Joseph Baldwin.

Elementary psychology and education; a text-book for high schools, normal schools, normal institutes, and reading circles, and a manual for teachers online

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Online LibraryJoseph BaldwinElementary psychology and education; a text-book for high schools, normal schools, normal institutes, and reading circles, and a manual for teachers → online text (page 11 of 20)
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ties. In imagination, the soul knows itself constructing new forms ;
in phantasy, the soul seems to itself a spectator.

5. Ideals are remembered; phantasms appear for a moment,
then disappear forever. We treasure our ideals as we do our ideas,
but our dreams and reveries fade into utter forgetfulness.

Growth, of Imagmation. — The feeble beginnings of
imaginative activity may be noticed at an early period.
Phantasy reigns in these early years. The effort of
the three-year-old to make new stories indicates slight
imagination but much phantasy. Fairy-tales delight
young children because they are to them reahties. As
our experiences multiply, and thought and will begin
to grow active, nursery-stories cease to satisfy. Now
boys and girls begin to enjoy the products of imagina-
tion, and show a disposition to do things for themselves.
Imagination becomes decidedly active during youth,
but rarely reaches its highest activity before the twen-
tieth year.

Education of Imagination.* — Culture of imagination
immeasurably increases human achievement and human

* See "Applied Psychology" for full discussion.


happiness. " Imagination is capable of steady growth,
and requires constant cultivation. The creative imagi-
nation, when most gifted, can at first rise only to a cer-
tain height above the materials which its experience
gives. Its succeeding essays are founded upon those
which have been made before, and it proceeds by suc-
cessive steps, more or less long and high, till it attains
the most consummate achievements that are ever reached
by man. That there is a striking diversity of original
endowment can not be doubted, but that this is the
common law of the development of this power can not
be denied." * Education makes the difference between
a feeble and a vigorous imagination.

" Human nature, with its joys and sorrows, its achievements and
disappointments, is better fitted to stir up our higher faculties than
the grandest objects fashioned out of matter. History and biography
reveal incidents which incite the imagination, and youth should be
made acquainted with them. They bring under our notice charac-
ters which transcend in grandeur the greatest of the works of na-
ture — its mountains and its vales, its streams, its cataracts, and its
precipices. Those who would train the mind to its highest capacity
must furnish to the young the record of deeds of heroism, of be-
nevolence, of self-sacrifice, of courage to resist the evil and main-
tain the good. Friendship, fidelity, patriotism, and piety must be
presented in their most attractive forms." f

Comparative Psychology. — The brute creates no ideals and is
incapable of appreciating creations of imagination. It gains no
ideas, much less does it embody ideas in images. Brute representa-
tion includes memory and phantasy, but not imagination. Even
the phantasms of brutes are the lowest form of sensuous combi-
nations. So far as I can see, the brute is not endowed with even
rudimentary imagination.

* Porter. * McCosh.



Eeview. — Give the office of memory ; of phantasy. What has
attention to do with memory? Give the five laws of sugges-
tion. Etc.

Does the soul, as imagination, create new ideas? What does
it create? Do you like the word construct better than the word
create? Why?

Analyze an act of imagination. What do you discover? Where
does self get his materials ? What does he do with them ?

Show the limits of imagination as to matter ; as to mind. Give
the office of imagination. Specify. Give the characteristics of

Repeat the author's definition of imagination ; your definition ;
Garvey's definition ; Dewey's definition.

Show, by examples, the work of memory; of phantasy; of
imagination. What are creations of imagination called? Why?
What is an ideal ? Illustrate. Give the three elements of an ideal.

What is the relation of imagination to memory ? to thought ?
to emotion ? to will ? Illustrate.

What do you mean by the emotional imagination ? aesthetical
imagination ? philosophical imagination ? ethical imagination ?

In what respect do imagination and phantasy resemble each
other? How do they differ ? Prove that they are separate faculties.

Tell what you know about the growth of imagination. When
does this power become fully active ? Give examples.

What is the law of the development of imagination? Why
is the education of imagination so important ? Show that the study
of human nature stimulates imagination even more than the study
of nature and art.

Are brutes endowed with imagination ? How do you account
for new combinations made by brutes ?

Letter. — You will now write an interesting letter to your friend.
Use your imagination. Let all your illustrations be original. Ad-
vise the earnest culture of imagination by the study of nature, art,
and literature. Urge the vigorous use of this power.



Topical Ai^^altsis of Chapter XII. — Imaginatioi!?".

I. Acts of Imagination Analyzed.

Ideal tree. Ideal cottage. Ideal school-room.

II. Office of Imagination.

Modifies acquisitions. Projects the future.

Creates new wholes. Creates ideals.

III. Characteristics of Imagination.

Constructive power.
Picturing power.

lY. Limits of Imagination.

As to matter.
As to mind.

V. Definitions.

Various definitions.

Bascom's. Garvey's.

Sully's. Hopkins's.

VI. Ideals.

Creations of imagination.

Ideas. Objects.

Intentional creations.

VII. Imagination and

Memory. Thought.

VIII. Kinds of Imagination.

Emotional. Ethical.

Ideal-making power.

As to necessary realities.
As to concrete things.


Harmonious blending.




IX. Imagination and Phantasy.


X. Growth and Education of Imagination*

Growth. Culture. Means.

XI. Comparative Psychology.




Representative knowing is making present again
past experiences. Presentation is the capability of the
mind to make things present to itself for the first time.
Bepresentation includes the capabilities of self to repre-
sent his past experiences in old and new forms. Self
r<?presents his experiences unchanged or in modified
forms. Eepresentation is a general name including a
group of related but distinct activities. This group of
soul-energies is known by the following

iThe Representative Powers.
The Reproductive and Constructive Imagination.
The Conceptive Powers.
Representation. — Memory. Phantasy. Imagination.

Because images are most prominent in representa-
tion, some writers consider these powers as merely forms
of imagination. This view tends to confusion, as nearly
all writers treat memory and imagination as distinct
powers. " Eepresentative powers" best expresses the
meaning, and is now one of the best-established ex-
pressions in mental science.

1. The rej)resentative powers are our capalilities
to make present again, in old or new forms, our past
experiences. Representation is memory when we rec-
ognize the representations as past experiences. Rep-
resentation is phantasy when the new forms of our
past experiences are phantasms. Representation is


imagination when the new forms of our past experi-
ences are ideals.

( Memory.
The Representative Powers. — < Phantasy.

( Imagination.

2. Memory is the 2^ower of self to represent in old
foTins^ called memories^ his jpast experiences. Memory
is the capability to recall past experiences unchanged.
As images are the most prominent features of our recol-
lections, memory is sometimes called reproductive imagi-
nation. Memory is every way preferable. It neither
misleads nor confuses. It is specific, and is in universal
use. Treating memory as a group of faculties can serve
no good purpose. Self, as memory, does all recalling.
Take away memory, and our past would be a blank.
The soul, as memory, reproduces its past experiences.
Retention, recollection, association, and recognition are
merely elements of complete acts of memory.


I Reproduction. — \

j Heproductive Imagination.

names. -;^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Retention. Association.

Recollection. Recoo:nition.

3. Phantasy is the power of self to represent spon-
taneously his past experiences in new forms called
phantasms. Self, as memory, recalls his experiences ;
self, as phantasy, spontaneously weaves these experiences
into new forms called phantasms. Phantasy is the capa-
bility to manufacture these new forms. In this form of
representation the soul, at the time, is not conscious of
making these pictures out of its revived experiences;
it is only conscious of the phantasms. Phantasy is
undirected or drifting activity; hence it is called the


drifting imagination. Fantasy, fancy, and phantasy
are merely dilferent forms of the same word. Fancy
is used in many senses, and is extremely indefinite.
Drifting imagination is specific, 'but tends to confuse.
As phantasy is never used but to designate this facul-
ty, it is given the preference. Because images are so
conspicuous in recollections, some use phantasy and
recollection as synonyms. But the soul, as phantasy,
does no recollecting ; it merely vreaves its recollec-
tions, without intention or effort, into new forms. Rep-
resentation, as phantasy, conjoins revived experiences,
forming phantasms.

r Phantasy.
Names. — < Fantasy, or Fancy.

(. Drifting Imagination.

4. Imagination is the jpower of self to represent in-
tentionally his past experiences in new forms, called
ideals. Self, as memory, reproduces his experiences;
self, as imagination, manufactures out of these experi-
ences ideals. Memory, in this form of representation, is
subordinate, merely furnishing materials; imagination
is the master builder. Imagination is the capability to
evolve the ideal from the actual. All agree in calling
the power of the soul purposely to create, or construct,
or form ideals, imagination. To distinguish imagina-
tion proper from reproductive imagination or memory,
and from drifting imagination or phantasy, it is some-
times called the creative or constructive imagination.
Imagination, unmodified, best designates this power.

f Imagination.
Names. — I Constructive Imagination.
(. Creative Imagination.


5. Rej^resentative Jcnowledge is re - Jcnowledge.
Knowledge gained directly is intuitive knowledge, or
original knowledge, or presentative knowledge, or per-
ceptive knowledge ; but when we re-know, our cogni-
tions are called re-knowledge, or representative knowl-
edge, or revived knowledge.

r Memories.
Forms of Representative Knowledge. — < Phantasms.

( Ideals.

6. Memories are reproduced experiences. The origi-
nal experiences or old forms are recalled just as they
were experienced. Products of memory are repro-
duced acquisitions. "When we recall our experiences
unchanged, we call them memories, recollections, or
remembrances. Remembered percepts are simply re-
percepts. Remembered concepts are merely re-con-
cepts. Remembered judgments are re-judgments.

Misleading, — To call memory-products concepts or conceptions
is misleading. This relic of the old psychology tends to confuse
the learner. A concept is a general notion, and conception is the
power to discern general notions. These terms are thus used in
logic and literature as well as in modern psychology.

C Memories. Re-percepts.

Recollections. Re-concepts.

Conceptions (obsolete and mislead-

Memory-Products are called i

7. PJiantasras are crude mental jpictures which
seem to he realities. Webster says : " A phantasm is
an image formed by the mind and supposed to be
real." The soul, out of its revived experiences, spon-
taneously forms a panorama for its own amusement.
These moving scenes appear to be objective realities.


and self seems to be a spectator. The products of
phantasy take various

Phantasies and Fancies.
Dreams and Reveries.
Air-castles, etc.

8. Ideals are ideas and objects Mended. Out of its
revived experiences the soul, as imagination, constructs
nev7 forms, called ideals. Ideals are created out of
reals, and may become realities. Out of his experiences
the inventor creates an ideal steam-engine. When he
builds the engine, the ideal becomes a reality. The
products of imagination take various




Creations of Imagination.



Place on your left the diagrams of the three perceptive powers,
and on your right the diagrams of the three representative powers.
With these before you study Chapter XII. Compare the faculties
named, topic by topic.

Keep constantly in mind the important fact that in its action,
as in its nature, the mind is a unit, and that a faculty is merely a
distinct capability of the soul.

State the office of each of the presentative and representative
powers. Give the characteristics of each. Define each. Name the
products of each of these powers.

Could there be representation without perception ? Could there
be phantasy without memory ? Does imagination imply memory ?

Beferences. — For a more elaborate treatment of representation,
the student is referred to •' Human Intellect," Porter ; " Simple Cog-
nitive Powers," McCosh ; " Outlines of Psychology," Sully.


CHAPTER XIV.— Conception.
XV. — Judgment.
XVI.— Reason.
XVII. — Thought-Knowing— General View.























































Names. <


These are our capabilities to discern relations. Self,
as perception, gains the elements of knowledge ; and
self, as thought, elaborates these elements into higher
forms. That we may discover relations, we compare /
and that we may digest elementary notions, we 7'ejlect,
This group of faculties is known by the following

^ The Thought-Powers.
The Comparative Powers.
The Elaborative Faculties.
The Logical Powers.
The Reflective Faculties.
The Understanding (indefinite).

Each name is expressive and specific. Omitting the
last, these names may be used interchangeably.

The universe is a unit. Each individual, each group
of individuals, and each system of groups, is a related
part of one stupendous whole. Thinking is discerning

Firsts we discover relations of similarity, and think
individuals into classes. Our capability to discern class-
relations and thus gain general notions is termed our
classifying power, or concejotion.


Second, we discover trutli-relations, and think no-
tions into sentences. Our capabiKty to discern and
predicate truth-relations is termed judgment.

Third, we discover that each thing is in some causal
way related to every other thing. Causes and effects,
means and ends, conditions and dependencies, ante-
cedents and consequents, ratios and proportions, ele-
ments and compounds, in myriad forms unite all things
into infinite series of cause-relations. We discern cause-
relations and think conclusions. Our power to discern
cause-relations and think judgments into arguments is

called reason.

{ Conception.
The Thinking Faculties. — < Judgment.

(. Reason.

You observe this figure, and this, and this. You
discern that they are alike in being rectangular and
having four equal sides. You discern the group-notion,
square figures. Your power to do this is called concep-
tion. You know the meaning of the notions vertebrate
and horse. You discern the agreement of these notions,
and say the horse is a vertebrate. Your power to dis-
cern the agreement of notions is called judgment. As
all animals are endowed with instinct, and as the dog is
an animal, you discern the conclusion that dogs are en-
dowed with instinct. Your power to infer conclusions
is termed reason.

Self, as conception, elaborates percepts into con-
cepts ; self, as judgment, elaborates concepts into judg-
ments; and self, as reason, elaborates judgments into




By this is ineant the power to thinh individuals
into classes. Our percepts are notions of individual
things. Between individuals we discern relations. I
perceive this block, and this, and this, and this. They
differ as to size and proportion, but I see that they are
related as to the number of sides. I think these three-
sided figures into one class. As the notion three-sided-
ness is common to all three-sided figures, it is called a
general notion or a concept.

We discern general notions through individual no-
tions, as

]^-o-u-n is a general notion.


John and Ohio and (a) boy and (a) book are individual no-
tions. Percepts are our scaffolding to enable ns to think
up to concepts. We discern the name-relation between
John, Ohio, etc., and think all name-words into one
class. JSToun is a concept. Verb is a concept. All
class-notions are concepts.

Acts of Conception Analyzed. — You observe these
blocks of various forms and sizes. You decide to con-
sider them with reference to the number of sides. You
abstract the property, number of sides. You leave out
of view everything else. You now compare the several


figures. You discern common properties. This, and
this, and this, have three sides ; this, and this, and this,
four sides. You generahze — discern a general proper-
ty. You now classify the figures with reference to the
common property. You collect them into groups. This
group of three-sided figures you call triangles. You
discern the group-notion or tlie concept, triangle. This
group of four- sided figures you call quadrilaterals. You
discern the group-notion or the concept, quadrilateral.
So with the concepts pentagon, hexagon, etc. Draw
the scaffolding, and analyze the act of forming the
concept jpencil * also, the concept tree / also, the con-
cept lake * also, the concept quadruped.

Elements of Conception. — From the analysis you dis-
cover the steps or processes by which the mind reaches
concepts. Analytic observation, abstraction, generali-
zation, and classification are processes of thinking things
into classes. Self, as conception, advances by these
steps in gaining group notions.

1. Analytic ohservation. You perce^lve things having properties.
Here you have a collection of leaves. This leaf is oval, its veins are
parallel, its edges are dentate. You observe this leaf, and this, and
this, and note peculiarities. Observing things as having properties
and parts is called analytic observation. The first step in elabora-
tion is necessarily analytic. We must discriminate before we can

2. Ahstradion. You decide to consider leaves with reference to
shape. You abstract shape and disregard the veins, edges, etc. Draw-
ing out one quality and considering things with reference to this,
regardless of other qualities, is called abstraction. Above, we con-
sidered figures with reference to number of sides. You may give
other examples of abstraction. You discover how you get your no-
tions of attributes. These notions you call abstract ideas, as red-
ness, hardness, dullness, roundness, goodness, etc.

3. Comparison. Putting leaves side by side, you compare them,


and thus discern relations of likeness. As you have abstracted
shape, you compare the leaves as to shape, and find points of agree-
ment as well as of disagreement. Discerning resemblances is called

4. Generalization. You discover a common something; you
generalize ; you find a general property. This leaf, and this, and
this, are ovate. Ovateness is general to these leaves. This leaf, and
this, and this, are lanceolate. Lanceolateness is general to these
leaves. Finding a property common to several objects is called gen-
eralization. Above we generalized and found the common proper-
ties of the figures to be three-sidedness, four-sidedness, etc.

5. Classification. You now arrange the leaves in groups with
reference to the general property, shape, and name the groups.
This group you call ovate ; this, lanceolate ; this, cordate. You
gain the class notions — ovate, lanceolate, cordate — and designate
them by these names. The act of conception is complete. Group-
ing objects into classes with reference to general properties is called
classification. The second step in elaboration is synthetic ; we first
discriminate, and then assimilate. You may classify books with
reference to color of binding, and point out and define the five
elements of conception. You may classify these roses with refer-
ence to color, and point out the steps.

Office of Conception. — Self, as conception, discerns
relations of similarity between tilings, and thus thinks
many individuals as one class. You perceive this tree,
and this, and this. You compare them, and find that
they have the common property — apple-bearing. You
think them into one class — apple-tree. The mind, as
thought, can not well deal with the trees of the for-
est or the inhabitants of the sea as individuals; but,
endowed with conception, we are able to think myriads
of individuals into a few classes. As sensations are the
materials out of which sense-percepts are made, so per-
cepts are the elements out of which concepts are made.
Discerning concepts^ through jpercepts^ is the office of


Characteristics of Conception. — We perceive particu-
lar notions, but think general notions :

1. As conception, self discerns many as one. The
millions of acorn-bearing trees are oaks. The billions
of back-boned animals are vertebrates.

2. As conception, self elaborates percepts into con-
cepts. From the percepts, this bird, and this, and this,
I elaborate the concept hird. I discriminate various
kinds of fruit, and assimilate such as have common
properties into classes, and call these group-notions
peach, apple, pear.

3. As conception, self gives names to general no-
tions. Thus, the general notion, four-footedness is em-
bodied in the word quadruped. Things are realities,
and the relations between things are realities. Things
and relations exist independent of the mind. We dis-
cern the relations of resemblance, and think things into
groups. We call these group-notions concepts. We
give to our general notions names ; as noun, verb, ad-

4. As conception, self discerns, but does not picture,
group-notions. We think three-sidedness, but we can
not picture a triangle at once isosceles, equilateral, and
right-angled. We can picture only the concrete indi-
vidual thing. We can picture this cow, but we can not
picture mammal.

Conception defined. — Conception is the power to dis-
cern group-notions.

1. Conception is the soul-energy to think many into
one. We think many individuals into one class. We
discern class-relations, and elaborate percepts into con-


2. Original. Express clearly in your own words
your view of conception. Illustrate.

3. Various Definitions. — 1. Schuyler: Conception is the capa-
bility to form general notions. 3. Porter : Conception is the power
to form concepts. 3. Sully : Conception is the power to form gen-
eral notions. 4. McCosh : The power to discover relations of re-
semblance. 5. Day: Conception is the power of the intelligence
itself to conceive general notions.


General Notions or General Ideas.

Products of Conception. — ^

j Group-Motions or Group-Ideas.

\ Class-Notions.

Concept^ that which is grasped or held together, ad-

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Online LibraryJoseph BaldwinElementary psychology and education; a text-book for high schools, normal schools, normal institutes, and reading circles, and a manual for teachers → online text (page 11 of 20)