Joseph Dalton Hooker.

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benefit especially to our Indian and Colonial possessions.

At home the summer brought Hooker its share of
trouble. His son William had just pulled through a serious
illness, and he was looking forward to spending a happy week
at Batsford, when he was called to the death-bed of his sister,
Mrs. Lombe, 1 who had long been an invalid. The tie of affec-
tion between them was very close, and maintained by regular
correspondence. * We had been fast friends for well-nigh 80
years/ he exclaims to Lord Kedesdale, and now that the
last of his own generation was gone, he felt deeply the loss
of a lifelong love and friendship.

Other memories of the past, however, were kept warmly
alive. [Sir] Francis Darwin, with the collaboration of Pro-
fessor A. C. Seward, was preparing to bring out a collection
of * More Letters of Charles Darwin.' Hooker responded with
delight.

To F. Darwin

February 1, 1899.

MY DEAR FRANK, I will gladly help you all I can ; so
have no scruples. By all means send me any of my letters
you think I can throw light upon.

You are right to make the book uncompromisingly
scientific. It will be greatly valued. I am getting so old
and oblivious that I fear I may not be of much use.

Ever affectionately yours,

Jos. D. HOOKER.

The exchange of unpublished letters brought some surprises.

1 Her husband, Dr. Evans, had taken the name of Lombe.



THE DAEWIN COEEESPONDENCE 431

To the Same

February 24, 1899.

I had no idea that your father had kept my letters. Your
account of 742 pp. of them is a revelation. I do enjoy re-
reading your father's ; as to my own, I regard it as a punish-
ment for my various sins of blindness, perversity, and in-
attention to his thousand and one facts and hints that I
did not profit by as I should have, all as revealed by my
letters. I do not think I gave my mind as I ought to have
but I had always my head and hands full of all sorts of
duties, and my correspondence with your father was the
sweet, amongst many bitters.

Yes, I will gladly go down at some future time and confab
with you.

To the Same

March 21, 1899.

I enclose copies of your father's letters to mine. The
first refers to his testimonial towards my candidature for
the Botany Chair of Edinburgh University. If you care
foi a copy of this I will send it, though it savours of vanity
to offer it.

Ever affectionately yours,

JOS. D. HOOKEB.

P.S. You are most welcome to the originals of my letters
to your father. If I had them I should be tempted to burn
thorn!

Tor he was, as ever, very critical of his bygone letters, as
he dipped again and again into the four red portfolios of them
no\N at his elbow : * From what I read of them, I thought
they were very poor stuff ' (February 1, 1901). He preferred
his present r61e of throwing light where it was needed on
Darwin's current interests, and again insisted, * Do not hesitate
to ask me for any information I can give you.' Going over
the slip proofs in May 1902 was no burden, but a pleasure :
' To me the letters are most refreshing they bring all Down
home to me.'

The crowning pleasure came as the book neared completion;
and the authors proposed to dedicate it to Darwin's closest
friend.



432 PEBSONALIA : 1898-1906

To F. Darwin

July 18, 1902.

I can imagine nothing that would greet my declining
years with anything approaching the pleasure of having the
letters dedicated to me, and I do heartily thank you and
Mr. Seward for thinking of me. I do feel as if it would add
years to my life.

The first page of the book bears these words :

DEDICATED, WITH AFFECTION AND BESPECT, TO

SJB JOSEPH HOOKEB

IN KEMEMBEANCE OF HIS LIFELONG FKIENDSHIP WITH
CHARLES DARWIN

* You will never know how much I owe to you for your constant kindness
and encouragement.' Charles Darwin to Sir Joseph Hooker, Sept. 14, 1862.

The revival of the Darwin interest was intensified by the
inauguration of a Darwin statue in the Oxford Museum on
June 14, 1899. This, the work of Mr. Hope Pinker, was the
gift of Professor Poulton to the University. Hooker attended
the ceremony, and spoke, being asked

to give some little account of that long and intimate friend-
ship with which he affectionately honoured me. Of course
I can do little more than repeat what I said at Shrewsbury,
except you can give me a hint as to any other topic. (To
F. Darwin, June 7, 1899.)

This speech (a report of which appears in The Tims of
the following day) he prefaced with an apology for possible
distortions of memory, for * Narrators of an advanced age
are proverbially oblivious and too often victims of self-decep'ion
in respect of what they think they remember.' Beginning
with the parallelism of their early careers and their common
friendship with Lyell, he told in much fulness the history oi
the origin and growth of their friendship, especially in the
* inaccessible house ' at Down ; his first sight of the sketch
of Darwin's theory ; and his retort to the friends of a later
day who asked why he had not shaped all his own researches
upon the lines of that illuminating sketch : It was confidential.



INTEKEST IN BUDDHISM 433

Of his character and peculiar power of work he repeated
the impressions given in preceding letters, but added that when
Darwin claimed for himself only a fair share of * invention/
he meant the quality that Hooker would define as originality,
the exercise of imagination in critical experiments. And
referring to the reception of Darwin's Primula paper at the
Linnean, he told the story of how an ardent supporter of
Darwin's compared previous students of the flower to Peter
Bell with his view of ' A primrose by the river's brim.' On
being told of this, Darwin exclaimed : ' I would rather
have been the man who thought of that on the spur of the
moment than have written the paper that suggested it.'

A sketch of his reading in these days shows among other
things the unending interest in Indian religions.

To Lord Bedesdale

January 25, 1899.

I am glad that you have taken up Buddhism, a favourite
subject with Huxley and myself. I have a few good books
on the subject ; shall I send you a list of them ? You can
then have what you. please of them. I regard the Essenes
as a branch of Buddhists, tinctured some with Greek, others
with Jewish ideas (Philosophy so called), and that Christ's
teaching was one outcome of the movement. I shall be glad
to know if you come across in your reading any rational
explanation of the identity in ritual ceremonies, offices,
vestments, &c., &c., &c., of the Buddhist and Eoman
Churches. I have proposed this question to many a learned
churchman on one hand, and Buddhist scholar on the other,
without obtaining the smallest satisfaction. That it was all
accidental is the answer I generally get, at which I scoff.
I have my own ideas on the subject, but do not suppose
they would be accepted without more evidence than I can
offer. My friend, Brian Hodgson, was an arch Bu*ddhist
scholar, and we spent many a long evening in the Himalaya
over Buddhism ; but his knowledge was too profound to be
communicated intelligently to a novice. I have his works.
I fancy he did more by the collection of materials than by
his dissertations, to advance the study.

My reading of late has been all but demoralising, for its



484 PEBSONALIA : 1898-1906

variety and, to a great extent, vacuity. Novels of sorts,
intersected between fits of Spencer's last ponderous volume,
wherein the old matter interests me more than the new.
Travels I devour and only partially digest. Metaphysics I
cannot abide. I was disappointed with Tennyson's Life,
made up of snippets in too great proportion. I have read
Prescott's Cortes, Pizarro and Philip II. with renewed
pleasure. Also Motley's Ferdinand and Isabella, all stale
viands, but the two former still appetizing.

The Illustrated Edition of Green's History is just come.
I ordered it for Dick, with whom I am reading Huxley's
Physiography and Pope's Odyssey.

It is high time I ended this fatuous gossip.

On April 16 he sends his friend a batch of his own books
on Buddhism, adding with perhaps unnecessary emphasis :

My memory is now so bad that the whole subject is
a blur in my brain a confusion of Thibetan, Japanese,
Singhalese and Burmese developments of the creed.

Follows a reminiscence of Dartmouth, where he had just
spent a fortnight :

We went over the Britannia, very interesting as you
know. I was astounded at the multiplicity and variety of
subjects crammed into the 15 months' course. It is a
grand education. I was amazed at the size of the lads'
sea-chests, quite thrice the size allowed in my time ! Dart-
mouth Harbour is charming, but the town beastly, swarming
with dirty children and an undersized population of loutish
men and distressingly plain women. The predominance of
dirty little lolly-pop shops is the feature of the place.

On May 7, enclosing a page from a book circular with
two Buddhist works which Lord Redes dale might care to
get secondhand, he relates his own fondness for such
advertisements.

I get book catalogues almost every day and run my eye
through every one, not with the idea of purchasing, but
because it keeps up my memory of my father's and grand-
father's fine libraries.



HCTUKES 435

The love of pictures, also; was common ground between him
and Lord Kedesdale.

The Camp, Sunningdale : March 28, 1900.

MY DEAR OLD FRIEND, Our last letters crossed.- I was
delighted to have news from yourself and especially to know
that you had congenial work with the Wallace trust. The
collection must be a glorious one. I saw a portion of the
pictures at Bethnal Green, when exhibited there many
years ago, and believe that I recognised a few pictures there
from my Grandfather's collection, which was sold during
the Crimean War. If I mistake not, one was a small Titian,
Europa and the Bull, and there were one or two old Cromes,
small pictures. I have a privately printed volume of outline
lithographs of my Grandfather's small collection, with full
accounts of each picture. Of these I have two, a very slight
Crucifixion by Van Dyck, of no value ; and a magnificent
enamel on copper, by Bone, of L. da Vinci's Christ blessing
the world, 12 by 9 in., taken from the (then) Leigh Court
collection.

Also I have a very interesting picture by Beechey, which
passes as a Eubens, the history of which is that my Grand-
father accompanied Beechey to see the Bubenses in White-
hall, and the latter, on returning home, painted the subject
of one of the panels from memory, which so pleased my G.F.
that he purchased it from him on the spot.

My only other painting of any value is a small Vincent,
whose works are very rare ; but for knowing its history it
might be a Stark, Nasmyth or Stannard.

I am very busy trying to get my huge heterogeneous
correspondence into some order. I have nearly completed
the Benthamian, which is extraordinarily rich. B. was in
the full swing of Society in France as a young man ; and his
diaries are full of interesting matter, from 1810 onwards.
I let the Brit. Mus. have (some years ago) all his uncle
Jeremy's MSS., an enormous bulk, that will I fancy never
be consulted. Maunde Thompson has had them all arranged
and catalogued.

It is time I put my house in order, and so good night.
Ever, dear Mitford, Affectionately yours,

Jos. D. HOOKER.



486 PEBSONALIA : 1898-1906

Among his other interests, that in Wedgwood ware con-
tinued undiminished in his later years. It was the interest
of the connoisseur rather than the collector pure and simple.
As he tells W. E. Darwin (July 6, 1900) :

We now make all our marriage presents in Wedgwood
plaques, chiefly ' the Hours ' or * the Muses ' framed and
glazed, and you would hardly believe how much they are
prized, and how distinguished they look amongst the fish-
slices, paper-knives, salt-cellars and egg-spoons of the bridal
gifts.

More than this, the beautiful plaques included many
portraits of great men of the past. These cameos, with their
historic significance, their memorial to genius as well as their
artistic perfection, appealed to him beyond all. He would
record the discovery of any which he had not seen before, and
if given a photograph of the rarity, offer a copy to W. E.
Darwin or Lord Eedesdale, his 'fellow enthusiasts, or send his
duplicates. The absence of such portraits he found a blemish
in an otherwise magnificent show of Wedgwood ware in 1905.

It was a show of Jasper Ware and copyists' skill in
reproducing and adapting classical figures, &c., but a score
or two of Wedgwood's common cups and saucers, teapots,
and such articles would have better shown the genius of
the man in adapting these to their uses and as being faultless
in modelling, ornamentation, and all the best attributes of
manufacture and material. So would a collection of medal-
lions and busts have shown his appreciation of learning and
genius and great services rendered to the country. (To
; W. E. Darwin, August 24, 1905.)

A private collection offered for sale in 1907 which ' swarms
with cameos and portraits I never saw before ' fills him with
proportionate enthusiasm and regrets that he must not commit
the extravagance of buying it.

When these memorials had slipped out of memory, his
rare knowledge found happy use in reviving them. Thus in
1900 he corresponded with Etruria about the Herschel cameo.
Having found by chance that neither Miss Herschel nor her



HISTORIC WEDGWOOD MEDALLIONS 437

brothers had ever heard of it and were all most anxious to
obtain it, search was made for the mould, and a rubbing sent
* of an old gentleman as like Herschel as me.' The mould
was identified finally from Hooker's own medallion, which
had been made for the 1851 Exhibition, and turned out to be
a fine piece of Flaxman's work.

Similarly he suggested that the Wedgwoods should supply
the Linnaean Jubilee at Upsala in 1907 with the Linnaeus
medallion, with the result that 'the firm joyfully respond,
and will also send Capt. Cook, Banks, Solander, Bergman,
Queen Christina, Charles XII, and Gustavus III.' To complete
the matter, he wrote to his correspondent, the Professor of
Botany at Stockholm (Professor Wittrock),

asking him if he could introduce at the Jubilee the subject
of the Linnaeus Medallion portrait being the work of the
famous Swedish sculptor Inlander ; and that Dr. Solander,
a pupil of Linnaeus (afterwards Banks's Librarian), declared
it by far the best likeness of his old master. Also if he could
recommend for the Etruria Firm a good agent for the disposal
of the medallions, the firm having no correspondent in
Sweden. (To W. E. D., January 1, 1907.)

The memories of old times, often curiously re-echoed in
the present, are often warmly renewed in the letters to his
remaining contemporaries, Mrs. Lyell, whom he had early
known as Katherine Horner, and Mrs. Paisley, who, as Sabina
Smith of Jordan Hill, had been his playmate in childhood.

To Mrs. Paisley

February 4, 1899.

MY DEAR SABINA, Your kind letter of the 15th gave
me very great pleasure. You are now the oldest of all rny
friends ! the only one antedating 1830, so that when my
mind wanders back and back, ever so far, your name comes
as the first and last in the long list of old companions, and
always with unclouded associations.

Do you remember our ' black-bide ' [i.e. blackberry]
hunts in the hills above Helensburgh, our games in the con-
servatory at the Baths where Bell's steam-engine lay ? the
Amethyst ? the dogs, Copper and Combie ? and the wonderful



438 PEKSONALIA: 1898-1906

apparatus for kindling a match by a stream of gas upon
platinum (I think), which your mother used to show us ?
That reminds me that none of the great scientific discoveries
of the century have been more utilised than the progressive
ones from the tinder-box flint and steel of our earliest days,
to the ' strike a lights ' of the present.

The season here has been quite exceptional as every
season is according to my experience in every part of the
world that I have visited ; in this year doubly exceptional,
in not being for the worse ! We have had frost at last.
for two days, but it is passing over and threatens to snow.

I should indeed like to visit you at Helensburgh. The
last time I was there was on a visit to Mr. Buchanan at
the Baths, some 30 years ago ! The time before that at
Ardincaple, when your mother was still alive, and Archie
and I paddled about in his skin canoe.

Mrs. Paisley had an hereditary interest in Polar explora-
tion. Her second name was in honour of Douglas Clavering,
who commanded the Griper which took Sabine to Greenland
and Spitzbergen on magnetic work in 1823. Surveying an
unexplored part of the coast, he bestowed many Scottish
names on his discoveries. One of these was the familiar
Jordan Hill !

To the Same

December 12, 1899.

You will be interested to hear that the measures for
another Antarctic Expedition l are progressing favourably.
It will not be on the scale of the last, not being undertaken
by Government, which however grants some 45,000 towards
it. The contract for building the ship is all but signed, and
it will absorb the Government Grant. I am on two Com-
mittees concerning it, the general and biological, so I shall
end my active life as I began it, in the interest of Antarctic
discovery ! Mr. Biicker, 2 one of the Secretaries of the

1 Under Captain Scott, in the Discovery.

* Sir Arthur William Riicker, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc., F.B.S. (1848-1915);
Fellow of Brasenose Coll., Oxford, of London University ; Prof, of Physics,
Yorkshire Coll., Leeds, 1874-85; R. Coll. of Science, London, 1886-1901;
Royal Medal, 1891 ; Secretary to the Royal Society, 1896-1901 ; Principal of
London University, 1901-8 ; knighted 1902. Sir Joseph's son Reginald married
the only daughter of Sir A. W. Riicker, in 1911.



SCOTT'S FIEST EXPEDITION 439

Eoyal Society, a very able mathematician, is taking the
part that Archie did in devising the arrangements for mag-
netic work, which, as in the former voyage, is one of the chief
objects of the expedition. What with steam, and a better
sailing ship, the coming Expedition ought to do far more
work than did the Erebus and Terror.

Do you remember my father and me breakfasting at
Jordan Hill, when your father kindly invited us that I might
be presented to Captain Boss, as an applicant for a berth
with him ? I well remember that Boss took his place in a
separate table with you and your sisters and amused you
all, and I longed to be there too ! The expedition is not to
sail till 1901, so I cannot expect to see it return and perhaps
not even see it sail !

Answering further questions in 1910, he tells Mrs. Paisley
how little of a ship's doctor he was.

To the Same

September 13, 1910.

The Erebus was my ship when I met Boss at Jordan Hill
in 1838, and he promised me (or my father) the appointment
of naturalist to his expedition. I had no idea of going as a
medical man, but Boss would not take me in any other official
capacity, and I had to gallop through a medical degree at
the last hour : happily for the crew we had no sickness
and hardly an accident to either ship throughout the voyage
and we had three other Medical Officers, hence my time was
devoted throughout to my natural history studies, in some
of which Boss took a keen interest.

To the Same

March 29, 1901.

Yes ! this Antarctic Expedition occupies much of my
time and mind. As I am (for now a good many years past)
the only surviving officer of Boss's Expedition, I am con-
sulted a good deal, and with the Hydrographer and Sir A.
Geikie, 1 had the final revision of the orders to the Captain
and the head of the Scientific Staff. I am looking forward
with the greatest interest to see the ship when in the Thames.

1 The geologist, President of the Royal Society.



440 PEESONALIA: 1898-1906

The Captain and head of the Scientific Staff [Dr. E. A.
Wilson] both came here and looked over my Antarctic
sketches. I liked much what I saw of both.

In a discussion at the Eoyal Society on an Antarctic
Expedition (February 24, 1898), speaking of the unknown
origin of the Great Barrier, where no landing seemed possible
on its precipitous ice cliffs, he said :

It probably abuts upon land, possibly upon an Antarctic
Continent ; but to prove this was impossible on the occasion
of Boss's visit, for the height of the crow's nest above the
surface of the sea was not sufficient to enable him to over-
look the upper surface of the ice, nor do I see any other way
of settling this important point except by the use of a captive
balloon an implement with which I hope any 'future expedi-
tion to the Antarctic regions will be supplied.

Add to this its possible use in recovering a lost party, and
finding open water. There were several occasions when Eoss
could have used it when coasting along the Barrier, and more
when it would have helped navigation in the Pack. Hence
in sending a subscription for the purpose to Captain Scott,
Hooker put it neatly :

May 19, 1901.

DEAR CAPTAIN SCOTT, As I was the first to suggest the
use of a captive Balloon in Antarctic discovery, so I ought
to be one of the first to respond to your appeal, which will,
I do hope, prove successful.

Very sincerely yours,

J. D. HOOKER.
Enclosed cheque 10 10s.

The fact that the German Expedition under Dr. Drygalski
in the Gauss had at once taken up the idea no doubt aided its
adoption here ; but when he had finally seen the ' cumbrous
gasometer ' on the Discovery, he was fain to confess that if
he had known the space the apparatus would occupy on board
he might not have been so insistent. For after his first visit
to look at the Discovery in July 1901, he strongly urged the
utility of a balloon upon Sir C. Markham, and advised him to



EECOMMENDS A CAPTIVE BALLOON 441

appeal to the public using Hooker's name if need be in stating
that without this instrument the Expedition might lose half
its means of accomplishing its end.

With the fund thus raised, two small captive balloons and
their equipment were provided, which were duly used on the
Barrier. (See the ' Voyage of the Discovery,' i. 197 seq.)
Thanks to the sympathy of the War Office, two officers and
three men of the Expedition had been trained for the work in
advance.

The other point on which he specially dwelt in his remarks
at the Eoyal Society was that the Antarctic offered endless
investigations to the naturalist, for the South Polar Ocean
swarms with animal and vegetable life. The large collections
made under Eoss, i.e. chiefly by Hooker himself, had never
been examined, except the Diatoms.

A better fate, I trust, awaits the treasures that the hoped-
for expedition will bring back, for so prolific is the ocean
that the naturalist need never be idle, no, not even for
one of the 24 hours of daylight during a whole Antarctic
summer, and I look to the results of a comparison of the
oceanic life of the Arctic and Antarctic regions as the herald-
ing of an epoch in the history of biology.

His regrets over this stifling of scientific results were most
strongly expressed in a letter of January 10, 1901, to Dr. Bruce,
of the Scotia expedition, already quoted (see i. 56).

Captain Scott set sail on the last day of July 1901. Sir
Joseph, accompanied by Lady Hooker and his youngest son
and their friend Dr. Smallpiece, had paid a farewell visit to
the Discovery on the previous day. When Scott returned
three years later, no one gave him warmer welcome than the
veteran explorer, to whom was brought a renewal and enlarge-
ment of the vision of the South which till but three years
before no living eye but his had seen. The photographs, so
much more adequate than the drawings he himself had brought
back, stirred his memories ; across the gap of sixty years he
recognised and named every point in the scenes shown to him,
and pronounced the most interesting fact for science to be the

VOL. n 2 P



442 PERSONALIA : 1898-1906

retrocession of the Barrier, in some places as much as twenty
or thirty miles since Boss's visit. He remembered the ice
reaching the slopes of Mt. Terror, where now stood bare dark
cliffs, while the remains of Barrier ice on the shores of the
continent go to show that in a recent geological epoch it must
have covered the whole of the Boss Sea. He found in Scott's
book ' an indescribable charm ' ; * his observations on the
great ice sheet are pregnant with new and sound views/

To an appreciative letter raising these and other points of
critical detail, Captain Scott replied (November 5, 1905) :

56 Oakley Street, Chelsea Embankment :



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