Jonathan Edwards.

The works of President Edwards : with a memoir of his life (Volume 9) online

. (page 1 of 64)
Online LibraryJonathan EdwardsThe works of President Edwards : with a memoir of his life (Volume 9) → online text (page 1 of 64)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

5*^ .. I

Srom f 9e &i6rari? of

(profcBBor ^amuef (^tiffer

in (glcmori5 of

3ubgc ^amuef (gtifPer QSrecftinribge

^eeente^ fit

^antuef (giiffer QSrecftinrtbge feong

fo f ^ feifiraifg of

(prtnceton C^eofo^tcaf ^eminarj














"■£ /






District of CoNNEcrrcuT, ss.

BE it remembcrcfl, That on the eleventh flay of December, in the fifty-fourth year
of the Independence of tlie United States of America, Sereno E. Dwight, of the said
District, hath deposited in this oiTice the title of a book, the right whereof to the
" works" he claims as proprietor, and to the " memoir" as author, in the words fol-
lowing, to wit :

" The Works of President Edwards, with a Memoir of his Life. In ten volumes."

In conformity to ihe act of Congress of the United States, entitled " An act for the
encouragement of h arnin?, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the
authors and proprietor? if such copies, during the times therein mentioned ;" and
also to an act, entitled "An act supplementary to an act, entitled An act for the en-
couragement of learning, h^ securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the
authors and pro]irietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned, and ex-
tending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical
and other prints."

CHAS. A. INGERSOLL, Clerk of the District of Connecticut,

A true copy of record, examined and sealed by me,

CHAS. A. INGERSOLL, Clerk of the District of Connecticut.


I. Types of the Messiah.
II. Notes on the Bible.


page 9





That the things of the Old Testament are Types of thivgs apper-
taining to the Messiah and his kingdom and salvation, made
manifest from the Old Testament itself.

We find by the Old Testament, that it has ever been God's man-
ner from the beginning of tlie world, to exhibit and reveal future
things by symbolical representations, which were no other than
types of the future things revealed. Thus when future things
were made known in visions, the things that were seen were not
the future things themselves, but some other things that were made
use of as shadows, symbols, or types of the things. Thus the
bowing of the sheaves of Joseph's brethren, and the sun, moon,
and stars doing obeisance to him, and Pharaoh's fat and lean kine,
and Nebuchadnezzar's image, and Daniel's four beasts, &tc. were
figures or types of the future things represented by them. And
not only were types and figures made use of to represent future
things when they were revealed by visions and dreams, but also
when they were revealed by the word of the Lord coming by the
mouth of the prophets, (as it is expressed.) The prophecies that
the prophets uttered concerning future things, were generally by
similitudes, figures, and symbolical representations. Hence pro-
phecies were of old c?A\qA parables ; as Balaam's prophecies, and
especially the prophecies of the things of the Messiah's kingdom
The prophecies are given forth in allegories, and the things fore-
told spoken of, not under the proper names of the things them-
selves, but under the names of other things that are made use of
in the prophecy as symbols or t3'pes of the things foretold. And
it was the manner in those ancient times, to deliver divine instruc-
tions in general in symbols and emblems, and in their speeches
and discourses to make use of types, and figures, and enigmatical
speeches, into which holy men were led by the Spirit of God.
This manner of delivering wisdom was originally divine, as may
VOL. IX. 2


be argued from that of Solomon. Prov. i. 6. " To understand
a proverb, (or parable,) and the Interpretation, the words of the
wise and their dark sayings ;" and from that of the psalmist, Ps.
xlix. 3, 4, " My mouth shall speak of wisdom, and the meditation
of my heart shall be of undf>r«tnndina:. I will incline mine ear to
a pruHbie. I wiii open my dark sayings upon the harp." And Ps.
Jxxviii. 1, 2. "Give ear, O my people, to my law; incline your
ears to the words of niv mouth. I will open my mouth in a para-
ble, I will utter dark sayings of old." By a parable is meant an
enigmatical syn)bolical speech. Ezek. xvii. 2, and xxiii. 3. Hence
speeches of divine wisdom in general came to be called parables,
as the speeches of Job and his friends. Hence of old the wise
men of all nations, who derived their wisdom chiefly by tradition
from the wise men of the church of God, who spoke by inspira-
tion, fell into that method. They received instruction that way,
and they imitated it. Hence it became so much the custom in the
eastern nations to deal so much in enigmatical speeches and dark
figures, and to make so much use of symbols and hieroglyphics,
to represent divine things, or things appertaining to their gods
and their religion. It seems to have been in imitation of the pro-
phets and other holy and eminent persons in the church of God,
who were inspired, that it became so universally the custom among
all ancient nations, for their priests, prophets, and wise men to ut-
ter their auguries, and to deliver their knowledge and wisdom in
their writings and speeches in allegories and enigmas, and under
symbolical representations. Every thing that the wise said must
be in a kind of allegory, and vailed with'types : as it was also the
manner of the heathen oracles, to utter themselves under the like

We find that it was God's manner throughout the ages of the
Old Testament, to typify future things, not only as he signified them
by symbolical and typical representations in those visions and pro-
phecies in which they were revealed, but also as he made use of
those things that had an actual existence, to typify them, either by
events that he brought to pass by his special providence to that
end, or by things that he appointed and commanded to be done for
that end.

We find future things typified by what God did himself, by
things that he brought to pass by his special providence. Thus
the future struggling of the two nations of the Israelites and
Edomites was typified by Jacob's and Esau's struggling together
in the womb. Gen. xxv. 22, 23. " And the children struggled
together within her, and she said, If it be so, why am I thus.^ And
she went to inquire of the Lord ; and the Lord said unto her,
Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be
separated from thy bowels. And the one people shall be stronger


than the other people, and the elder shall serve the younger." And
the prevalence of Jacob over Esau, and his supplanting him, so
as to get away his birthright and blessing, and his posterity's
prevailing over the Edomites, was typified by Jacob's hand tak-
ing hold on Esau's heel in the birth. Gen. xxv. 26. " And after
that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau's heel ;
and his name was called Jacoh,^^ or siqrplantcr. Chap, xxvii. 36.
" Is he not rightly named Jacob ? for he hath supplanted me these
two times. He took away my birthright, and behold now he hath
taken away my blessing." Hosea xii. 3. 6. " He took his bro-
ther by the heel in the womb Therefore, turn thou to thy God,"

&:.c. And as the Israelites overcoming and supplanting their
enemies in their struggling or wrestling with them, was typified
by Jacob's taking hold on Esau's heel, so Jacob's and his seed's
prevailing with God, in their spiritual wrestling with him, was ty-
pified by his wrestling with God and prevailing. Gen. xxxii. 2S.
" Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel ; for as a
prince thou hast power with God and with men, and hast prevail-
ed." Hos. xii. 4. " Yea, he had power over the angel, and pre-
vailed : he wept and made supplication unto him. He found him
in Bethel, and there he spake with us, even the Lord God of hosts,
the Lord is his memorial. Therefore, turn thou to thy God :
keep mercy and judgment, and wait on thy God continually." The
prevalence of the posterity of Pharez over Zarah, who first put
forth his hand, was typified by his unexpectedly breaking forth out
of the womb before him. Gen. xxxix. 29. So by Moses's being won-
derfully preserved in the midst of great waters, though but a little
helpless infant, and being drawn out of the water, seems apparent-
ly to be typified the preservation and deliverance of his people,
that he was made the head and deliverer of, who were preserved
in the midst of dangers they were in in Egypt, which were ready
to overwhelm them, when the prince and people sought to their
utmost to destroy them, and root them out, and they had no power
to withstand them, but were like an helpless infant, and who were
at last wonderfully delivered out of their great and overwhelming
troubles and dangers, which in scripture language is delivering
out of great waters, or drawing out of many waters. 2 Sam.
xxii. 17. " He sent from above; he took me, he drew me out of
many waters." And Psal. xviii. 16. It is the same sort of deli-
verance' from cruel blood and blood-thirsty enemies that the
psalmist speaks of, that the Israelites were delivered from. And
so he does again, Ps. cxliv. 7. " Send thine hand from above;
rid me and deliver me out of great waters from the hand of strange
children. And Ps. Ixix. 2. " I sink in deep mire, where there is
no standing ; I am come into deep waters, where the floods over-
flow me;" with verse 14. " Deliver me out of tiie mire, and let


me not sink; let me be delivered from them that hate me, and out
of the deep waters." That the king of Israel smote three times
upon the ground with his arrows, was ordered in providence to be
a type of his beating the Syrians three times. 2 Kings xiii. 18, 19.
The potter's working a work upon the wheels, and the vessel's be-
ing marred in the hand of the potter, so that he made it again an-
otlier vessel, as seemed good to him to make it, at the time when
Jeremiah went down to the potter's house, was ordered in provi-
dence to be a type of God's dealing with the Jews. Jer. xviii.

The twelve fountains of water and the threescore and ten palm-
trees, that were in Elim, Exod. xv. 27, were manifestly types of
the twelve patriarchs, the fathers of the tribes, and of the three-
score and ten elders of the congregation. The paternity of a
family, tribe, or nation, in the language of the Old Testament, is
called a fotuitain. Dent, xxxiii. 28. " Israel shall dwell in safety
alone ; the fountain of Jacob shall be upon a land of corn and
wine." Ps. Ixviii. 26. " Bless the Lord from the fountain of
Israel." Isai. xlviii. 1. *' Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, which
are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the wa-
ters of Judah." And the church of God is often represented in
scripture by a palm-tree or palm-trees. Ps. xcii. 12. Cant. vii. 7,
8. And therefore fitly were the elders or representatives of the
church compared to palm-trees. God's people often are compar-
ed to trees. Isai. Ixi. 3, and Ix. 21, and elsewhere.

We find that God was often pleased to bring to pass extraordi-
nary and miraculous appearances and events, to typify future
things. Thus God's making Eve of Adam's rib, was to typify
the near relation and strict union of husband and wife, and the
respect that is due, in persons in that relation, from one to the
other, as is manifest from the account given of it, Gen. ii. 21, 22,
23, 24. " And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon
Adam, and he slept, and he took one of his ribs and closed up the
flesh instead thereof; and the rib which the Lord God had taken
from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. And
Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh ;
she shall be called woman, because she was taken out of man.
Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall
cleave unto his wife ; and they shall be one flesh." And when
God spake to Moses from the burning bush, concerning the great
aflSiction and oppression of the children of Israel in Egypt,
and promised to preserve and deliver them, what appeared
in the bush, viz. its burning with fire, and yet not being
consumed, was evidently intended as a type of the san)e thing that
God then spake to Moses about, viz. the church of Israel being in
the fire of affliction in Egypt, and appearing in the utmost dan-
ger of being utterly consumed there, and yet being marvellously


preserved and delivered. Such a low and weak state as the peo-
ple were in in Egypt, and such an inability for self-defence, we
find in the Old Testament represented by a bush or low tree, and a
root out of a dry ground, as was that bush in Horeb, which signi-
fies a dry place. Isai. liii. 2. Ezek. xvii. 22, 23,24. Affliction
and danger in the language of the Old Testament, are called^re.
Zech. xiii. 9. "I will bring the third part through the^re." Jsai.
xlviii. 10. "I have chosen thee in the furnace of affliction." And
God's marvellously preserving his people, when in great affliction
and danger, is represented by their being preserved in the fire
from being burnt. Isai. xliii. 2. " When thou passest through
the waters, I will be with thee — when thou walkest through the fire,
thou shalt not be burnt, neither shall the flame kindle upon thee."
And God's delivering the people of Israel from afiliclion, and
from the destruction of which they were in danger, through
bondage and oppression under the hand of their enemies, is re-
presented by their being delivered out of the fire. Zech. iii. 2. Is
not this a brand plucked out of the fire ? Yea, that very thing of
the deliverance of Israel out of Egypt, is often represented as their
being delivered out of the fire. Psalm Ixvi. 12. *' We went
through fire and through water, but thou broughtest us into a
weallliy place." Deut. iv. 20. " The Lord hath taken you and
brought you out of the iron furnace, even out of Egypt." So
1 Kings viii. 51, and Jer. xi. 4.

So Moses's rod's swallowing up the magicians' rods, Exod.
vii. 12, is evidently given of God as a sign and type of the supe-
riority of God's power above the power of their gods, and that his
power should prevail and swallow up theirs. For that rod was a
token of God's power, as a prince's rod or sceptre was a token of
his power. Thus we read read of the rod of the Messiah's
strength, Psalm ex. So the turning of the water of the river of
Egypt into blood, first by Moses's taking and pouring it out on
the dry land, and its becoming blood on the dry land, and after-
wards by the river itself, and all the other waters of Egypt being
turned to blood, in the first plague on Egypt, was evidently a
foreboding sign and type of what God threatened at the same
time, viz. that if they would not let the people go, God would
slay their first born, nnd of his afterward destroying Pharaoh
and all the prime of Egypt in the Red sea. (See Exod. iv. 9.
and chap, vii.) God's making a great destruction of the lives of
a people is, in the language of the Old Testament, a giving them
blood to drink. Isai. xlix. 26. " And I will feed them that op-
press thee with their own flesh, and they shall be drunken with
their own blood." Aaron's rod budding, blossoming, and bear-
ing fruit, is given as a type of God's owning and blessing his
ministry, and crowning it with success. His rod was the rod of


an almond-tree, Numb. xvii. 8, which God makes use of in-
Jer. i. 11, 12, as a token and type of his word, that speedily
takes eflect, as Moses's rod of an almond tree speedily brought
forth fruit.

God caused the corn in the land of Judah to spring again, after
it had been cut off with the sickle, and to bring lorth another crop
from the roots that seemed to be dead, and so once and again, to
be a sign and type that the remnant that was escaped of the house
of Judah should again take root downward, and bear fruit up-
ward, and that his church should revive again, as it were out of
its own ashes, and flourish like a plant, after it has been seeming-
ly destroyed and past recovery: as 2 Kings, xix. 29, 30; and
Isa. xxxvii. 30, 31.

God wrought the miracle of causing the shadow in the dial of
Ahaz to go backward, contrary to the course of nature, to be a
sign and type of king Hezekiah's being in a miraculous manner,
and contrary to the course of nature, healed of his sickness, that
was in itself mortal, and brought back from the grave whither he
was descending, and the sun of the day of his life being made to
return back again, when according to the course of nature it was
just a setting. 2 Kings xx.

The miraculous uniting of the two sticks, that had the names
of Judah and Joseph written upon them, so that they became one
stick in the prophet's hand, was to typify the future entire union
of Judah and Israel.

x4.lso God miraculously caused a gourd to come up in a night,
over the head of Jonah, and to perish in a night, to typify the
life of man. That gourd was a feeble, tender, dependent frail
vine. It came up suddenly, and was very green and flourishing,
and was pleasant and refreshing, and it made a fine show for one
day, and then withered and dried up. Jonah iv. 6, Sic.

God reproved Jonah for his so little regarding the lives of the
inhabitants of Nineveh, by the type of the gourd, which was mani-
festly intended as a type of the life of man; or of man with respect
to his life, being exactly agreeable to the representations frequent-
ly made of man and his present frail life in other parts of the Old
Testament. This gourd was a vine, a feeble, dependent plant,
that could not stand alone. This God therefore makes use of to
represent man, in Ezek. xv. This gourd was a very lender, frail
plant. It sprang up suddenly, and was very short lived. Its life
was but one day; as the life of man is often compared to a day.
It was green and flourishing, and made a fine show one day, and was
withered and dried upthe next. It came up in a night and perished in
a night; appeared flourishing in the morning, and the next evening
was smitten, exactly agreeable to the representation made of man's
life in Psalm xc. 6. " In the morning it flourisheth and groweth



up; in the evening it is cut down and witherelh." The worm
that smote the gourd, represents the cause of man's death. The
gourd was killed by a worm, a little thing; as man is elsewhere
said to be crushed before the moth. It was that, the approach of
which was not discerned; it came under ground: as elsewhere
man is represented as not knowing the time of his death, as the
fishes are taken in an evil net, &;c. And as being smitten by an
arrow that flies unseen. That this gourd was intended by God
as an emblem of man's life, is evident from what God himself says
of it, and the application he makes of it. God himself compares
the lives of the inhabitants of Nineveh with this gourd, verse x.
11. Jonah had pity on the gourd, i. e. on himself for the loss of
it : for it was very pleasing and refreshing to him, while it lasted ;
and defended him from scorching heat. So life is sweet. The
IN'inevites by its preservation were held back from the wrath of
God, that had been threatened for their sins. How much more
therefore should Jonah have had pity on the numerous inhabit-
ants of Nineveh, when God had threatened them with the loss of
life, which was an enjoyment so much more desirable than the
gourd was to him ! And if he found fault with God, that he did
not spare to him the shadow of the gourd ; how unreasonable
was lie in also finding fault with God, that he did spare the Nine-
vites their precious lives .^

God miraculously enabled David to kill the lion and the bear,
and to deliver the lamb out of their mouth, plainly and evidently
to be a type, sign, and encouragement unto him, that he would
enable him to destroy the enemies of his people, that were much
stronger than they, and deliver his people from them. David did
this as a shepherd over the flock of his father ; and his acting the
part of a shepherd toward them, is expressly spoken of as a resem-
blance of his acting the part of a king and shepherd towards
God's people from time to time. 1 Chron. xi. 2. Psalm Ixxviii. 70,
71,72. Jerem. xxiii. 4, 5, 6. Ezek. xxxiv. 23, 24. Chap, xxxvii.
24. And God's people in places innumerable are called his flock,
and his sheep, and their enemies in David's Psalms and elsewhere,
are compared to the lion and other beasts of prey that devour
the sheep; and David himself calls his own deliverance, and the
deliverance of God's people, a being saved from the lion's mouth.
Psalm vii. 1,2, and xvii. 12, 13, and xxii. 20, 21, and xxxv. 17,
and Ivii. 3. 4. And David himself thus understood and improved
God's thus miraculously enabling him to conquer these wild beasts,
and deliver the lamb, as a representation and sign of what God
would enable him to do for his people against their strong ene-
mies; as is evident from what he said to Saul, when he offered to
go against Goliath.



The accidental rending of Samuel's mantle, 1 Sam. xv. 27,
28, signified the rending of the kingdom from Saul. It was a
common thing for God to order and appoint things to be done by
men, in order to typify future events; so Samuel poured out water
in Mizpeh, 1 Sam. vii. 6, to signify their repentance. See Pool's
Synopsis. Ahijah's rending Jeroboam's garment in twelve pieces,
and giving him ten, was to testify the rending the kingdom of
Israel, and giving him ten tribes. 1 Kings xi. 30, &;c. So see
1 Kings XX. 35, «fcc. and 2 Kings xiii. 14 — 20. The prophet's as-
sisting the king of Israel, in shooting an arrow eastward, totvards
Syria, was appointed of God to signify that he would assist the
king of Israel in fighting with the Syrians. 2 Kings xiii. 15, &c.
The prophet Isaiah by God's appointment went naked and bare-
foot, to typify the Egyptians and Ethiopians going naked and
barefoot in their captivity. Isaiah xx. Jeremiah by God's ap-
pointment typified the captivity of the Jews into Babylon, with
many of its circumstances, by taking a linen girdle and putting
it on his loins, and hiding it in a hole in a rock by the river Eu-
phrates, and returning again to take it from thence. Jer. xiii.
He was commanded to typify the destruction of the people by
breaking a potter's vessel. Chap. xix. By taking a wine cup and
offering it to many nations agreeably to God's appointment and
direction, he typified God's causing them as it were to drink the
cup of his fury. Chap. xxv. And he was commanded to make
bonds and yokes, and put them upon his neck and send them to the
neighbouring kings, to typify the yoke of bondage under Nebu-
chadnezzar that God was about to bring upon them. Chap, xxvii.
Nehemiah shook his lap, Neh. v. 13, to signify the shaking of
every man from his house, who should not perform the oath which
they had taken. Ezekiel very often typified future events, by
things that he did by God's appointment; as by his eating the
roll, &,c. Ezek. iii. And by lying on his side, and many other
things that he was to do, that we have an account of, Ezek. iv.
And by shaving his head and beard, and burning part of the
hair in the fire,

Online LibraryJonathan EdwardsThe works of President Edwards : with a memoir of his life (Volume 9) → online text (page 1 of 64)