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they now propose to have an extension at all
events. Mr. Otis says he erred, by the advice
of Mr. L., in waiting for results against me be-
fore puehing others. He says the moth blocks
are a good invention, and if he fails to prove my
hive an infringement, it does not break the L. L.
patent. I infer that he intends to secure an ex-
tension, and then push others to the wall. I do
not pi-opose to desert the beekeepers of America,
nor let Otis shake off my grasp on the throat of
this black mailing business. I will stand by
any beekeeper whom Mr. Otis may attack (ex-
cept his own stool-pigeons,) and I ask the bee-
k<.epcrs of America to aei^ not in furnishing me
money, but to bring all their influence to bear
on Congress to prevent the extension.

Ml*. Otis, 1 believe, is on his way to Washing-
ton for this purpose. (Mr. L. is already there.)
Let the beekeepers of every community get up
petitions at once. Have every beekeeper and
others interested to sign them and send them
without delay to Hon. A. F. Perry, Washington,
D. C. Men who own rights in the L. L. patent



are as much interested in the matter as those
who do not. H. A. Kino.

8UGOEBTIOI78.

In your remonstrance give the following rea-
sons, in substance ; of course, adding as many
more as you please. But express all as briefly
as possible.

1. Langstroth's patent has been re-issued and
extended, and has been a source of income to
him for a period of twenty-one years.

2. Thousands have already purchased a right
tvice, compelled to do so hyfir9t extension ; and
many more have quite recently purchased ; both
of these classes wouljd now be compelled to re-
purchase, in the event of a second extension.
This extension would be granted only fqr the
benefit of the patentee, and as there are other
hives in the market superior to bis, this benefit
would be obtained almost entirely at the ex-
pense of present riglit-owners, who have in-
vested, and having their bees established in
these hives, would have no alternative but to
re-purchase, or suffer great loss by precipitately
abandoning the hive.*

8. The claims of said patent are now con-
tested in the U. S. Coui-t. Thei-e is abundant evi-
dence that these claims are invalid, and tho
patent should never have been granted.

4. Langsti-oth preposterously claims all that
is valuable in a hive, and that all pi*actical
movable fVames used in other hives are infringe-
ments on his. The attempts, successful and
otherwise, to extort money from the beekeepers
of America, who use other hives, have been
numerous and persistent. Tliese 'attempts and
the violent threats of owners of territory in this
patent, have done more to retard ihe progress
of bee-culture among us, than all other causes
combined.

These are merely hints; express them and
all others you may add, briefly, obtain all the
signers you can, and forward to your represen-
tative or senator without delay. This must be done
at once, or it will be too late.

We shall make very short work of all this
stuff. Nearly a year ago we person^y informed
Mr. King, that we would entertain no proposi-
tion for a compromise before the issue of tho
suit, — and that Mr. Otis was of the same opinion.
We have never wavered in onr determination.
Mr. Otis neither has nor pretends to have any
authority to use our name in connection with
any compromise—nor du I believe that he has
ever proposed one—nor does Mr. King's affidavit
say that he has.

It seems that '* a million laid at his feet," can-
not now tempt a man so enlightened by foreigu
travel, to think of compromising with evil doei-s !

* Mr. Klnar seem* to leave upon everything that he
writes *' the tmil of the serpent." Does he not know
that all hives Itgaliy in use before the extensions are
free from any farther demands ? Will those having
them in use, seek to pay another patent fee for mare
of the same kind— when there are '* ttiperior Aj«ie«" in
the market ? Will Congress extend a patent which
the coart6 have prouounced illegal ? Bat enough of
this trash.



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THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL.



225



How changed tvcm the Homer A. King of a year
ago, offeriujQ^ to pay thousands of dollars for a
license under a patent which he could prove by
foreign tutimony to be invalid !♦

Now comes something which is not sworn to
Hr. Otis is represented as admitting substan-
tially that if Kings' hives are pronounced by
the courts to be no infringements upon the
L. L. patent; that patent "still lives.'* "The
moth blocks are a good invention," so Mr.
Ehkg inf>ri*^ that he intends to secure an ex-
tension, and push others to the wall. Strength-
ened by such a wise conjecture, he can see a
Httle further into this mill-stone of nefarious
plots. **Mr. L. is alrea'-y in Washington,
and Mr. Otis is believed to be on his way
there, to secure his lion's share of the sec-
ond extension."

Let us have a few facts to set off against so
much inferene. Neither Mr. Otis, nor any
one else, will have an interest in any further ex-
tension. I have applied for no such extension,
nor have I thought of doing so before the suit
of Otis against King has been decided.

What a laughing stock has Mr. King made
of himself in this whole matter. Scattering
his blank petitions against my application —he
flies to Washington on the wings of expreM nfefitn,
to oppose it in person— rushes almost breathless
into the presence of the astonished officials, re-
questing the sight of that petition, concocted to
escape tlie piercing vision of such a kingly eagle,
and lo to his intense mortiUcation finds a new
illustration of the Huddibriastic couplet.

'* That optics k«cn It needs I ween.
To see things tbut cannot be seen."

If Ml*. King is confident that my claims will
be so ground np in the legal hopper, that noth-
ing but the moth blocks will come out intact,
what interest has he or any one else in opposing
an extension? Wliy should he deprive me of
what may prove so harmless a plaything for my
'* second childhood ?" Why should not the dull
rontine of Congressional duties be relieved by
9uch a huge joke, as the play of Hamlet with the
character of Hamlet, Ghost, Queen, Kitig and
eotnpany ali left out? An application for the
extension of a patent which after arrogating so
mnch, has so '* fallen from its hi ^^h estate," as to
hide itself under a moth trap ! Perhaps if I h^
the true regal audacity, I might not think it im-
possible, even with such shallow pretences, to de-
ceive the willing public, or force them however
unwilling to en^r niy trap. Visions of patent
moth traps would nit through my brain, and
wounded as I am, would almost make me dance
for joy at the thought of my pat'Ut moth trap
"-"ExTEurED by Act of Cokobess— and all the
oee-keeper« of the laud fluttering around its
P^nicious lights to have their silty wings
singed ibr my special benefit !

L. L. Lanostroth.

^ftee March No. of A. B. J., p. 196. Had Mr. King
<^Dteiited himself with an honorable defence of hit
*Qit, instead of attempting in every way to forestall
public opinion, this and other documents so damaging
to him— need never have been given to the public.



[For the American Be« JoaroMl.]

Hives at the Indianapolis Oonvention.

Mr. Editor :— On page lft3 of the Febniary
number, Mr. Gallup states that there were any
q[uaniity of patent hives at the National Conven-
tion at Indianapolis, that were worthless ;
that is, they were not calculated for the honey
exti*actor. If this be the true intei'pretatiou
of his language, I beg leave to differ with him ;
for I do know that he eitlier labors under a
mistake, or I do not at all understand when a
hive is adapted to the use of the melcztrac-
tor. Consequently alt my efforts, with those of
many others, in endeavoring to get a hive
adapted to answer this purpose, are simply fail-
ures.

I have visited quite a number of apiaries, and
consulted many beekeepers of extensive experi-
ence, and among them I had a lengthy inter-
view with Mr. Langstroth. In the course of
our conversation he stated to me that a hive
containing two sets of frames, one set situated
directly above the other, and of equal size,
would unquestionably procure the largest yield
of honey ; and my own experience, together with
that of all otliers whom I have consulted rela-
tive to this particular subject, agree that Mr.
Langstorth^s position is true. They also agree
that a hive thus arranged is not only adapted,
but better adapted, to the honey emptying
machine, than any hive containing only one set
of frames. For with a two-story hive, pix)perly
arranged and prudently managed, we are not
troubled with bniod in the upper set of frames
as the qpeen is confined to the breedihg cham-
ber below — which should never be resorted to
for surplus honey, except in cases where the
queen is about to be crowded out of space in
which to deposit eggs sufficient^to keep up the
population of the hive. And in such cases, it
is my opinion, that we should be very cautious
not to uncap all the cells in any one frame, ex-
cept perhaps the outside ones: for it may be,
and no doubt often is the case that we rob the
breeding a])artment of all the early gathered
honey, which is less diluted with water, than
that collected later in the season. Later gath-
ered honey is nbt so well calculated to winter
bees on, as that which is collected during the
earlier part of the season. Then, as already in-
timated, we should uncap and empty out only suf-
ficient honey to afford the queen room, for laying
ef^frs. This may be accomplished by uncapping .
the cells two-thii-ds of the way from the bottom
of the combs towards the top. The upper pet
of frames should be of precisely the same size
of the lower ones, for the very plain reason and
well established fact that bees will not always
work in either boxes or shallow frames, when
honey is plenty in the fields ; and when, conse-
quently , there is no good reason why they
should not leave the breeding apartment and
go above to store honey. Under such circum-
stances I he apiarian is not left in a helplens con-
dition, if both the upper and the lower frames
are of equal size ; for in a few moments he can
lift one or two frames containing brood together



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226



THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL.



[April,



with the adlierinff bees from below into the
upper chamber. The bees will not desert their
brood, but will remain by it, and immediately
commence constructing comb and storing
honey. Whereas, where boxes are used one or
two bees will go above on an exploring expedi
tion to day, and to-morrow a few more will go
along as company ; which manner of proceeding
is kept up from day to day for perhaps a week.
Then they sometimes go to work, provided the
honey season holds out; but if it slacks up,
they also slack up. Bui where frames are used
' as above described, all this delay is avoided, by
at once putting our bees where circumstances
demand they should be. Now, there were hives
of this kind at the National Convention. The
Langstroth hive and the Allen hive (known as
the Home of the Honey Bee) are often made to
contain both an upper and a lower set of frames
of equal size. Tlie former was there as a two-
story hive ; and it was intended to have it there
also in the two- story form, but it was by some
means or other detained ou the way, and did
not reach the Convention in time to be exhibited.
Yet it was stated that it was often made on the
two-story plan, for the purpose of adapting it to
both the use of the melextractor and to procur-
ing the largest possible amount of surplus
honey. Now I will say, in conclusion, that
if Mr. Langstroth^s views, together with those
of many other prominent parties, are at fault,
I hope Mr. Gallup will correct us, by giving us
the right plan of making hives. For it is the
true plan we all should seek and impart. I
fully agree with Mr. Qallup that small hives are
not well calculated to procure a large yield of
honey. Sometimes thev answer well, but fail
much more often than the two-story hive.

Q. BOHBEB.

Alexandria^ Ind.y Feb. 1871.



[For the American Bee Jonmal.]

Mr. Orimm gets a Blowing ITp !

Mr. Editor : — We have at different times
complaints from parties who have received
queens from Mr. Adam Grimm. Those parties
claimed that the queens received were darker
c<»lored than they expected, and consequently
were not pure. Now as we do not like to be
bothered with other people's troubles, we pro-
pose to give Mr. Grimm particular tits.

On the 28d of May last, we received a line
from him stating that we must prepare a stock
for a queen by removing the old queen, as in
about ten days he was going to send us a queen.
Mr. Editor, we did not know what we had ever
done to him to cause him to send us a queen ;
but it is said we always like to be on the con-
trary side, so we did not do as he oixiered, for
we did not like to Imve one of our swarms
queenless so long. Ou the SOth of May the
queen arrived. We then deprived a strong
hybrid stock of all their comb and brood, and
killed their queen by crushing her and threw
ner in among her subjectn ; having no comb or
brood and nothing but a dead queen, they were



soon as sorry a set of bees as you ever saw ; we
then sprinkled them with sweet water until they
were completely gorged, dipped tlie Grimm
queen in honey and tumbled her in head over
heels ; as the bees were gathering honev rapidly
we allowed them to build comb, and they filled
up their hive with a rush. We kept out cells of
brood from time to time to raise queens from,
and we also at different times used the extractor
on the hive; yet on the 15th of July out came
that confounded Grimm queen with a swarra.
She was not one of your fancy light straw colored
queens, bat to all appearance as pure as any
imported queen I ever saw. Her workers are
all three-striped, not near as light colored as
some of my males, and the objection that I have
to them is that they are such confounded work-
ers that there' is no getting along with them.
The queen breeds about as fast as five of some
of those eastern bred, extra light colored ones
do ; so Mr. Editor, we don't like those fellows a
particle for finding fault with him. If he sent
them such queens as he did us, we would advise
them never to send to him for queens again.
But if any one should want just as good a queen
as they can get direct from Italy, they might try
Mr. Grimm. We bred from that queen in prefer-
ence to any we had in our yard, yet I suppose if
Mr. Benjamin had her he would lose consider-
able sleep for fear she would lay herself to death.

The queens Mr. J. W. Lindley speaks of were
mostly reared from one Grimm queen (see Janu-
ary No.). Now Mr. Editor, don't for a moment
suppose that Mr. Grimm sent that queen to us
for the sake of bribing us to give him a puff ;
no, not by any means ; but we write this article
at the particular request of one of those com-
plainants who wishes us to give Mr. Grimin
Hail Columbia through the A. B. Journal.
Now, Mr. Grimm, why in the name of common
sense don't you raise some of those extra light
colored and harmless bees, so as to suit such
customers. You can do it easy enough by cross-
ing some of your queens with black drones, and
then breed back to the Italians, always select-
ing the lightest colored ones to breed from.
You would soon have them as harmless as fiics,
and they would gather about as much honey as
some flies, and tliey would just suit some of your
customers.

P. 8. If this blowing up don't suit you, do,
your own blowing up hereafter.

E. Gallup.



[For the AmerioaaSee Joarnal.]

Queens.



My limited experience indicates that artificial
queens, or those sent with a few bees are poor
property to make honey with. One sent by Mr.
Quinby in 1867, and one send by Mr. Grimm in
1870 were both superseded at one year old, and
neither of them ever led a swann, while a queen
that came in a full hive in the spring of 186S,
from Mr. Quinby swarmed each year, and on
the 11th of June, 1870, when three years old,
led the earliest swarm ever seen in this cold



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227



ii»laiid. They showed signs of swarming on the
8th of June : two rainy days iuteryened, and on
the 11th, with a little sunshine and cool north-
ivind, the old queeu led out a swarra, or was led
out hy the swarm,- and was lost, the swarm re-
turning, after scattering around on fencos and
bushes awhile ; in nine days, June 20th, a
daughter led out a swarm, and next day, 21st,
auother swarm, both between 8 and 9 a. m, I
cut out queen cells to prevent a third swarm
next day, as they kept ou piping after I had
removed the old stocks to a new place, and
^iveu one comb to second swarm on old stand.
These three gave me 173 pounds of honey, while
a yearling queen with one swai-m gave 100
pounds exti-acted honey in 1870, making 78
pounds, or at least |24 in one season, in favor of
the three year old queen over her own daughters
one year old.

The jt)ld queen by the mi'ldle of May had
26,000, the yearling 15,000 cells of brood ; Imth
liad been fed. The first week in June, 1870,
the yearling had 31.000, and the three year old
39,000 cells of brood, 8,000 ahead ; so much for
age. The nuclei queens never gave me a
swarm, or a box full of honey. I believe the
one from Mr. Quinby did give me two boxes
part full, in 1868, of basswood honey, while the
queen that came in full hive gave me one swarm
aud five boxes of honey, forty pounds.

A queen raised by me in 1869 in a nucleus
from a cell capped over in a swarraing-hive,
sent in a small box, one was introduced in my
brother's apiary in Illinois. In 1870 his son
wrote me, **ihat hive swarmed twice, besides
making an unusual amount of box. honey.
Now the secret of long lived natural queens ap-
pc^ared plain, but in 1871 he wi*ote me that
" the hive swarmed and the first swai*m made 8
or 4 caps and swarmed, but I think that queen
was superseded in the spring as the hive i*un
into black bees ; " so I conclude that queens
which have been boxed and caged do not stand
on an equal chance of long life with those never
deprived of liberty. I have a queen now in her
third year, introduced in 1869, in place of a
daughter of a nucleus queen by taking a capped
cell from a swarming hive and fastening it
with a pin to a central comb, after leaving
them queenless one night.

H. D. MiNBR.

TFojiA. Harbor, TTm., Jan. 23, 1872.



[From the London Journal of Horticnltnre.]

Are Artificial Qneens inferior to Katoral Qveens?

Mr. J. M. Price, writing in the American
'' Bee Journal,^' asserts that he has proved, be-
yond doubt, that queens raised artificially are
worthless in comparison with those raised natu-
rally. From my own experience I am led to
differ from him most decidedly. Out of twenty-
five stocks, the lai'gest number of colonies I ever
possessed at one time, I had not a single queen
that was not either artificially raised in a small
nucleus box, or was not the desoendant of one



who was so raised, but I could never discover
that my queens were deficient in breeding powers,
or, barring accidents, in longevity. In fact>, the
fecundity of some of these was frequently a
subject of surprise and remark ; one queen, in
particular, seems to stand pre-eminent in these
respects.

Soon after the first introduction of Ligurian
queens into this country, my own doubts venture
having: proved unpropitious, my ft'ieud, the late
Mr. Woodbury, gave me a royal cell, which he
cut out of a small ni^<ileus box, from brood of
his best yellow queen. This cell I inserted in a
brood comb in a nu^eus box, with a few aduU
bees. In a few days she was hatched out, and I
was struck with her size and beautiful color.
Soon after she had commenced breeding, I trans-
ferred them into an eight frame Langstroth box,
and gave the bees another sealed brood comb.
The stock was not particularly strong at the
close of the autumn, and barely managed to hold
its own through the winter ; but by the end of
April it had become so populous as to present the
appeai*ance of being ready even then to send off a
swarm. A large super was given to the bees,
into which they at once -ascended, and were so
crowded as to make it seem almost impossible
for them to work at comb-building. In about
three weeks from that time, considerable progress
having been made iu that respect, and the bees
again crowding outside the entrance, a second
super was slipped in l)etween the first and the
honey-board of the stock-box, which also became
at once crammed with bees. Early in July, I
removed the doubled super, containing 54 lbs. of
honey comb.

The following year this stock also distinguished
itself in spring and early summer by the pos-
session of a teeming population, and gave a
splendid glass box super of 75 lbs. weight. The
next season seemed equally propitious ; a sui)er
of 50 lbs. was taken, and an immense swarm
thrown oflE^ which also, the same summer, gave
me a super of 26 lbs. weight. The following
spring I examined the queen which had come off
with this swarm, and was convinced, in my own
mind, from her peculiar markings and appear-
ance, that she was the same queen which had
been raised in tlie nucleus box. That season
this swarm became excessively crowded, and I
put on a larger super than I ever used before,
and it contamed, when full, the large quantity
of ^'6 lbs. of the finest possible honey-comb.

The following spring the old queen showed
symptoms of having Income almost worn out,
aud was, I believe, soon afterwards superseded by
the bees, as I discovered a queen of a very dif-
ferent character at my next inspection of the
interior. At the time of the old queen's death,
she must have been atlenst four years and a half
of age.

I mention but this one instance out of many
which have come before my notice, but it is
quite sufficient, in my mind, to establish the
truth of the assertion, that artificial queeus
may and do prove equal in every respect to the
best of tliose raised by the bees for the purposes
of natural swarming.

S. Bktan Fox.



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THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL.



[April,



[For the Amoriean n— Joamal.]

Side-Box Hive Wanted.



Mn. Editor : — The snmmer of 1.^71 waa very
poor in this section for honey ; the months of
June and July were too wet ; in fact we could
not ^et more than one or two good days out of a
week to gather honey. The blossoms do not
»>eem to yield much houe^ after a day or two of
rain ; either the water w«thes the honey all out
Of the blossoms, or the cool nights after a rain
lire not favorable for the seeretion of honey ; at
all events the bees were very cross for a day or
two after a stDrm, then they would seem to enjoy
it better for a day ; then another rain, and so it
kept repeating dvuing the months of June and
July.

The consequence of this was, the bees were
confined to the hive so much and had so little
comb occupied with honey, that they produced
iin immense amount of brood and bees ; so that
we were obliged to increase more than we in-
tended and more than we should have done had
the honey yielded more steadily.

August and September were so dry and cool
that bees gathered no surplus from the buck-
when t blossoms, although stocks that were
nearly destitute gathei'ed enouuh to winter on
in the cellar. Considering the season we were
satisfied with the result; we increased twelve
stocks to twenty and took 455 pounds box honey
and a little ove^ 100 pounds machine honey.
The box honey was nearly all taken from nine
old stocks, as we broke up one stock in May for
queen ceUs and nnclei, and one old queen failed
in June (an artificial queen accoi*ding to Price),
and one stock we had in an experimental side-
box arrangement (since abandoned), from which
we took but little surplus. The machine honey
was taken mostly from the nuclei and young
stocks.

Now, Mr. Editor, we would like to inquire
through the medium of vour valuable paper
(which we consider to be the exponant of intel-
ligent beekeeping in this country), what is the
latest plan to arrange a hive for side-boxes ? W e
have seen considerable said in the Journals lately
about side-box hives, but mo-stly by patent hive
men, or those interested in the sale of hives, and
we do not always place implicit reliance on the
statements of these gentlrmcn.

We judge, from what we have seen of it that
Mr. Alley's is a good hive, but it is most too ex-



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