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the chief called Abaddon, or Apojlyon, ♦. e,, the destroyer,
ver. II.
Bee, b. of Assyrian king, Isa. 7. 18, so represented in hieroglyphics;

also of any fierce invader, Deut. i. 44: Psa. 118. 12.
Book, received, s. of inauguration, 2 Kings 11. 2; mitten within and
without, of a long series of events; sealed, of what is secret; to eat
a book, s. of consideration, Jer. 15. 16: Rev. 10. 9; "the book of
life," the list in which the names of the redeemed are enrolled,
see Ezra 2. 62 : Rev. 3. 5 ; a book opened, s. of the beginning of
judgmont, Re\ . 20. 12.

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Bow, 8. of conflict and victory. Rev. 6. 2; or (because apt to start
aside) of deceit, Hos. 7. 16: Jer. 9. 3.

Bbass, 8. of baseness and obduracy, Isa« 48. 4* ^er* 6. i9i or of
strength and firmness, Psa. 107. 16: Isa. 65. 4.

Breastplate, what -protects a vital part and strikes terror into au
adversary, Isa. 59. 7: i Thees. 5. 8; Rev. 9. 9.

Brim (t.e., burning) stone, s. of torment, Job 18. 15: Psa. 9. 6:
Rev. 14. 10; 30. 10.

Chariot, s. of government or protection, 2 Kings a. 12: Pga. 20. 7;
chariot and two riders, Isa. 21. 7; Cyrtw and IHirius (Lowth).
In Zech. 6. i; the four great empires. Chariots of Qod, the hosts
of heaven, Psa. 68. 18: Isa. 66. 15.

Cherubim, s. of God's regal glory (Wemyss), Psa. 18. 10 ; or of tho
Trinity and human nature of Christ (Paikhurst); of angels
(Lowman, Pierce, Mack.); of the excellencies of God's servants
(Tayloi^ Newc); of angels and, in Revelation, of the redeemed
(Mede); of Gbd's manifested perfections: see Gen. 3. 24: Exod.
25. 18, 22: 37. 7, 9: Lev. 16. 2: Num. 7. 8, 9: i Kings 6. 23:
8. 7: 2 Chron. 3. 10, 13: Ezek.i. 10.

Colour, s. of the nattire of the thing to which it is applied; black,
s. of anguish and aflftiction, Job 30. 30: Rev. 6. 5-12; pale, of
mortal disease. Rev. 6. 8; red, of bloodidied, or victory, Zech. 6. 2:
Rev. 12. 3; or of what cannot be discharged, Isa. i. i8; white, of
beauty and holiness, Ecc. 9. 8: Rev. 3. 4; toMte and shining was
the Jewish royal and priestly colour, as purple waa the Roman,

Crown, s. of delegated anthority. Lev. 8. 9; or of imi>erial au-
thority and victory, Rev. 19. 12 (Greek, diadem).

Cup, s. of enticing luxury. Rev. 17. 11; of idolatrous rites, i Cor.
10. 21; of a man's portion, Rev. 14. 10: 18. 16.

Drunkenness, s. of the folly of sin, Jer. 51. 7; and of the stupidity
produced by Bivine judgments, Isa. 29. 9.

Earthquake, s. of violent agitation, Joel 2. 10: Hag. 2. 21: Rev.
6. 12.

Eating, s. of meditation on and communion wit^ truth, Isa. 55.
I, 2; s. of results of previous conduct, Ezek. 18. 2; s. of destruc-
tion of a man's peace or property. Rev. 17. 16: Psa. 27. 2.

Eotpt, s. of a proud, persecuting power, as Rome, Rev. 11. 8.

Eyes, s. of knowledge, fidelity^ glory, Zech. 4. 10; of goverrml^t.
Numb. 10. 31. Evil eye «« etivy; bountiful ey6 =s liberality.

FiJiE, 8. Of Qod's word, Jer. 23. 29 : Hab. 3. 5 ; of dertrdcfioti, Isa
42. 2^: Zech. 13. 9; of ijltttifica*ion, Mai. 3. 2; of prtsecution,
I Pet. I. 7; of punishment and sufifering, Mark 9. 44.

First-born, had power over their brethren, Gen. 20. 37; were tho

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priests of the family, Exod. 24. 5 J were consecrated to God,
Bxod. 13. I. 13; saaiotified the family by their own acceptance,
and had a double share of the inheritance, Deut. 21. 17. See
Heb. 2. 10, 11: 3. 1: CoL I. 12.

Pish, b. of the rulers of the people, i,e,, of the sea, Ezek. 29. 4, 5 ;
Hab. 1. 14.

FoBEHEAD, written on, the mark of a priest, Lev. 19. 28; of a
servant f and of a soldier: see Bey. 22. 4. Servants of idols wore
a mark, a name, or a number: see Rev. 13. 16.

Forest, b. of city or kingdom; tall trees the rulers, Isa. 10. 17-34:
32. 19: Jer. 21. 14: Ezek. 20, 46.

Fboos, 8. of unclean, impudent enemies, Kev. 16. 13.

Garments, s. of qualities or condition; clean garments, s. of purity;
irhite, of holiness, Psa. 51. 7, or happiness, Isa. 52. i: Rev. 3. 4:
Zech. 3. 3; to bestow garments was a mark of favour, 1 Sam.

Gems, s. of magnificence, beauty, variety: see Table of gems.

Grapes, ripe, s. of people ready for punishment. Rev. 14. i^\ gleaned,
s. of a people carried away, Jer. 52. 28-32.

IIant>s, s. of actions; pure hands, hands full of blood, etc., indicate
such actions respectively, Psa. 90, 17: Job 9. 30: i Tim. 2. 8:
Isa. I. 15. To wash the hands, s. of expiation, or of freedom from
guilt, I Cor. 6. 11: I Tim. 2. 8. s. of power: the right hand ia
the place of favour, Mark 16. 19; to give the hand of fellowship^ s.
of communication of rights and blessings. Gal. 2.9. To give the
hand is to yield to another, Psa. 68, 31: 2 Chron. 30. 8 (Heb.);
to lift up the right hand was a sign of swearing. Gen. 14. 22:
Dan. 12. 7. Marks on the hand, s. of servitude and of idol
worship, Zech. 13. 6; hands put on another, s. of transmission of
blessing, authority, or guilt. Gen. 48. 14-20: Dan. 10. 10; hands
of Gk>d laid on a prophet indicates spiritual influence, i Kings
18. 46: Ezek. I. 3: 3. 22; his finger less influence; his arm

Harp, a s. of praise and joy, Psa. 49. 5: 33. 2; used especially after
victory, 2 Chron. 20. 28: Isa. 30. 32: Rev. 14. i. 2.

Harvest, b. of time of destruction, Jer. 51. 33: Isa. 17. 5: Rev.
14. 14-18; sickle, the s. of the instrument, Joel 3. 13; s. of time
of complete deliverance, or ingathering; so (Horsley) Hos. 6. li;
s. of the field of labour for the church. Matt. 9. 26.

klEAYEN and Earth, used in a threefold sense; the invisible and
moral, the visible and literal, and the political. In the last sense,
heaven is a s. of rulers; earth, of the people; heaven and earth, of
\ kingdom, or polity, Isa. 51. 15, 16: 65. 17: Jer. 4. 23, 24:
Matt 24. 2 9*

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To fall from heaven, is to lose dignity; heaven opened, is a neiw
phase in the political world; a door opened m heaven, the begin-
ning of a new goyemment: see Hag. 3. 6-22. Sun, moon, stars,
are s. of authorities^ supreme or secondary, Isa. 24. 21, 23 : Joel
2. 10: Eev. 12. I.

Horn, s. of power, Amos 6. 13 (Heb.) : Deut. 33. 17 (see Soak, 17,
14-18) : I Kings 22. n : Mic. 4. 13; so of regal dignity, Jer. 48.
25 : Dan. 8. 9 : Rev. 13. i. Horns of the altar, when touched,
formed a sanctuary, Exod. 21. 14: Amos 3. 14: Jer. 17. i.
Horns, or rays, were part of the glory ascribed to God, Deut. 33.
2 • Hab. 3. 4 (Heb.), and to Moses.

Incense, a s. of prayer. Psa. 141. 2 : Rev. 8. 4: Mai. i. 11 ; it was
ofiered with fire taken from the burnt offering.

Ket, a s. of authority; a commission to open or shut, Isa. 22. 22:
Rev. I. 18: 3. 7: 20. I.

Lamp (so " candle " should be translated), a s. of light, joy, truth,
and government. Rev. 2. 5: see £zod. 25. 31, 32: i Kings 11.
36; t. e., a successor shall never fail, Psa. 132. 17,

Manna, s. of Divine, immortal sustenance. Rev. 2, 17 : see Ebcod.
16. 33, 34-

Marriage, s. of a state of imion under covenant, and so of per-
fection, Isa. 54. 1-6: Rev. 19. 17.

Measure, to, or divide, s. of conquest and possession, Isa. ^}. 12:
Zech. 2. 2 : Amos 7. 17, where re-measurement implies re-posses-

Mother, s. of the producer of anything, Rev. 1 7. 5 ; s. of a citfj,
whose inhabitants are her children, 2 Sam. 20. 19: Isa. 49. 23;
of the metropolis, whose daughters are dependent cities, Isa. 50 i :
Hos. 2. 2, 5 ; of the New Testament church. Gal. 4. 26.

Mountain, s. of stability and greatness, Isa. 2. 2: Dan. 2. 35.

Trees, tall, s. of rulers, Ezek. 31. 5-9; low, s. of common men. Rev.

7. i:«.7.
Trumpet, blown, s. of the warning of the approach of important

Vine, s. of luxuriant productiveness, Jer. 2. 21: Hos. 14. 7: Rev.

14. 18; vintage, of the destruction of such. Rev. 14. 19.
Virgins, s. of faithful servants, uncorrupted by idolatry. Rev.

Wind, agitating the air, s. of commotions; restrained, of tranquillity

Kev. 7, It

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On the Systematic and Inferential Study op the

" Inferences from Scripture that appear to be strictly Intimate must be received
with the greatest caution, or, rather, decidedly rented, except as they are supported
by explicit Scripture declarations."— Bridges : On the Christian Ministry.

" No science is more strictly inductive than theology. . . . The Bible is a record
of words and facts . . . and our duty is to analyse them ; reducing them, by a
»iQethod strictly inductive, into a proper order, and then deducing " (rather gathering)
* fh>m them the Intimate general truth." — Bisnop of Kektuoky.

" A Bible Christian hisensibly borrows and unites what is excellent in all systenra,
perhiq>s without knowing how far he agrees with them, because he finds all in the
written word."— Newton : Works, vL^iB,

Sec. I. On the Study of the Doctrines of Scripture,

455. It is obvious that truth may be revealed in different
forms ; either authoritatively, as law ; or historically, by way
of example ; in promise, or in doctrine. The truths of the
Bible are revealed in all these forms, and each often involves
the other. A command includes a doctrine; a doctrine, a
promise; and both doctrine and promise, correspondent

456. If the commands, and doctrines and promises of
Scripture ar- Scripture were respectively placed by themselves,
TOiSnK to^ we should have a system of truth on one principle
thefomuof of arrangement. And if the doctrines and pre-
'^ • cepts which refer to each truth of Scripture were
placed together, we should then have a system of truth on a
different principle. In the first case, Scripture truth would
be classified under the form of the statement, which may be
Or according preceptive, promissory, or doctrinal In the se-
to the truths cond, the various forms of Scripture statement

would be classified imder the truths to which they
respectively refer. By the careful student, both principles of
arrangement are combined. That view of the whole which
puts the correct meaning upon every part of the Divine
word, and assigns to every truth and duty such a place,
both In order and importance, as properly belongs to iti, each
truth and duty honouring the rest, and itself appearing to the
j^atest advantagCi la the triie system of divinity.

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457. Nor is the necessity of such arrangement peculiar to
ment *^® Bible. Both in nature and in providence facts

not peculiar and objects are scattered in endless variety. It is
to Scripture. ^^^ business of science to detect amongst them all
unity and order. The general laws that regulate the universe
therefore, and the rules of conduct by which men govern
their lives, are aUke facts reduced to system by intelligence
and care. In both cases, too, we employ the same principle
of mvestigation — ^the great principle of the inductive philo-
sophy. The texts of Scripture form the basis of theology, as
the facts of nature form the basis of natural science, or as
the facts of consciousness form the basis of mentd philo-
sophy. In the Bible, however, we have this advantage, that
while in nature facts are the only data from which we gather
genei'ai laws, in Scripture, we find the generckl laws of truth
and duty, as well as particular instances in which those laws
are seen to be i^phed to the uses of life.

458. The systematic study of the Bible (it must be ob-
interpmta- served) differs very materially from the intezpreta-
tema^^Sdi ^^^^ ^^ !*• Interpretation is concerned cmfy with
differ. the meaning of individual passages: Systematic
Theology considers them in their relation to one another and
to ourselves.

459. When it is said that we study the doctrines of Scrip-
Precept In- *^^® "^ ^*® precepts, WO embody an important
voivesdoo- truth. Between ihe doctrines and precepts of
^^'^' Christianity there is an essential connection. Not
only does doctrine contain by impUcaticm a command, but it
exhibits such views of truth as are adapted by God to excite
holy affections, and those affections are the immediate prin-
ciples of holy conduct. The beUef of the doctrines of the
gospel, and obedience, are tiierefore inseparable. " Morality
is religion in practice, and reUgion is morality in principle."
He that loves God keeps his commandments, and he that
keeps the commandments loves God. Man may attempt to
put asimder tiie things which God has thus joined. He may
explain truth so as to destroy morality, making "void the
law through feith," or he may hold " the truth in^mri^teous-
ness." But God's design is that truth should always pro-
mote holiness, as it is essential to it. Holiness, therefore, is
nf\YQr ft und without truth ; and if ever truth be found with-

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out holiness, it is because the perverseness of humau nature
has succeeded in parting them.

460. The systematic study of Beripture has been singularly
Importance misrepresented. Some hold that ikere can be no
temAti^tady ii^telligent knowledge of Scripture without it, and
of Scripture, others, that it is useless ; a remnant, in fact, of
scholastic habits, which it is for the interest of the church to
destroy. Both these views, however, are wrong. The pas-
sages of the Bible which contain clear summaries of truth are
so niunerous (Tit. 3. 11-14: £^h. 2. 4-10), that a good man
will often gather, without knowing it, a ccHnp^ehensive and
Boimd system. On the other hand, to repudiate system
compels us either to confine ourselves in statements of doc-
trine to Scripture language ; or it exposes us to the risk of
misrepresenting one doctrine in enforcing another ; or, more
•ommonly still, it tempts us to overlook the due proportion
or connection of doctrines, and so leads us into error, the
more seductive that it is founded partially on truth. " General
principles drawn from particulars," says Locke, "are the
jewels of knowledge, ccwnjMrehending gi'eat store in little
room : but these are therefore to be used with the greater
ca^e and caution, lest, if we take counterfeit for true, our loss
be the greater when our stock comes to a severe scrutiny."

461. The BihLe may be studied systematically for a double
Theology, purpose ; either, /rs#, to ascertwn the doctrines of
J^m*^* Scripture, or secondly, to determine its rules of

^ ' morahty and holiness. The system of doctrine
thus framed is called dogmatic, or doctrinal theology ; and the
system of duty, moral, or practical theology ; both, however,
being most closely interwoven in Scripture as they are in
human experience.

462. In gathering doctrinal truth from Scripture, we bring
framciL ^^'^^^^ ^ *^® texts that refer to the same sub-
ject, whether they be doctrines, precepts, pro-
mises, or examples ; impartially compare them ; restrict the
expressions of one text by those of another ; and explain the
whole consistently. When the proposition which we derive
from the passages examined embodies all they contain, and
no more, it may then be regarded as a general Scriptunil

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463. The following rules are equally obvious aud im
BniM. poriant.

NewT^^ We must gather our views of Christian doctrine
tament. primarily from the New Testament^ interpreting
its statements consistently with one another, and with the
facts and clear revelations of the Old.

In carrying out this rule it is necessary to explain am-
biguous and figurative passages by those that are clear and
2. Loca literal ; and passages in which a subject is briefly
*^***^***' described with those in which it is largely dis-
cussed ; and general assertions by others (if such there be)
which treat of the same truth with some restriction or

Not only must the passages which speak of the same doc-
1. AU held trine be explained consistently with one another,
coneiatentiy. ij^^ Q^ch doctrine must be held consistently witii
other doctrines.

The Scriptures teach, for example, on a companson of passages,
that repentance, faith, and obedience, are the gifts of Gtod.* Do
we therefore gather that men are guiltless if they do not repent,
and believe, and obey the gospel? or do we deem it needless to ex-
hort men to repentance, obedience, and fedthf If so, our views are
tmsound, for the guilt of impenitence is charged entirely upon
mau.^ His unbelief is declared to be his great sin and the ground
of his condemnation ;** and not to obey Gk)d is everywhere con-
demned. Men are exhorted, too, to repent,*^ and believe, and
obey. So Samuel taught the Israelites, and so Peter exhorted
Simon Magus and the murderers of our Lord.*'

Though truths may be revealed in Scripture which it is
difficult for us to hannonize, yet one truth so held as to con-
tradict another is not held as the Bible reveals it.

Employ and interpret the doctrines of Scripture with
4. TruUi to special regard to the practical purposes for which
^!i^**pur. *^® Scripture reveals them.

poses. The use made in Scripture, for example, of the doc-

trine of election is highly instructive. However the doctrine itself

" John 15. 5: Acts 5. 31: Eph. 2. 8: Ptil. i. 39: 3. 13: i Pet. i. 2
^ Matt. II. 20, 21: Rev. a. 20, 21. • John 3. 18: 16. 9.
«» Miuk i» 15. • Acts 3. 19: 8. 22.

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be regarded, all agree in admitting that it can involve no capricious
fondness, without reason or wisdom; nor can it be regarded as
affection founded upon our merit, or as seeking for its ultimate end
our happiness. It is rather an exhibition of the character of God,
which represents him as acting in pursuance of his own purpose,
and while securing that purpose, as displaying his glory and pro-
moting the general good. The doctrine is introduced in Scripture,
too, only for such objects as these; to declare the source of salvation
to be the undeserved fEivour of God, and to cut off all hope of
acceptance by works, as in Bom. ii. 5, 6; to accoimt for the im-
belief of the Jews without excusing it, as in Bom. 9; or to show
the certain success of Christ's kingdom in defiance of all hostility,
as in Matt. 21. 42: John 6. 37. Considered without reference to
these facts, it might be made the ground of a charge of caprice, or
it might become (as among the Jews) the nourishment of self-con-
ceit; or it might be used to destroy the doctrine of human respon-
sibility or the duty of Christian devotedness. The doctrine sys-
tematically considered, viewed, that is, in connection with the
truths among which it stands,, and applied to the purposes for
which the inspired teachers used it, has a humbling and sanctifying

The doctrine of Satanic influence, again, is taught in Scripture;
but only to give us a clearer perception of the value of the work of
Christ, and to excite us to greater watchfulness and prayer, 2 Cor.
4. 4: Eph. 2, 2: 6. 12: John 13. 27; Luke 8.30; Bev. 12. 9:

1 John 3. 8: Eph. 6. ii-i8, etc.

The mysterious connection between the first offence and the fact
that all are under condemnation is clearly afi&rmed in the 5th chap-
ter of the Epistle to the Bomans and in i Cor., but only to magnify
the grace of Gk>d in our redemption by Christ.

The doctrine of the Trinity is a revelation of God in relation to
man; and, though sometimes introduced as an article of faitb,
simply (as in the rite of baptism), it is generally in connection with
spiritual blessings, and especially with the scheme of redemption,

2 Cor. 13. 14.

It must ba remembered, again, that deductions drawn by
. reason from propositions founded on the state-

ttons fhnn ments of Scripture are not to be deemed inspired
^^^SiJJJ^J®* unless those deductions are themselves revealed.

*™®* It is certain, for example, that distinct acts of per-

sonal agency, which are in some passages ascribed simply to God,
are ascribed ekewhero to the Father, or to the Son, or to the Holy
Ghost, and that worship and adoration are claimed for each* \V«

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may say, therefore; that l&ere are three Personei in the €k>dheacl^
and but one Qod; or that i^ere is a Trinity in Unity; W& thus
express Scripture truth in a convenient form. But ^ we atfcennpt
to explain t^ truth, or to draw from the phraseology «nployed
other remote conclusions, we may either darken counsel by words
without knowledge, or gather lessons which Qod has not taught;

Or again, that all men are sinners, and that the holiest acts of
the best men come short of the requirements of the Diviue law,
are truths revealed in Scripture, and We comprehend them both
in the general statement that men are totally depraved ; but
if from this statement we gather the conclusion that all men are
sinners in the same degree, the conclusion, though seemingly in-
volved in the statement, is not a lesson of Scripture, but an inference
drawn by human reason, not from God's word, but from the imper-
fect language of man. All men are boimd to belifeve Scripture, and
he that believes Scripture beUeves all that is seen to be contained
therein. But "no man," says Jeremy Taylor,. **is to be pixsased
with consequences drawn from thence, imleSS the transcrijit be
drawn by the same hand that wrote the original. For we are sure
it came, in the simplicity of it, from an infallible Spirit; but he
that bids me believe his deductions bids me believe that he is an
imerring logician; for which Gk>d has given me no command, and
himself can give me no security."*

Concerning all doctrines indeed, which are peculiar to
Scripture, the rule of the martyr Ridley is as Christian as it
is philosophical " In these matters,'* says he, '^ I am so fearful
tiiat I dare not speak further, yea, almost none otherwise than
the text doth as it were lead me by the hand."

But besides ascertaining the truths of the gospel, it is not
6. Truth in less important in framing a system of truth to
tivrjmTOr?^ ascertain their relative importance ; and if possible,
ance. the order in which Scripture reveals thorn. With

this view, notice :—

1. What things are omitted in one book, or in several, or in
Comparative many, and then gather the' conclusion, that what
how^asS?* ^^^ omitted, are probably not as important as
taincd. thosc that are included in all

2. Mark the subjects which are oftenest recommended to
attention by our Lord, and by his apostles.

(f it be asked, for example, what is the most memorable cilrcuu]-
* ''DisBuaslves against Popoiy."

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stance in the m^ittrtton of l3ie last sujpj)^, ilie reply is, its com-
metnoratiye cMtsuctev: for ihia peculiarity is tlirice mentioned in
the ifwdM of tiid idstitntion, i Cor. rr. 24, 2$, 26.

A nde of the Divine procedure iff on the same ground of obvions
importance. Thrice is it intimated by our Lord, and in 6ach case
with much emphasis, ihat gifts habitually exercised are increased,
while gifts habitually neglected are withdrawn, Matt. 13. 13: 25. 29:
Luke 19. 26. So of humility, which is mentioned with peculiar
honour no less than seven times in the first three Qospels, Matt.
i8« 4, etc.

3. Observe carefully what is common to the two dispensa-
tions, the Christian and the Jewish.

In both, tiie uniiy dnd spirituality of Qod, his power and truth-
fulness are frequency revealed. So among our first duties are gra-
titude and love. The numerous ii^junctions in the law, respecting
sacrifices, and the prominence given to the truth, that Christ was
" once ofiered to bear the sins of many," illustrate the paramount
Importance both of the doctrine, and uf appropriate feelings in re-
ference to it, Heb. 9. 28.

4. Observe the vcdus ascribed in Scripture iiaelf, to any
truth or precept which it contains.* Sometimes a quality is
set forth as essential, '' Without fedth it is impossible to
please God." Sometimes one quality is preferred to another,
as love to both faith and hope, i Cor. 13. It is on this prin-
ciple that much importance is attached to the qualifications
which are to regulate the decisions of the day of judgment.
Such as faith, and the right government of our thoughts,
words, feelings, actions, habits, and dispositions.^

The reader may apply the foregoing rules to ascertain the
importance of the death and resurrection of oiir Lord, and
the connection of both with justification and holiness, e, g.

Gal. 2. 20: 5. 1 : 5. 13: 5. 24: 5. 11: 6. 12, 14. i Cor. 1. 13, 17,
18. 23: 2, 2, 8: 5. 7: 8. 11: II. 26: 15. 3. Rom. 3. 24, 25: 4.
24* 25: 5. 8, 19: 6. 5-8, 10: 8. 3. 32: 14. 15. £ph. I. 7: 2. 16:

Online LibraryJoseph AngusThe Bible hand-book: an introduction to the study of sacred scripture → online text (page 31 of 68)