Jonathan Swift.

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I fuffer for my religion in alrnoft ever/ weekly
paper. I have begun to take a. pique at the Pialms
of David, if the wicked may be credited, \ho
have printed a fcandalous one in my name *.
This report I dare not difcourage too much, in a
profpec"l I have at prefent, of a poft under the
Marquis de Langallerie f ; wherein, if i can but
do fome fignal fervice againft the Pope, I may be
coafiderably advanced by the Turks, the only
religious people I dare confide in. If it fhould
happen hereafter, that I fhould write for the ho-
ly law of Mahomet, I hope it may - make no
breach between you and me. Every one muft
live, and I beg you will not be the man to manage
the controverfy againft me. The church of Rome,
I judge (from many modern fymptoms, as well
as ancient prophecies) to be in a declining condi-
tion ; that of England, will in a fhort time be
fcarce able to maintain her own family : So
churches fink as generally as banks in Europe,
and for the fame reafon ; that religion and trade,
which at firft were open and free, have been re-
duced into the management of companies, and
the roguery of directors.


* In Curl's collection.

f One who made a noife then, as Count Boaneval has done


I don't know why I tell you all this, but that
I always loved to talk to you ; but this is not a
time for any man to talk to the purpofe. Truth
is a kind of contraband commodity, which I
would not venture to export ; and therefore the
only thing tending that dangerous way which I
I fhall fay, is, that I am, and always will be, with
the utmoft fincerity, Your's, &c.



SIR, Jan. 23, 1715-16.

YOUR letter was a great while upon the
road, before I had the good luck to have
it ; and I think I was happy, that it ever arrived
here ; for it is the fecond letter I have received
out of Ireland in above feven months. Either
thofe few friends I have there are afraid of taking
notice of me, or my enemies won't let me have
the comfort of thinking I have any left, and
therefore ftop my biters. I give you a thouiand
thanks, for fo kindly remembering a a abfent
friend. As you always think right, I don't won-
der you are of the opinion our friend * has not
all his good offices very well returned. But who
live in this world, muft arm themfelves with pa-
tience, and a refolution able to bear ingratitude,


* Probably the Earl of Oxford.


reproach, poverty, and afflictions of all kinds;
or fubmit to the difcipline of Bedlam,

I have not heard from my matter * thefe ma-
ny months. I hope he is well, becaufe the good-
nature of the world would take care I fhould
hear, if he were otherwife.

The Lady you name in your letter, lives at
her houfe at Berkfhire. I can't entertain you
with fo much as the tittle-tattles of the town,
having not feen it thefe four months, nor fcarce
any thing but froft and fnow ; which makes me
converfe moft with robin-red-breafts, that do me
the favour to come in at the windows to fee me.
Your niece is your humble fervant j but not well,
having a rafh.

I believe by this time you wifli you had not
provoked me to write ; frhce you are troubled
with fo long a fcroli from me, who am, with
great truth, Sir, your moft fincere friend and
humble fervant.


The Duke of Ormond, her hufl>and.




GOOD MR DEAN, Bromley *, April 6 , 1716.
Y gout kept me fo long a prifoner at
Weftminifter this Winter, that I have
fixed at Bromley this Spring, much fooner than
ever I yet did ; for which reafon, my meeting
with Dr Younger will be more difficult, than it
would be, had 1 been ftill at the deanry -\\

The beft (or rather the, worft) is, that I be-
lieve he can fay nothing to you upon .the matter
about which you write, which will pleafe you.
His deanry J is of the. old foundation ; and in
all fuch foundations,- the deans have no extraor-
dinary power or privilege, and are nothing more
than reudentiaries, with a peculiar corps belong-
ing to them as deans ; the firft of the chapter,
but fuch whofe prefence is not neceflary to-
wards the difpatch of any one capitular aft, the
fenior refidentiary fupplying their abfence, in
every cafe, with full authority. Thus, I fay,
the cafe generally is in the old deanries, unlefs
VOL. XV. Q^ where

* Bromley in Kent, where the bifhcps of Rocheftcr have an
Epilcopcil palace.

f Of Weftminfter, which has long been connefted with the
biCioprick of Rochefter.
f Of Salifbut.

i82 , D E A N S W I F T's

where the local ftatutes may have exprefsly re-
ferved fome peculiar power or privilege to the
deans of thofe churches. But none of them, I
dare fay, have a negative, either by common law,
cuftom, or local ftatute. Thus much to ihew
you, that a nice fearch into the peculiar rights
of the dean of Sarum, will be needlefs, if not
mifchievous to you. The three deanries which
I have had, are all of the new foundation, by
Henry the Eighth, or Queen Elizabeth.

In the charters of all there is a claufe, ira-
powering the dean, to make, punifh, and un-
make all the officers. In the ftatutes of one of
them (Carlifle) the dean's confent, in all gra-
vlores catife, is made exprefsly neceflary 5 and in
the other two, nothing from the foundation of
thofe churches ever paffed the feal, without the
dtvcCsJigttttitur firft written on the leafe, patent,
prefentation, &c. which is a manifeft and uncon-
tefted proof of his negative. As to the power
of propofing, that I apprehended not to be ex-
clufive to the other members of the chapter. It
is n point chiefly of decency and convenience ;
the dean being the principal perfon, and fup-
pofed beft to be acquainted with the affairs of the
church, and in what order they are 'fitteft to be
tranfacled. But if any one elfe of the body will
propofe any thing, and the reft of the chapter
will debate it, I fee not how the dean can hinder
them, unlefs it be by leaving the -chapter : And
jthat itfelf will be of no moment in churches,



where his abfence doth not break up and diflblve
the chapter ; as it does, where his confent to any
thing there treated of, is expivfsly required before
it can pafs into an acl. Where, indeed, he is
allowed fuch a negative, he is generally allowed
to make all propofals : Eecaufe it would be to
no purpofe, for any one to make a proportion,
which he can quafh by a diflent ; but this is not,
I fay, a matter of right,, but prudence.

Upon the whole, the beft advice I can give
you, is, whatever your powers are by ftatute or
ufage, not to infill on them too ftrictly in either
of the cafes mentioned by you, unlefs you are
very fure of the favour and -countenance of your
vifitor. The lawyers, you will find, whenever
fuch points come before them for a decition, are
very apt to difregard flatutes and cuftom in fuch
cafes ; and to fay, that their books make the
acl ot the majority of the corporation, the legal
acl of the body, without confidering whether
the dean be among the minority or no. And
therefore your uttnofl dextei-ity and addrefs will
be neceffiiry, in order to prevent fuch a trial of
your right at Common Law ; which, it is ten to
one, (efpecially as things now ftand) will go
againfl you. If the refractory part of your
chapter are flout, and men of any fenfe, or fup-
ported underhand, (the lafl of thefe is highly
probable) you had better make ufe of expedients
to decline the difficulty, than bring it at prefent
to a decifidn. Thefe are the bell lights, and
Q2 this

1 54 D E A N S W I F T's

this the beft advice, I can give you, after a long
experience of the natural confequence of fuch
ftruggles, and a careful fearch into the foundation
ot the powers and privileges claimed and difputed
on the one fide and the^other. I wiilf I could
fay any thing more to your fatisfadlion, but I
cannot ; and I think, in all fuch cafts, the bcft
inftance I can give you of my friendfhip, is not
to deceive you.

There is a ftatute in the latter end of King
Henry the Eighth's reign, worthy of your perufal.
The title of it relates to the leafes of hofpitals, &c.
and the tenor of it did, in my apprehenfion,
feem always to imply, that, without the dean,
mafler, &c. nothing could be legally done by the
corporation., But the lawyers will not allow
this to be good doctrine ; and fay, that ftatute
(notv'itliftanding a conftant phrafe of it) deter-
mines nothing of this kind, and, at the tnoft,
implies it only as to fuch deanries, &c. where
the dean, mafter, &c. have the right of a nega-
tive bv ftatute or ufage. And fcw lawyers there
are, who will allow even thus much. I cannot
explain myfelf farther on that head : But when
you perufe the ftatute, you will fee what I mean ;
though, after all, it does not, I believq, include
Ireland. However, I look upon it as a declara-
tion of the Common Law here in ngland.

I am fofry you have any occafion to write to
me on theie heads, and much forrier that I am
not able to give you any tolerable account of


C O R R E S P O N D E N C E. 185

them. God forgive thofe, who have furnifhed
me with this knowledge, by involving me de-
fignedly into thofe fquabbles. I thauk God,
I have forgiven them.

I will enter into nothing but the enquiries of
your letter ; and therefore add not a word more,
either in Englifh or Latin, but that I am, with
great efteem, good Mr Dean, your very affec-
tionate humble fervant, F 1\. R O F F EN.



MR DEAN, London, May 5, 1716',

YOUR letter came in very good time to me.,,
when I was full of vexation and trouble,
which all vanifhes, finding that you were fo good
to remember me under my affli-ftions , which have
been not greater than 'you can think, but much, .
greater than I can exprefs. I am now in town ;
bufinefs called me hither ; and when that is
finiihed, I fhall retire with more comfqrt than I
came. Do not forfoke an old friend, nor be-
lieve reports which are fcandalous and falfe.
You are pieafed to enquire after my health : l'
can give you no good account of it at prefent ;
but that country, whither I fliall go next week,
will, I hope, fet me up. As to T,y temper, if it
is poffible, I am more inilpid and dull than ever,.
Q^3 except


except in forae places, and there I am a little
fury, efpecially if they dare mention my dear
Lord without refpeft, which fometimes happens,
for good manners and relationfhip are laid afide
in this town ; it is not hard for you to guefs
whom I mean. I have not yet feen her Grace *,
but chlign it in a day or two : We have kept a
correlpondence ever fince our misfortunes, and
her Grace is pleafed to call me fitter. There is
no body in the world has a truer refpecl and
value for her, than myfelf. I fend this to my
friend John ; and beg^you, when you do me the
favour of an anfwer, to fend it to him, who will
take care to convey it to me in the country ;
for your letter lay a long while, before it. came to
my hands. I beg you to look with a friendly
eye upon all my faults and blots in this letter,
and that you will believe me, what I really am,
your moft faithful humble fervant, F. B.



DEAR SIR, London, Augnjt ^ 1716.

I WISH your laft had found me in the coun-
try ; but, to my misfortune, I am ftill kept
in town, foliciting my unfortunate bufinefs. I


* T'.ie Duchefs of Ormoncl.

f Fran?es, firft wife of the Lord Vifcount Bolingbrokc, and
daughter of Sir Henry Winchcomb, of Bucklebury, iokBeiks.


have found great favour from his Majefty. But
form is a tedious thing to wait upon. Since 'tis
my fate, I muft bear it with patience, and per-
fect it, if I can ; for there is nothing like follow-
ing bulinefs one's felf. I am unwilling to ftir
without the feals, which I hope to have foon. I
have been very ill ; this place never agreeing with
me, and lefs now than ever, ic being prodigious
hot weather.

I know not what to fay as to one part of your's ;
only this, that you will forgive the fears of a wo-
man, if {he fays llie is glad it is as it is, though it
has almoft ruined her. I hope, oae time or other,
his Majefty will find my Lord has been mifrepre-
fented ; and, by that means, he may be reftored
to his country once more with honour ; or elfe,
however harfh it may found out of my mouth, I
had rather wear black. Thefe are my real fenti-
ments. I never thought myfelf, nor my health,
of any confequence till lately ; and fince you tell
me 'tis fo to the unworthy^ as you pleafe to term
it, I Ihali take care of it ; for the worthy, which
I once thought fo, they are good for nothing,
hut to neglect diftrefied friends. Thofe few-
friends I meet with now, are worth a thoufand
relations : That I found long ago. We have the
happincfs of odd, half-witted relations, and filly,
obftinate, opiniater friends, that are a fevere
plague to me. I never could have the pleafure

of talking one moment to the D of O *.


* Duchefs of Ormond.

f88 D E A N S WI F T.'s

She had always company, and fome that I wifh,
fhe had not. She is now out of town, and we
do not correfpond at prefent. I wifh her all han-
pinefs, and in better hands as to her bufinefs.
You have a much better opinion of me than I de-
fer ve ; but I will ftudy all I can, to merit that fa-
vour, which you are fo kind to allure me of.

I wifh it were poffible for us two to meet, that
I might aflure you, in perfon, that I am your's
mo ft faithfully.

Your's came fafe. I hope this will to you.
There is a Lady who never forgets you, and a
particular friend to me, and has been a great
comfort to me in my trouble : I mean my tenant :
She is now in. the country, to my grief.



3> 1716.

IH A D the favour of your's by Mr F. ; of
whom, before any other queftion relating
to your health or fortune, or fuccefs as a poet, I
inquired your principles, in the common form,
" Is he a Whig, or a Tory ?" I am forry to find
they are not fo well tallied to the prefent juncture,
as I could wifli. I always thought the terms of
fafto and jure had been introduced by the poets ;.
and that pofieffion of any fort in kings, was held



an unexceptionable title in the courts of ParnafTus.
If you do not grow a perfect good fubjecl in all
its pi-efent latitudes, I iliall conclude you are be-
come rich, and able to live, without dedications
to men in power ; whereby one great inconveni-
ence will follow, that you, and the world, and
pofterity, will be utterly ignorant of their virtues.
For either your brethren have miferabty deceived
us thefe hundred years paft, or power confers
virtue, as naturally as five of your Popiili facra-

ments do grace. You fleep lefs, and drink

more ; but your mafter, Horace, was vini fc mni-
que bcnignus : And, as I take it, both are proper
for your trade. As to mine, there are a thou-
fand poetical texts to confirm the one ; and as to
the other, I know it was anciently the cuftom to
fleep in temples, for thofe who would confult the
oracles, " Who dictates to me {lumbering, &c."*
You are an ill catholic, or a worfe geographer;
for I can afiure you, Ireland is not paradife; and
I appeal even to any Spanifli Divine, whether ad-
drefies were ever made to a friend in hell, or
purgatory? And who are all thefe enemies you
hint -at ? I can only think of Curl, Gildon,
'Squire Burnet, Blackmore, and a few others
\vhofe fame I have forgot. Tools, in my opinion,
are as neceilary for a good writer, as pen, ink,
and paper. And befkles, I vrcjuld fain know,
whether every draper doth not fliew you three
or four damned pieces of ituiTto fet off his good

one ?
* Milton.

ipo D E A N S W I F T's

one ? However, I will grant, that one thorough
bookfelling-rogue is better qualified to vex an au-
thor, than all his cotemporary fcribblers in .critic
or fhtire, not only by flolen copies of what was
incorrect, or unfit for the public, but by down-
right laying other men's dulnefs at your door. I
had a long defign upon the ears of that Curl,
when I was in credit; but the rogue would never
allow me a fair ftroke at them, although my pen-
knife was ready drawn and (harp. I can hardly
believe the relation of his being poifoned, altho'
the hiftorian pretends to have been an eye wit-
nefs : But I beg pardon ; fack might do it, altho'
rat {bane' would not. I never faw the thing you
mention, as falfely imputed to you j but I think
the frolics of. merry hours, even when we are
guilty, fliould not be left to the mercy of our beft
friends, until Curl and his refemblers are hanged.
With fubmiffion to the better judgment of you
and your friends, I take your project of an em-
ployment under the Turks, to be idle and unne-
ceiTary. Have a little patience, and you will find
more merit and encouragement at home by the
fame methods. ,You are ungrateful to your coun-
try ; quit but your own religion, and ridicule
our's, and that will allow you a free choice for
any other, or for none at all, and pay you well
into the bargain. Therefore, pray do not run and
difgrace us among the Turks, by telling them you
were forced to leave your native home, becaufe
we would oblige you to be a Chriftian ; whereas,



we will make it appear to ail the world, that we
only compelled you to be a Whig.

There is a young ingenious Quaker in this
town, who writes verfes to his miftreis, not very
correct, but in a drain purely what a poetical
Quaker fhould do, commending her look and
habit, &c. It gave me a hint, that a fet of Qua-
ker paftorals might fucceed, if our friend Gay *
could fancy it, and I think it a fruitful fubjecl:.
Pray hear what he fays. I believe further, the
paftoral ridicule is not exhaufted ; and that a
porter, footman, or chairman's paftoral -J-, might
do well. Or, what think you of a Newgate pafto-
ral, among the whores and thieves there ?

Laftly, to conclude, I love you never the worfe
for feldom writing to you. I am in an obfcure
fcene, where you know neither thing nor peribn.
I can only anfvver your's, which I promife to do
after a fort, whenever you think fit to employ
me. But I can allure you, the fcene and the
tir.i~s have cleprefled me wonderfully ; for I will
impute no defect to thofe two paltry years, which
have dipt by imce I had the happinefs to fee you.
I am, with the trueft efteem,

Your's, &c.


* Gay wrote a paftoral of this kind, which is published in his
works. War]>.

f Swil't liimfclf wrote one of this kind, intitlcd, Dermot and
Sheelah. See it in vol. viii. p. 128.

192 D E A N S W IT? T's



SIR, Sept. I/}, 1716.

I HAD the ill fortune to mifs of that letter
you upbraided me with. I had deferved
any reproaches you could make me, if it had
come to my hands, and I not made due acknow-
ledgements for your enquiries" after me. I'll make
you wiflx you'd not been fo angry with me ; for
I will fcrall out myfelf, what you'd rather Betty
or my maid had, for they would have made
fhorter work of it ; but I will anfwer every part
of your's, that you obliged me with by Mr Ford.
Firft, As to the Lady you mention, the rea-
fon I had not feen her in a great while, was my
being in the country. To tell you the truth, I
believe her hufband has been a better courtier,
than either me, or any of her fex, could be ; be-
caufe men have it in their power to ferve, and I
believe her's has effectually done what lay in him.
- You kindly aik how my affairs go. There is
yet no end of them, and God only "knows when
there will be. For when every thing was thought
done, a fudden blaft had blown all hopes away,
and then they gave me frefh expectations. In the
mean time, I am forced to live upon the bor-
row ; my goods all taken away ; that I fhant
i have


have fo much as a bed to lye upon, but .what I
muft buy, and no money of my own to do that
with ; fo that you may imagine me in a chearful
way. I pray God fupport me.

The Gentleman you enquired after, is very
well now. The illnefs you heard he had, he has
been fubjecl: to a good while. What you defire,
I wiih were in the power of either his brother or
me ; but all will go from both of us, of every
kind. Only they fay, that the cloaths upon my
back, I may perhaps call my own, and that's all.
I was obliged to leave the country. I was fo ill
there, that, if I had not come to the phyficians,
I can't tell what might have happened. My
daughter is your moft humble fervant, and is
pretty well in health.

Am not 1 one of my word, and troubled you
twice as long as you would have wiiht ? But
you'll find by this, that a woman's pen fhould no
more be fet at work, than her tongue ; for fhe
never knows when to let either of them reft. But
my paper puts me in mind, that I have but jufl
room to tell you, 1 wilh much to fee you here, if
it could be with your fatisfaclion -, and that I am,
with great fincerity, Sir, your faithful humble






Oct. 23, 1716.

IT is a very great truth, that, among all the
lofles which I have fuftained, none affect-
cd me more fenfibly, than that of your company
and correfpondence j and yet, even now, I
fhould not venture to write to you, did not you
provoke me to it. A commerce of letters between
two men, who are out of the world, and who
do not care one farthing to return into it again,
muft be of little moment to the (late ; and yet I
remember enough of that world, to know, that
the moft innocent things become criminal in
ibme men, as the v moft criminal pafs applauded
in others.

Your letter breathes the fame fpirit as your
converfation, at all times infpired, even when the
occafions of praftifing the fevereft rules of vir-
tuous fortitude feemed moft remote, if fuch oc-
cafions could ever feem remote to men, who are
under the direction of your able and honeft friend
Sir Roger *.

To write about myfelf, is no agreeable tafk ;
but your commands are fufficient at once to de-

* Sir Roger is the name given to Lord Treafurer Oxford, in
the Hiftory of John Bull. As Bolingbroke is known to have
hated and defpifed the Treafurer, the words able and toireft
muft be taken ironically.


termine and excufe me. Know, thei'efore, that
my health is tar better than it has been a gret
while ; that the money, which I brought over
with me, will hold out fome time longer; and
that I have fecured a fmall fund, which will yield,
in any part of the world, a revenue fufficient
for one, qui pent h retrencl:er me me aiiec plaifir dans
la mediocrite> I uie a French exprefllon r becaufe
I have not one, that pleafes me, ready in Englifh.
During feverai months after my leaving that ob-
fcure retreat, into which I had thrown myfelf laft
year, I went through all the mortifying circum-
flances imaginable. At prefent I enjoy, as far as
I confider myfelf, great complacency of mind ;
but this inward fatisfaction is embittered, when I
confider the condition of my friends. They are
got into a dark hole, where they grope about
after blind guides, ftumble from miftake to mif-
take, joftle againft one another, and dafh their
heads againft the wall ; and all this to nopurpofe.
For aflure yourfelf, that there is no returning to
light ; no going out, but by going back. My ftyle
is myftic, but it is your trade to deal in myfteries,
and therefore I add neither comment nor excufe.
You will underftand me ; and I conjure you to
be perfuided, that if I could have half an hour's
converfation with you, for which I would barter
whole hours of life, you would {tare), haul your
wig, and bite paper, more than ever you did in
your life *. Adieu, dear friend ; may the kindeft
R 2 influence

* This is a. flrong picture of Swift's manner.

i5><J D E A N S W I F T's

influence of heaven be fhed upon you. "Whether
we may ever meet again, that heaven only knows ;
if we do, what millions of things fhall we have to
talk over ! In the mean while, believe, that no-
thing fits fo near my heart, as my country and my
friends ; and that, among theie, you ever had,
and ever (hall have, a principal place.

If you write to me, direct A Monfteur Chariot^
chez Monfieur Cant ilk ti) banquier, ruede PArbrefec**
Once more adieu.

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