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Crooll, Joseph.

The restoration of Israel













THE

RESTORATTON OF ISRAEL,, " X

BY

R. JOSEPH CROOLL,

TEACHER OF THE HEBREW LANGUAGE IN THE UNIVERSITY
OF CAMBRIDGE, &c.

AND

AN ANSWER,

BY

THOMAS SCOTT,

RECTOR OF ASTON SABTDFORD, BUCKS.



LONDON :
Printed by B. R. GOAKMAN :

AT THE LONDON SOCIETY'S OFFICE, CHTIRCH STREET, SPITALFIELDS ;

Sold by

L, B, SEELEY, FLEET STREET, J. HATCHARD, PICCADILLY,

AND GALE, CURTIS, & FENNER,

PATERNOSTER ROW.

1814.



PREFACE.



A considerable time ago, a copy of the book,
which I here attempt to refute, was sent to me,
by the Committee of the London Society for
promoting Christianity amongst the Jews, with a
request that I would answer it. The same was
done, as I understood, to a few other persons.
Having looked into it, in rather a slight manner,
and being fully engaged at the time, I was not
at all inclined to undertake the service ; think-
ing, that some other person, more at leisure,
would do it in a more adequate and acceptable
manner.

But being something less engaged, in the be-
ginning of the present year, I again took up the
copy, and read it more attentively; purposing,
if not too late, to make some short remarks on
particular passages, and communicate them to
any one who, I should learn, was preparing an
answer.

In attempting this, however, the whole con-
cern appeared to me in a new light ; and I



IV PREFACE.

perceived that by this work, an opening was
given to the zealous friends of Christianity, and
cordial friends of the Jews ; of bringing the
whole sqbject, in controversy between Christians
and Jews, before the publick and the nation of
Israel.

I am indeed free to acknowledge, that before
I carefully studied Mr. Crooll's statements, I had
not well understood the subject : nor had I been
aware of half of the objections, current opinions,
and traditions, which stand in the way of a Jew,
to prevent his embracing Christianity. The ar-
guments adduced, indeed, did not appear either
conclusive, or very difficult to be answered: but
questions were started on almost every part of
the subject, of which I had not previously thought ;
and, in some instances, I found that a consider-
able degree of plausibility was given to objections.

It is true, I understood, that the work was not
to be published by the London Society, without
an answer : but it occurred to me, that if it were
not answered, the author might have to say, that
he had, in some sense, challenged the Committee
and friends of that Society to answer his work,
but they were not able ; and therefore, that he



PREFACE.



at length published it himself, as unanswerable:
or, at least, that the substance of it would in
one form or other be circulated. On enquiry, I
could not learn that any one was engaged in
preparing an answer: and thus I was led on,
step by step, at length to undertake the service;
and, after many changes in my plans and ar-
rangements, which have occasioned much delay,
the result is presented to the publick in its present
form.

I cannot but fear, however, that some Christian
friends may question the propriety of publishing
such a work, for the sake of answering it : and
I am fully aware, that stating plausible objec-
tions, without a very satisfactory refutation of
them, is, in all ordinary cases, a dangerous mea-
sure. But this appears to me, not to be an or-
dinary case; but one which cogently requires
something to be attempted : and I regard it, as
a most important opening, to a fair and full
investigation of the whole argument, which ought
not to be neglected.

In fact, Jews have hitherto kept themselves
within certain strong holds, and inaccessible re-*
cesses ; making occasional incursions against Chris-



VI PREFACE.

tianity ; rather than attempted to lead forth their
troops into the open field of fair argument : and
Christians seem to have been so afraid of offend-
ing them, by clearly exhibiting the mysteries of
our holy religion ; that they have, as it were,
kept the grand things to be contested, in the
back ground. But I rejoice, that there is at
length a prospect, of the whole subject becom-
ing more generally examined and understood.

' It has been the opinion of several learned men,
that nothing should be brought forward, in this
controversy, except the insulated question, Whe-
ther Jesus be, or be not, the promised Messiah ;
and that the peculiar doctrines of Christianity,
should be kept out of sight. I ownj I once was
favourable to this idea, but it is manifest from
Mr. C.'s work, that these peculiar doctrines, or
at least those views of Christianity which are
maintained in the Creeds and Articles of our
church, form so prominent a part of their ob-
jections to the New Testament; that they are
nearly inaccessible to all other arguments: and
must remain so, as far as I can perceive, till it
is clearly shewn that these doctrines are con-
tained in the Old Testament ; or, are not at
all inconsistent with its leading principles. This,



PREFACE. Vll

therefore, I have attempted : with what success
others must decide. Many things* in the man-
agement of the argument, will appear to the
Christian reader, different from what he was
prepared to expect, or approve : as indeed, they
are far different from what at first impressed
my own mind. But to reason with Jews, on the
sole authoritative ground of the Old Testament ;
concerning Christianity, and its most important
doctrines, which we are accustomed to prove
almost exclusively from the New Testament ; is
an undertaking attended with far more difficulties
than it may appear to be, to those who never
made the trial.

In respect of such Jews, as may be induced
to read this work, I can only intreat their can-
dour and attention. I am conscious, before God,
of most cordial good-will to the nation, and to
every individual of it : but, as I am also deeply
convinced of the truth and excellency of Chris-
tianity ; I do earnestly long and daily pray for
their conversion to their own Messiah, and our
most gracious Lord and Saviour. I have not in-
deed, in what I have written, declined to use
all my ability, be it what it may : " I know not
" to give flattering words;" and in a few in-



Viii PREFACE.

stances I have hinted a gentle reprehension. I
trust, however, that even Jews will allow me
to be a fair, a candid, and a benevolent oppo-
nent; and that they will not say, that I have
treated them disrespectfully, or with bitterness
and severity.



THOMAS SCOTT*



Aston Sandford)

October 4, 1814*



THE

RESTORATION

OF

ISRAEL.

BY R. JOSEPH CROOLL,

Teacher of the Hebrew Language in the University of Cambridge



According to the days of thy coming out of the land of Egypt will I shew
unto him marvellous things. %( c ' ah y[i , 5>

The breaker is come up before them : they h:tve broken up, and have passed
through the gate and are gone out by it; and their kin- shall pass
before them, and the Lord on the head of them. Micah ii. 13.

And their seed shall be known among the Gentiles, and their offspring among;
the nations : all that see them shall acknowledge them, that they are
the seed which the Lord hath blessed. Isaiah lxi. 9.

Prove all things; hold fast that which is good. 1 Thess. v. 21.



DECLARATION

IF ever this book should fall into the hand of a Christian
the author would beg of him to consider the following ob-
servations.

First, — It was written without any design to publish
it, and only to satisfy the Author's own opinion, as will
be seen in the sequel. Secondly, — It may be said that
the author is an enemy to Christians : to banish this idea,
the following proof is offered.

It is well known that at the time when the law was
given to Israel, all the seventy nations were worshippers
of idols. By this way of worship there was no life for the
Gentiles to exist in God's world. But the Lord is good
to all, and his tender mercies are over all his works ; he
commanded to his people Israel to make intercession for
all the Gentile world, and also to offer sacrifices for them ;
and this was done during all the time that Israel dwelt in
their own land. And every year on the feast of Taber-
nacles, 70 young bullocks were offered for the seventy
nations of this world, Numb. xxix. 13 : the first day 13,
the second 12, the third U, the fourth 10, the fifth 9,
the sixth 8, and the seventh day 7.

In the time of Jeremiah the prophet, Nebuchadnezzar
came to Jerusalem and took Jeconiah, at that time king,
together with the queen, and a great number of the
nation, captives, and brought them into Babylon. At the
same time, Hananiah, a false prophet, spoke in the name
of God ; saying, Within the space of two full years, all
those that are in captivity in Babylon shall return. Jer,
xxviii. 1 L The prophet was commanded by God to write
an epistle to the captives in Babylon. " And seek the
peace of the city whither I have caused you to be carried
away captives, and pray unto the Lord for it: for in the
peace thereof shall ye have peace. Jer. xxix. r



/



It is well known that Israel never had any greater
enemy than Nebuchadnezzar and his people, yet were
our forefathers commanded by God to prav for them.
But how much more is it our duty to pray for the nations
at the present time, in particular for this country, for
here we are used well, and treated better than in any
other country ; here we enjoy ease and security. As
for myself in particular, during the time I have resided in
this country, I have received a great deal of kindness
from both sexes. But the real cause of writing this book
was from reading a small tract published by the Commit-
tee of the The London Society for promoting Chris-
tianity amongst the Jews ; and here I shall quote
their own words : (( If any doubts should yet remain in
the mind of any person sincerely enquiring after truth,
upon the heads discussed in this address; or if any new
difficulties should present themselves ; it would give plea-
sure to any member of this Committee, to confer person-
ally with such enquirer on the subject." — No. II. p. 12.

In the beginning of this paragraph, it is said that they
have answered almost every thing, and that a Jew has no
more to say for himself. Considering these things, I
thought I would search, and try to find, if their statement
was sufficient for the conviction of a Jew And after I
set to work, I found fresh difficulties, by which it appears
to me that they have yet answered nothing ; and further, I
think that those things which I have advanced in this
book, it is impossible for the Committee to answer. All
learned Christians will allow a Jew to suggest every diffi-
culty which he thinks it impossible for a Christian to
answer; but there are some ignorant Christians, who, as
soon as a Jew advances any thing in his own behalf, will
immediately say, he blasphemes. I hope that whoever
reads this book will be a learned Christian, and will
remember that a learned Committee have sent forth their
publications to the Jews, on purpose to see if any Jew
has any thing further to say. What difficulties 1 have
found, I have declared in the following pages, and if the
Committee are able to answer them, it may be good for
both parties.



THE



RESTORATION OF ISRAEL.



& »



Messiah. — This name is applicable — 1. To a king
— 2. To a prophet ; — 3. To a high priest. And Jehu the
son of Nimshi shalt thou anoint to be king over Israel ;
and Elisha the son of Shaphat, of Abel-mehO-lah, shalt
thou anoint to be prophet in thy room. 1 Kings xix. 16.
Thou shalt also take the anointing oW, and pour it upon his
head,, and anoint him. Exod. xxix. 7. Also every one that
is made a king- is called a Messiah. Thus saith the Lord
to his anointed, to Cyrus., &c. Isaiah xlv. 1. This title is al-
ways given either to a king, to a ruler, or to a judge. Be-
hold thy king cometh unto thee. Zech. ix. 9. Yet out of
thee shall he come forth unto me, that is to be ruler in
Israel. Mic v- 2. But with righteousness shall he judge
the poor, Isaiah xi. 4.

He is to be only a man. — So shall they be my peo-
ple, and 1 will be their God, and David my servant shall
be king over them. Ezek. xxxvii. 24. But they shall serve
the Lord their God, and David their king, whom I will
raise up unto them. Jer, xxx. 9. Afterwards shall the
children of Israel return, and seek the Lord their God, and
David their king. Hos. iii. 5.

He must have both father and mother. — It is ac-
knowledged by all that the Messiah was to be the Son of
David : for this reason Jesus could not be the Messiah ;



6 THE RESTORATION OF ISRAEL.

and if it should be said that his mother was a daughter of
David, that will not relieve the objection ; for if the
daughter of David brings forth a son, he can by no means
be called the son of David : for a son by a daughter has
lost the very name of a son of David, although the son of
his daughter. And they assembled all the congregation
together on the first day of the second month, and they
declared their pedigrees after their families, by the house
of their fathers, but not by the house of their mothers.
Numb. i. 18. Here we may observe, that a daughter
in Israel has no pedigree of herself, for if the daughter of
a priest be married to a man of another tribe, her son will
be no priest ; and if a daughter of any tribe be married
to a priest, and she brings forth a son, he will be a priest ;
thus the pedigree of a man depends on his father only.

A Saviour — is not the name of the Messiah, but the
name of God ; for the Messiah himself shall look up to God
to be saved. He is just and shall be saved, Zech. ix. 9.
Observe the word is #ttH31 venousha ; the proper sense
of the word is, And he shall be saved, but not " to save
himself." And again, For I am the Lord, thy God, thy
Saviour. Isaiah xliii. 3. I, even I, am the Lord ; and be-
side me there is no Saviour ; ver. 11. And all flesh shall
know, that I the Lord am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer,
the mighty one of Jacob. Isaiah xlix. 26. Happy art thou,
O Israel ; a people saved by the Lord, (Deut. xxxiii. 29.)
— but not by the Messiah.

The Son of Man. — Ezekiel the prophet is called by
this name, and was called so by God. Jesus also called
himself the Son of Man- We shall find it very difficult
to settle by what name he ought to be called : for if he is
a God, he is no man ; and if he is a man, he is no God. Je-
sus himself never thought of such a thing ; therefore he
called himself the Son of Man : but had he thought that
he was a God, he would have called himself the Son of a



THE RESTORATION OF ISRAEL. /

woman ; and that would have proved, that no man could
have been his father ; but, if any man will contend that he
was both God and man, it cannot be true : for we have the
following text ; And there is none other, that can shew it
before the king, except the gods, whose dwelling is not
with flesh. Dan- ii. II. The heaven, even the heavens
are the Lord's : but the earth hath he given to the children
of man. Psalm cxv. 16- I think these proofs are sufficient,
to shew that he who partakes of flesh and blood, and eats
and drinks, can be no god.

Forgiveness of Sin — The Messiah can forgive no
sin, but God whose dwelling is not with men, he only can
forgive sin. For there is forgiveness with thee, that thou
mayest be feared, and no other. Psalm cxxx. 4. Ob-
serve the term, that thou mayest he feared, and no other,
and therefore no flesh can forgive sin ; nay, even the Mes-
siah must pray to God : and inasmuch as the Messiah was
to be born of a woman, he would consequently partake of
flesh and blood, and the nature of his person be formed
only like that of another man.

When is the Messiah to come? — According to the

belief of Christians, the Messiah is already come ; but for

this great point I wish to see Scripture proof; and where

is the proof? Will you bring forward the prophet Daniel ?

this is what you rely upon, and you have nothing else

upon which you can rely. I shall quote the passage to

shew that it affords no argument in support of Christianity.

And after threescore and two weeks shall the Messiah be

cut off, but not for himself; and the people of the prince

that shall come, shall destroy the city and the sanctuary :

and the end thereof shall be with a flood ; and to the end of

the war desolations are determined. Dan. ix. 26. From

this verse, and the 25th, it is an easy matter to prove, that

the Messiah was to be cut off after sixty-nine weeks ; that is

in the last week ; or properly in the last seven years, before



8 THE RESTORATION OF ISRAEL.

the temple was destroyed. But we find that Jesus was
cut off more than six weeks, i. e. about thirty-seven years,
before the temple was destroyed ; and therefore he could
not be the Messiah, but it must mean some other person.

Let us consider for a moment, that the captivity of Ba-
bylon was declared by the mouth of the prophet Jeremiah
long before the people went into captivity ; he said, There
you shall be seventy years, and no longer ; and so it came
to pass. But of how much more consequence is the coming
of the Messiah. If the seventy weeks are the only pas-
sage in the whole of the Old Testament, that points out
the coming of the Messiah, ought it not to be as exact as
the prophet has declared it ? but here we find the contrary;
for there is a difference of thirty-seven years: therefore
Jesus could not be the Messiah.

Again ; if the seventy weeks is the only passage to be
found, that points out the coming of the Messiah, why did
not one of the Apostles quote it as a clear proof to con-
vince the people by it ? but we do not find, that either
Paul or any other brought forward this passage; therefore
they could not have thought of such a thing ; for they
knew that it had no reference at all to the Messiah, and on
this account did not quote it.

We also read in this verse, that the Messiah shall be cut
off, but not for himself : this is not true, for no such thing
is to be found in the Hebrew text, for the text has it ve-en-
lo, which signifies, "and not to him," that is to say, that
the Messiah, which means the king, shall be cut off in the
last week. And not to him, i. e. he shall have no suc-
cessor ; by which is pointed out, that there shall be no more,
kingly power in the Jewish nation ; and this Messiah that
was to be cut off was king Agrippa, and so it happened,
that in the last week, he and his son Monves were slain by
the order of Titus.

Perhaps some people will ask, How came he to be called



THE RESTORATION OF ISRAEL, 9

a Messiah ? I have already shewn that a prophet, a hfgft-
priest, and a king-, are called by the name of Messiah ; also
every one that is called a king is called a Messiah. Now
Cyrus, who was an heathen king, is called a Messiali : (see
page 5) how much more Agrippa, who was of the stock of
Abraham, and king over Israel.

Thus far I have shewn here that the whole defence of
the people that say that the Messiah is come already, is no
defence, because it proves nothing, and therefore the com-
ing of the Messiah until this day is unknown, and this
mystery is only known to God, and was never told to any
of the prophets. For the day of vengeance is in mine
heart, and the year of my redeemed is come, Isaiah Ixiii.
4. Learn now from this passage, that the coming of the
Messiah was never revealed to mankind. Again ; And
I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the wa-
ters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his
left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever,
that it shall be for a time, times, and a half; and when he
shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy
people, all these things shall be finished. And I heard,
but I understood not: then said I, O my Lord, what
shall be the end of these things? And he said, Go thy
way, Daniel, for the words are closed up and sealed till the
time of the end. Dan. xii. 7 — 9. Here it may be observed,
that Daniel was longing to know the coming of the Mes-
siah, but could not obtain it.

The Messiah is not yet come. — We must look upon
this world as divided into three periods. The first was
during the residence of Adam and Eve in Paradise, and
before they fell. The second period began, when Adam
was driven out from Paradise, and continued until the com-
ing of the Messiah. The third or last period will com-
mence by the coming of the Messiah.

The first part was perfect. The middle part was iw-



10 THE RESTORATION OF ISRAEL.

perfect. The third part will restore the first perfection,
and so continue for evermore.

In the first, man was perfect, that is, without sin ; then
he Mas an angel ; for angels in heaven sin not, and where
there is no sin, there is no death : by this we may learn
that man was born to live for ever, because a perfect God
created a perfect man ; and as God lives for ever, such was
to be the nature of man, and so it was, because the proper
habitation of man was Paradise, and there he was to live
for ever, he and his seed after him. We also know from
Scripture that Paradise is upon earth, for we read in Ge-
nesis, chap. ii. 10, And a river went out of Eden, to water
the garden ; and from thence it was parted, and became
into four heads: and the names of these rivers are well
known to the world. Now when heaven and earth, and
all the hosts of them were finished, then man and angels
were both alike ; heaven and earth were both alike, for the
one was as holy as the other ; nay, the degree of man was
above the angels, for his wisdom was above theirs ; the
angels could give no names to all living creatures, but
Adam did, and until this day they bear the names which
Adam gave them. Now one of the angels became jea-
lous of the glory of man ; this was Satan, who was at that
time a very great angel in heaven ; he rebelled against his
Lord, descended upon earth, disguised himself in the
figure of a serpent, succeeded according to his wishes, and
occasioned the fall of man : here Adam lost all his former
glory, and became miserable and fearful : he dreaded the
appearance of his Maker, but at length was condemned
to die, and driven out of Paradise. Now at the time when
Adam sinned, all the generations were yet in his loins, and
are therefore born in sin ; and we know that sin is death :
as all men are born in sin, they must all consequently die.

Thus man became a fallen creature, and will continue
so for six thousand years, according to the days of the



THE RESTORATION OF ISRAEL. 11

creation of the world, but no longer. This is the second
period, or properly the middle world, and its proper title,
the wicked and ungodly world.

From all that is here advanced may clearly be seen that
the Messiah is not yet come : for the world must exist in a
corrupt state six thousand years, and the question is, of
what use would his coming be ? But when this number
shall be at an end, or nearly at an end, then will be the
time of his coming ; and then will commence the third pe-
riod, or properly the new world, which will be called the
world of (he Messiah.

The New World — will commence by the first appear-
ance of the Messiah ; the world will be restored to its
former glory, a new heaven and a neiu earth will appear,
the former will pass away, mankind will recover their pri-
mitive glory, and will be above the angels; Satan and his
band will be destroyed. The seventh day of the creation
was the Sabbath, and that day only received a blessing,
and was set apart for ever to be observed as a holy day ;
which was a type of the great Sabbath, i. e. the world of the
Messiah, which also will be called the blessed world.

The Messiah is not yet come. — We are assured by the
prophet Isaiah, lix. 20, 2\, that as long as Israel is dis-
persed abroad, the Messiah is not come ; for by his coming
the sin of Israel will be blotted out : and this prophetical
declaration is confirmed bythe apostle Paul ; And so all Is-
rael shall be saved ; as it is written, There shall come out
of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness
from Jacob : for this is my covenant unto them, when I
shall take away their sins. Romans xi. 26, 27. First,
must be considered the term, For this is my covenant.
What is that covenant ? to send them the deliverer. For
what? to take away their sins . Here it must be acknow-



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