Joseph Cheal.

Practical fruit culture; a treatise on planting growing, storage, etc., of hardy fruits for market and private growers online

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by removing the webs with their contents early in the
morning and after sunset, because they feed during
the day, and are then scattered over the tree. Much
injury is prevented if the webs are gathered while the
caterpillars are.jet young. With young or dwarf trees
the best method to adopt is for one to hold a pail half-
filled with some liquid, such as soap-suds or paraffin, be-
neath the web, while a second one removes and drops it
in the pail. This precaution is Decessary, because the
caterpillars drop from the web on the least alarm, and
mount the trees again when the disturbance is over. In
the case of orchards, or tall standard trees, a sheet may be
spread on the ground, and then the webs should be pulled
down by means of a hooked pole. Just as the caterpillars
are found in large communities, so the same may be said
of the eggs, which are laid in dense rings. They may be
scraped off at the winter pruning, or the shoots bearing
them cut off, and burnt in either case. This will prevent
the birth of hundreds of caterpillars.

The Small Ermine; Moth {Hyponomeutapadellus) > ¥ig.4A.
— The bird cherry is the favourite food of the larva; of this
moth, but the apple, plum, and other trees also suffer from



their ravages. The moths vary in size from \ in. to f in.
across the fore wings, which are white, marked with three
lines of black dots, and fringed at the apex. The hind
wings are dull leaden, or slaty-grey. The caterpillars are
grey, spotted with black, and slightly or thinly hairy. »
The eggs are laid upon twigs in patches, late in summer,

F 10 . 44.— The Smali. Ermine Moth (Hypnimmaita PaMlus).
A Catebpillab. B Moth. C Laevje in Web.

and the caterpillars are hatched out in October; but
remain very small, protected by the coverings ni gum
placed over the eggs, till spring. As the leaves unfold in
spring, the tiny caterpillars penetrate their tissues and
feed there till they gain strength, after which they issue
forth in great numbers, devouring the foliage of the trees.


This is about the middle of May, when they commence to
construct webs, in which they live in large numbers when
not feeding, as in the case of the Lackey Moth. They
attain full size in June, and each forms a dense cocoon
»within the common web. See illustration.

Remedies. — The webs containing the caterpillars may
be collected and destroyed in the same way as recom-
mended for the Lackey Moth. During the day, when the
larvaa are out feeding, the trees may be syringed some-
what forcibly with a strong solution of soap-suds. This
will kill some and dislodge others, while the leaves will
be rendered unsuitable as food to them by the soapy
water. By the time the larvae become full fed in June,
the trees will be leafless if the attack has been severe, and
hung with dirty webs containing the cocoons of the insect,
if that stage has been reached. These should be collected
and burned. The perfect moths may be attacked during
the last week of June and in July by spreading sheets
under the trees, and tapping the branches, when large
numbers will fly down and, being very sluggish, may be
caught and killed. Syringing the trees with soap-suds •
will drive away the moths, and prevent them from laying
their eggs there.

The illustrations, No. 26 to 36, were kindly lent by
Messrs. Geo. J. Macmunn and William Harlow ; and 45,
46, 49, 50, 51, 52, and 53 by the editor of the Gardeners'

The Oodlin Moth (Carpocapsa Pomonella), Fig. 45. — The
injury done to the fruit of the apple by the larvaa of this
small moth is sometimes extensive ; and the pear suffers
in the same way, but to a smaller extent. The perfect
insect measures about f inch in expanse. The fore wings
are grey, with membranous, transverse wavy lines, and a



reddish-brown eye-like spot near the hinder angle. The
hind wings are dusty, and fringed. The larva is pinkish,
with a pale brown head, and dotted with black in lines.

Fig. 45. — The Codlin Moth, ob Apple Gkub.

The perfect moths come forth in June and July, and the
female lays a single egg on each young fruit, generally
in the" eye, and when the arrub is hatshed out it pierces


the skin and gnaws its way down the fruit. After it
is nearly full grown, it feeds upon the seed, generally
causing the fruit to fall. It then deserts its feeding
ground, and seeks a place where it may make a cocoon
and pass the winter. This may be in the crevices of the
bark of trees, chinks of a wall, or in the eye of the fruit
itself, but not under the soil. It remains in the grub
state for long after the gathering of the fruit, finally
changing into a pupa, and ultimately attaining the perfect
state in June or July.

Remedies. — All fallen apples should be promptly
collected and burnt, or given to pigs before the grubs have
had time to desert them, and in this way large numbers
will be destroyed. Also many may be caught by tying
hay or twisted straw ropes round the lower part of
the trunk of the tree. Finding suitable accommodation,
they seek no farther, but lay up there. These traps may
be collected a fortnight after the gathering of the fruit
and burnt. Various other contrivances have also been
invented for the destruction of the moth at this, the most
convenient stage for getting at it. What is "known as
the Codlin Grub Trap consists of thin pieces of board
placed over each other, held apart by means of thin laths
to allow of a hiding-place for the grubs, and held to-
gether by a nail, or screw, in the middle. All rough
bark, moss, lichens, and other means of concealment,
should be cleaned away from the stems of the trees, so
that as little encouragement may be given the enemy as

The Grekn Pug (Eupithecia rectapgulata) . — The larvse
of this small moth are very mischievous to the flowers of
the apple and pear in some parts of the country. They
appear in April and May, and tie the petals together,


forming a protection for themselves against their enemies,
while they proceed to devour the organs of the flower
inside. They are termed loopers from their mode of
walking, as they have only ten legs, and are yellowish
green, with a reddish line along the back, and the head
and legs black. When full fed they form an earthen
cocoon in the ground, from whence they emerge in the
perfect state during June and July. The moth measures
something over f inch in expanse, and the forewings are
dark green, with two more or less curved dark grey lines
running across them. The hind wings are less distinct in
their markings. The perfect insect may frequently be
found during the day resting on fences with its wings
spread »ut flat.

Remedies. — From the habit the larvae have of drawing
4he petals together they are difficult to get at or to destroy
on an extensive scale. The most expedient method is to
go over the trees when they are in bloom, and collect all
blooms that exhibit tardiness in opening, or, from their
appearance, give the impression that something is wrong
with them. Drop them into a vessel containing some
insecticide, so that the contained larvae may not escape.
The perfect insects may also be destroyed when detected
at rest during the day.

The Goat Moth (Gossus ligniperda). — The caterpillars
of this moth attain the enormous length of 3 inches or
4 inches, buo take three years to attain their full size.
Daring all this time they feed in the trunks of trees,
forming long galleries, sufficiently wide to admit the
little finger. The caterpillars are chestnut-red above,
flesh-coloured beneath, with a black head, and emit a
fetid smell. The perfect moth measures over 3 inches
across the fore wings, which .are greyish brown, clouded


with dirty white, and having many transverse black lines.
The hind wings are dingy brown, The insects come forth
in June or July, and the females lay their eggs in crevices
of the bark of the same or other trees.

Remedies. — Many of the larvaa may be removed by
means of a cane or piece of wire bent at" the end and
thrust into their large burrows. Soap-suds, forcibly
injected by means of a syringe or garden engine, will
kill the grubs or render their food useless. Tobacco
smoke, and the fumes of burning sulphur are also suc-
cessfully employed for the destruction of the enemy, by
blowing them into the holes. Should the moths be verj
prevalent, the females may be deterred from laying their
eo'gs on the trees by painting the trunks in June and
July with a mixture of clay and cow-dung. The perfect
moth is sluggish during the day, and may readily be
destroyed when detected.

The Wood Leopard Moth (Zeuzera Msenli) — The
popular name refers to the spotted wings of the insect.
The male measures about lfin. and the female 2\ in. or
nearly 3 in. across the wings. The fore ones are white
with greenish-yellow veins, and richly spotted with
bluish-black; the markings of the hind wings are fainter.
The caterpillars are pale yellow, or whitish, with a
few black spots and numerous small dots of the same
hue. They burrow into the stems of various fruit trees,
including the apple, pear, plam, and hazel. The damage
they do is similar to that of the goat moth, than which
they are smaller. The females lay their eggs in crevices
of the bark during July and August, and the larvas are
hatched out in a few days, feeding at first on the bark,
but afterwards burrowing into the stems, in which they
live for one year, or two according to some naturalists.




REMEDlKS.^These are precisely similar to the methods
of destroying the Goat Moth (which see).

The Apple Blossom Weevil (Anthonomus pomorum),
Fig. 46. — The gruh of this weevil destroys the flowers,
and the perfect insect feeds upon the foliage of the apple.
The latter hibernates under stones, clods, and other hiding
places, and when the flower buds commence to swell, the
weevils come forth, pairing takes place, and the females
commence to deposit their eggs, one in each flower bud,
and continue to do so until the opening flowers put a stop
to the operation. The egg hatches in about a week if the
weather is fine, and
the grubs eat away
the stamens and
young ovary, caus-
ing the buds ulti-
mately to wither and
drop with the full-
grown _ maggot in-
side. The latter is
fleshy white and
without legs, and
undergoes its trans-
formations in the fallen buds, attaining the perfect state in
about a month from the time the egg was laid. The per-
fect weevil then feeds on the foliage for the rest of the
summer. The wing cases are rusty brown, with a white
line crossing them obliquely, and other markings. The
long snout bears the elbowed antennoe.

RiiMEDiKS. — The females seldom fly, although the
males do, so that the former may be trapped while as-
cending by the trunks of the trees to lay their eggs. This
may be done by means of bands of grease such as ar0

This Apple Wjsevio.



employed to catch the females of the Winter Moth. If
this is continued and kept fresh during the egg laying
season (which lasts about two or three weeks), the flowers
will escape injury, and the weevils must be severely
thinned out against next season, both by the catching of
the perfect insect, and the prevention of progeny.
Another method that might be adopted, is to spread a
cloth on the ground beneath infested trees, and tap the
branches rather smartly, when the weevils become alarmed
and fall to the ground, when they may be collected and
destroyed. Collect fallen flower buds and burn them.
Everything in the nature of rubbish in gardens and
orchards that would offer suitable hiding places for the
weevils during winter should be cleared away.


The American Blight {Schiz'neura lanigera),~Fig. 47.—

The ravages committed
by this pest are well
known, and yet it is as-
tonishing to find the igno-
rance that still exists in
come quarters respecting
it. It is often seen exist-
ing to an alarming extent
in orchards and gardens,
the owners of which ap-
pear to be quite ignorant
of its presence, or of the cause of the knobbed, gouty
growth of their apple trees, and it is frequently attributed
to and considered to be one of the effects of canker.

The accompanying illustration (Fig. 48 J shows its first
appearance on the young current year's growth, and th*»
elfect, if unchecked, in two or three years' time.

Fio. 47. — American Blioht.


The insect is closely allied to the aphis, but differs in
the absence of secreting or honey glands on the abdomen,
and by its being more or less covered with a mealy dust,
while the hinder parts and the sides of the body are
furnished with a tuft of white woolly or cottony matter.
During the early part of summer, wingless females bring
forth young like themselves, at a prodigious and alarming
rate, crowding the twigs, branches, and various parts of

Fio. 48. — Amekioak Bliqut.

the trunk of the tree with cottony masses, as seen in the
engraving, that scarcely hide the leaden-coloured and
brown insects beneath. Later on, winged females are
produced, which spread the pest from tree to tree, and into
fresh and previously unaffected orchards. Winged males,
and winged egg-laying females are developed in autumn,
and the latter lay their eggs in crevices of the bark
towards the base of the tree, and on suckers. The perfect



insects are however very hardy, and many of them lodge
in crevices of the bark or on the roots during winter.
The roots may also be infested in summer with a paler
form of the insect which causes the development of pro-
tuberances and gouty swellings, destroying their func-
tions, and so starving the tree.

Rkmedies. — So regulating the number of branches that
air and light may play freely on all parts of the tree,
while, at the same time, exposing the insect to its natural
enemies. When at any time during spring, summer, or
winter, the trees are observed to be infested, an onset in
real earnest should be made upon the insect ; and where-
ever any woolly matter shows itself, the part should be
well scrubbed with a hard half-worn brush just kept
moist with paraffin or kerosine emulsion, being careful
not to touch the leaves or buds with it. Other substi-
tutes that may be employed, are methylated spirits,
fir-tree oil, Gishurst's compound in lather from the cake,
tobacco- water, quassia decoction in water, strong solutions
of soft soap, or other strong insecticides. During winter
the stems and branches may be painted with various
mixtures, rubbing them well into the crevices of the bark.
Some of these materials, such as lime, soot, and soft
soap, may be used separately or mixed. After well scrap-
ing the bark it may be painted with potash and quicklime
in equal proportions. Dissolve them in water, till about
the consistency of paint, warm the mixture, and apply
it to the affected parts while still warm. For another
compound : To five pounds of lime add one of flowers of
sulphur ? in two gallons of water, and heat the mixture
till the sulphur dissolves. Apply the mixture while
still warm. Where the roots are known to be infested
the soil should be removed to the depth of 6 or 8 inches,


and the affected parts well scrubbed with a strong
solution of soft soap, using as much as will saturate the
surrounding soil, and so reach all the insects. Till up the
opening with fresh soil, to which add a dressing of lime.

Thk Apple Aphis (Aphis mali). — The insect under
notice being a true aphis can never be confounded with
the American Blight. The young are at first dirty white,
but they soon attain to a greenish-yellow, and attain full-
size in about fourteen days. Wingless viviparous females
only are produced during the early part of the season,
and these multiply the species at an enormous rate. To-
wards the end of the season, winged males, and egg-lay-
ing females are produced, the latter depositing their
eggs in crevices of the bark, and at the base of the buds,
from whence the aphides arise again next year. The
different broods vary greatly in size and colour. As the
young leaves of apple trees unfold, the aphides pierce
the young tissues with their beaks, and derive sustenance
therefrom. The operation causes the leaves to curl over,
forming shelter and a safe retreat to the aphides. Should
the attack be a severe one, the trees lose in vigour owing
to the crippling of their foliage, and the extraction of
nourishment. The rest of the foliage is also injured by
the viscid secretion ejected by the aphides, causing a black
filth to be deposited upon it.

IUmkdies. — When badly affected, summer pruning
should be resorted to, as by that means large numbers of
the enemy can be destroyed. They increase most rapidly
on the young shoots, which should be removed and burnt
where not absolutely necessary for the extension of the
tree. Syringing the trees with quassia and soft soap or
tobacco- water will destroy the aphides, if forcibly applied
to the under side of the leaves by means of a garden



engine. In bad cases they may also be dusted with
tobacco powder or lime.

Mussel Scale (Mytilaspis pomorum), Fig. 49. — The name
suggests the appearance of this bark louse, as it resembles
the half of a mussel shell, and is dull or deep brown in
colour. The eggs of the creature to the number of 50,
100, or more, are laid beneath the scale, and are hatched
out in May or June. They have eyes, antennae, and six
legs, and are very active for a few days, roaming all over
the tree in qnest of a suitable position to settle. They

Fig. 49. — Apple Mussel-Scale.

insert their proboscis into the tissues of the bark, and
when so settled, never move from thence. Towards the
end of the summer, the female has lost her legs, and
secreted her scaly covering. Having laid her eggs under
the latter she dies. When trees are badly infested with
Mussel Scale they suffer loss of vigour in the same way
as from the American Blight.

Remedies. — The bark of infested trees should be
scraped with a thin but blunt-edged piece of wood
prepared for the purpose. This had best be done iu
winter, when the trees are leafless, commencing by prun-
ing the trees and removing useless wood, to save the



labour of cleaning. Burn all the prunings. After scrap-
ing, wash the trees with a solution of soft soap or
Gishnrst compound, using a syringe, with a hard brush
in places, so as to scrub into the crevices of the bark.
Paraffin may be used with care, rubbing the parts affected
with a half-worn painter's brush, just kept moistened in
the oil. It may also be attacked when the young larvae are
just issuing from under the mother scale, in May or June,

Fig. 50,

-Cladospoeium on Apple.

The trees may then be syringed with strong soap-suds.
Tobacco-water or lime-water may also be applied in the
same way. An effective remedy consists in brushing the
affected trees with a mixture of two pounds of soft soap
to one of flowers of sulphur in fourteen gallons of water.

Black Spot {Gladosporiwm, dendriticum), Fig. 50. — The
typical form of this fungus grows on the apple, but a form
or variety of it attacks the pear, causing the fruits to


crack. On the apple it asserts itself by growing over the
leaves, flowers and young shoots, preventing the develop-
ment of fruit, or causing it to be more or less crippled.
It appears at first in the form of black spots radiating
from a centre, and branching in the form of a small tree ;
and later on it forms more or less regularly rounded black
patches on the fruit. Being purely a skin disease it does
not penetrate the fruit beyond the surface, but two or
more spots may become confluent in one, in cases of severe
attack. Some varieties, including King of the Pippins,
Lord Suffield, and Blenheim Orange, seem to be more
liable to be disfigured in this way than others, but this may
be dependent upon circumstances. The fungus continues
to spread after the crop has been stored in the fruit room,
and greatly depreciates the market value of such produce.
Remedies. — Good cultivation, so as to insure vigorous
growth and the proper ripening of the wood, will do
much to ward off attack, as in the case of several other
forms of fungoid diseases. Trees that are very badly
affected should be grubbed up and burnt, and fruit that
is rendered useless should be destroyed in the same way,
to prevent, as far as possible, the spreading of the
disease by means of its spores. Some cultivators have
found that lifting badly affected trees and planting them
in sound loam has restored them to health and vigour.


Canker and its causes do not yet seem to be fully
understood, but much has been done to investigate the
subject, and means of prevention and cure have been
ascertained, which prove beneficial in most cases, but
which cannot be fully relied upon as being absolutely
effective in all.



Some of the attributed causes are : —
1. Sudden checks to the vegetation of the tree, especi-
ally in spring and the early part of summer.



Fi , 51, Canker in, Showino the Peesence of a Fungus,

Necibia Ditissima.

2. Derangements of the flow of sap-from vicissitudes
of heat and cold, as well as of moisture and dryness.

3. Unskilful and severe pruning.

4. Vitiation of the sap by deleterious substances in the
soil or subsoil.


According to Goethe, a German authority, and strongly
supported by Mr. Fraser, of Kew, the malady itself is
caused by a fungus, Nectria Ditissima (Fig. 51). Goethe
has succeeded in cultivating the parasite on the apple,
pear, and some forest trees. The fungus lives beneath the
bark, destroying it, and causing the decorticated rings,
patches, and shrivelled appearance of the shoots and
branches so well known to cultivators, as shown in the
accompanying illustration.

Although this fungus may be present in all canker
wounds, yet it is probably only an accompanying effect,
and not the cause of the disease.

Mr. Douglas, of Ilford, is however probably nearer the
mark when he attributes the cause to " want of prepara-
tion of the soil, and subsequent neglect of the special
requirement of each class of trees."

We find Mr. Tonks, of Birmingham, practically suppor-
ting the same theory, and he gave in a paper read at the
Apple and Pear Conference at Chiswick, in 188t>, the
result of his investigations and experiments in this di-
rection. He says in his paper : —

" Yet these, and most of the other writers on the snb-
iect, according to my idea, indirectly indicate both the
cause and the remedy for the disease ; the cause being
mal-nutrition, the consequence of an imperfect provision
in the soil of the food required by the plant ; the remedy,
the supply of the food which is deficient."

He tried the experiment upon badly cankered trees of
supplying them with the deficiencies of plant food in the
soil. This was followed by the complete arrest of the
disease ; and he says : —

" I can only conclude that the arrest of the disease is
due to the supply of elements of food required by the trees,


of which a sufficient quantity was not previously contained
in the soil."

It remains to say that the manures necessary to restore
a tree to health vary as the soils, although the ashes of
the wood of the apple tree contain seventy-one per cent,
of lime — an exceptionally large quantity— it would not
be necessary to snpply this element on a lime formation
nor would soda be required in a soil near the sea, although
on other geological formations or situations a deficiency
of one or both may be the cause of canker.

Ville lays down the rule that soils generally contain
sufficient of all the mineral elements except potash, lime,
and phosphorus, and the gaseous element nitrogen, and
says it is only necessary to supply to the soil manures
which contain these four. This may be sufficient for the
general purposes of cultivation, but more recent experi-
ments have conclusively proved that the addition of a
small quantity of iron largely increases the development
of foliage, and consequently of the plant. In dealing

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Online LibraryJoseph ChealPractical fruit culture; a treatise on planting growing, storage, etc., of hardy fruits for market and private growers → online text (page 11 of 12)