UNITED CHAPTERS.
In 1881 the Harvard chapter invited the other chapters to
send delegates to attend the celebration of the hundredth anni-
versary of its establishment, and to empower such delegates
to constitute themselves a convention to represent the society.
After several meetings a permanent organization was estab-
lished, and The First National Council met at Saratoga, Sept.
5, 1883. A constitution and by-laws were adopted and officers
elected. The Councils are held every third year, and all ap-
plications for new chapters are considered by the Senators be-
fore being presented to the Council for their action.
ALPHA OF MARYLAND. n
Constitution and ttsrflaws of the United Chapters.
Composition of the National Council.
The National Council of the Phi Beta Kappa Society shall
consist of the Senators hereinafter spoken of, and of delegates
from the several Chapters of the Society. Each Chapter shall
be entitled to send three delegates, who shall be graduates
of at least five years' standing and members of the Phi Beta
Kappa Society, but not necessarily of the Chapter by which
they are chosen.
The Senate shall originally consist of twenty Senators,
chosen by the delegates at the first session of the National
Council, from the Society at large. These shall be divided into
two classes, whose terms of office shall expire at the adjourn-
ment of alternate regular sessions of the National Council. At
every subsequent regular session the places of the outgoing
class shall be filled by election as follows: On the day pre-
ceding the first day of each regular session of the National
Council, the Senate shall meet, and shall nominate fifteen can-
didates, in addition to the members of the outgoing class, for
the tert vacant seats, and also two candidates for the unexpired
term of each Senator who may have died or resigned since
the last regular session. Other persons not nominated by the
Senate may be presented as candidates at the time of the elec-
tion. Of every ten members whose terms of office shall ex-
pire, one may be elected by the Council Senator for life. In
every election of Senators a majority of the votes cast shall be
required to elect, and in such elections the outgoing Senators
shall have no vote. The Senate may fill vacancies in its own
body till the next meeting of the National Council.
Officers of the National Council.
The officers of the National Council shall be a President,
a Vice- President, a Secretary and a Treasurer, and such others
J2 PHI BETA KAPPA.
as may be found necessary from time to time. The President
shall be chosen from among the Senators.
Sessions and Functions of the Council.
The National Council shall meet every third year at such
place and time as shall have been determined by the officers
of the United Chapters, and shall proceed at once to the elec-
tion first of its officers and next of the Senators. The Na-
tional Council shall make such rules as may be found neces-
sary for the carrying out of any provision of this Constitution.
The Senate and Its Functions.
During the sessions of the National Council the Senate
shall have no separate existence, but its members shall take
their places with the delegates as members of the National
Council, voting with the delegates as well upon all other mat-
ters as upon the election of officers and Senators, except as
provided in Article II. When the National Council is not in
session the Senate shall constitute an independent body,
charged with the duty of representing the Phi Beta Kappa
Society and speaking in its name, and exercising, in addition,
the functions of a permanent Executive Committee of the Na-
tional Council. It shall hold its meetings at such times and
places as it shall determine, being first called together by that
Senator who, at the original election of the Senate, shall have
been elected by the largest number of votes. It shall recom-
mend candidates for election as Senators. It shall also have
power to call an extra session of the National Council. It
shall, furthermore, prepare and recommend to the considera-
tion of the National Council such matters as it may deem
proper. It shall transmit its lists of candidates and of matters
recommended for discussion, by the hands of the secretary, to
the presiding officer of the National Council, immediately upon
its organization being completed. It shall also transmit, in
the same manner, to the National Council a report of its do-
ings between the sessions of the Council. Nothing herein shall
be so construed as to derogate from the right of the National
Council to appoint Committees to sit between sessions, in-
dependently of the Senate, and to report at the next session
ALPHA OF MARYLAND. 13
Applications for charters shall, in all cases, be made to the
Senate, at least six months before the regular session of the
National Council ; the Senate shall at once notify all the chap-
ters of such applications, and such applications shall be re-
ported to the National Council with the recommendation of
the Senate at the next meeting of the Council, and shall be
passed upon by the Council, which shall have exclusive power
to grant charters. But no charters shall be issued without the
consent of delegations representing a majority of the chapters.
By-Laws and Rules of Order.
The National Council at any of its sessions, and the Sen-
ate at any time, may respectively make such By-Laws and
Rules of Order as may be thought expedient for their use, pro-
vided the same be not inconsistent with any of the provisions
of this Constitution. A quorum of the National Council shall
consist of delegates from a majority of the chapters and not
fewer than three Senators; the Senate shall determine the
number which shall constitute its quorum.
Rights of Chapters.
Nothing contained in this constitution shall be construed
as empowering the Senate or the National Council to restrict
or abridge the rights or privileges now exercised by existing
Chapters, except as expressly provided herein.
Amendments to This Constitution.
No change shall be made in this Constitution unless the
same shall have been proposed at the session of the National
Council next preceding the session at which the proposed
change is voted for; and no vote shall be had upon any such
proposed change except at a stated hour previously ordered
by the meeting, and no amendment shall be made without
the concurrence of the delegations of two-thirds of the Chap-
ters represented in the Council.
Adoption of the Constitution.
This Constitution shall take effect when ratified by four-
teen Chapters. (Sixteen chapters ratified it before July, 1883.)
14 PHI BETA KAPPA.
Elections and Officers.
All elections shall be by ballot. The President shall pre-
side over the meetings of the Council. In his absence the Vice-
President shall perform his duties. When both are absent a
president pro tempore shall be chosen viva voce. The Secre-
tary shall keep the records of the Council, conduct its corre-
spondence, and send to the Senate and to each chapter a certi-
fied report of the proceedings of each session. The Treasurer
shall collect and disburse all funds of the Council, and report
at each session thereof.
Order of Business.
(i) Calling the Roll. (2) Reading the minutes. (3) Re-
ports of officers. (4) Communications from the Senate on
nominations. (5) Election of officers. (6) Election of sena-
tors. (7) Communication from the Senate on new chapters
and other matters. (8) Miscellaneous business.
In all cases not otherwise provided for by the Constitution
each senator and delegate present shall be entitled to cast one
Each chapter shall pay to the Treasurer a triennial assess-
ment of five dollars.
The proceedings of the Council, in all cases not provided
fof in the Constitution, or the by-laws, shall conform to the
rules laid down in Cushing's Manual.
Endorsement of New Chapters.
All applications for future chapters shall have the en-
dorsement of at least five existing chapters prior to presen-
tation to the Senate.
These by-laws, or any of them, may be suspended, altered
or amended at any meeting of the Council by a two-thirds vote
of the members of the Council present and voting.
ALPHA OF MARYLAND.
Charter of tbe alpha Chapter or Maryland
Daniel C. Oilman, Thomas Craig, James W. Bright, Minton Warren,
Bernard C. Steiner, Kirby F. Smith, Charles L. Poor and Melvin Brandow.
Brethren of the Phi Beta Kappa, Greeting :
Whereas, The National Council of the United Chapters of the Phi
Beta Kappa Society has by resolution duly adopted on the eleventh day
of September, 1895, decreed the establishment of a chapter of the Phi
Beta Kappa in connection with the Johns Hopkins University at Balti-
more, and has directed the Senate by the President and Secretary to
issue a charter in the name of the National Council: Now, therefore,
by virtue of the aforesaid act of the Council and the authority delegated
to us, we do hiereby incorporate and establish you and such others as
you may hereafter elect and associate with yourselves, in conformity
to the law of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, into a separate and subordi-
nate branch of said society, to be known and called
She Alpha Chapter of tbe iDhi JBeta lhappa in tbe State of Maryland ;
hereby granting unto you and your successors all the powers, privileges,
and benefits thereunto appertaining, in as full and ample a measure as
the brethren of the other and existing chapters enjoy; at the same time
enjoining upon you in the organization and conduct of the new chapter,
and as a condition upon which this charter is granted, strict compli-
ance with the Constitution of the United Chapters and the Model Con-
stitution herewith transmitted to you.
In. Witness "Whereof, the said Senate has caused the seal of the
United Chapters of the Phi Beta Kappa to be affixed hereto, with the
signatures of thie President and Secretary.
THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON, President.
E. B. PARSONS, Secretary.
Given this eleventh day of September, in the year of our Lord, one
thousand eight hundred and ninety-five.
16 PHI BETA KAPPA.
Officers of the Chapter,
D. C. GILMAN 18951899
J. S. AMES 18991900
E. H. GRIFFIN 19001901
W. H. HOWELL 19011902
A. M. ELLIOTT 19021903
P. HAUPT 19031904
H. M. KURD 1904
J. W. BRIGHT.... ..18951896
J. S. AMES 18961897
W. H. WELCH 18991900
W. H. HOWELL. 19001901
A. M. ELLIOTT 19011902
P. HAUPT 19021903
H. M. KURD 19031904
K. F. SMITH 1904
C, L. POOR 18951899
G. C. MORRISON 18991900