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FLOEA



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BEITISH INDIA.



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1



FLORA OF BRITISH INDIA.



SIR J. D. HOOKER, O.B., G.(\S.T.

M.D., r.B.8., D.C.L. OXON., LL.D. CANTAB.

C0BBESP0NDIN6 MEMBBB 0¥ THE INSTITOTE OV FBANCE, AMD HON. MBMBBR OV THE
ASIATIC SOCIBTr OF BENGAL.

ASSISTED BY VARIOUS BOTANISTS.



VOL. Vll.
CYPERACE.'i^J, URAMlNEJi AND GESEUAL ISUEX.



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OB" THE 8B0RETARY OP STATE FOR
INDIA IN COUNCIL.




LONDON :

L. REEVE & CO.

PUBLISHERS TO THE HOME, COLONIAL, AND INDIAN GOVERNMENTS'

6, UENKIEITA STREET, COVENT GARDEN.

1897.

LIBRARY



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PBBFACB TO VOL. VII.



The length of time, upwards of a quarter of a century, occupied in the
publication of the Flora of British India^ has resulted in the later
Tolumes containing a far more complete account of the families of
plants to which they are devoted than do the earlier volumes of theirs.

For this there are two reasons, the extension of the area of British
India in the interval, and the many collections that have been trans-
mitted to Kew from wholly or imperfectly explored regions of India
daring the same interval.

The extension of area has been : on the East, Munnepore, and by far
the greater part of Burma, adding many Indo-Chinese genera and species
to the flora ; on the West, British Beluchistan and other trans- Indus
hills and valleys, adding Oriental genera and species. Neither of these
extensions have, however, added so much to the Indian flora as might
have been expected ; for, as regards Burma, extensive materials were
already available from Pegu, Martaban, Tenasserim, and the upper and
lower Irawaddy valleys; and as regards the West, the low country
Oriental flora is represented in the plains of Sind and the Panjab, and
the upland and alpine in the trans-Indus valleys, Western Tibet, and
the Kashmir Himalaya.

On the other hand, the collections received from previously unex-
plored and partially explored regions of India proper have been
numerous and full of novelty and interest. Of these the first in
importance are Mr. C. B. Clarke's, whether for their extent, the know-
ledge and judgment with which the specimens were selected, ticketed^
and preserved, or for the valuable observations which accompany
them. They were obtained over a greater extent of India than had
been traversed by any other Indian botanist, and at all elevations, up to
18,500 ft., from the bend of the Indus at Gilgit, Kashmir, and Western



9G197 ^ ,

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VI PRBFAOB.

Tibet, in the extreme West ; from Sikkim, Bengal, Assam, and Munne-
pore in the East ; from Behar, Central India, and Chota Nagpur in the
centre ; and from the Nilghiri Hills in the South. Next in importance
are the Malay Peninsula collections made hy Father Scortechini, the
Messrs. Curtis, Wray, Hervey, HuUett, Merton, and Ridley, and by
collectors sent by Dr. King from the Botanic Gardens of Calcutta.
These latter have added several hundred species to the genera described
in the first volume alone of this Flora, and have been published by
Dr. King in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Thirdly
rank Mr. Duthie's copious and excellently preserved collections made in
Kashmir, Western Tibet, Garwhal, Kumaon, Rohilkund, Rajmahal,
and Cential India, and Dr. Aitchison's from the Kurrum and other
valleys west of the Indus.

Of the works upon Indian Botany that have appeared during the pub-
lication of Flora of the British India, the more important are Mr. C. B.
Clarke's ** Compositse Indicae " (1876); Mr. Kurz's "Forest Flora of
Burma" (1876); Dr. Brandis' "Forest Flora of N.-W. and Central
India " (1874) ; Col. Beddome's " Flora Sylvatica of Southern India,"
vols. i. and ii. (1869-73), and his " Icones Plantarum Indim Orientalis,"
vol. i. (1874); Dr. Trimen's "Handbook of the Ceylon Flora,''
Parts i. — iii. (1893-5) ; and Dr. King's "Annals of the Botanic Gardens,
Calcutta," vols. i. — vii. (1888-1897), which include illustrated mono-
graphs by himself and other Indian botanists of the Indian species of
FictiSy QuercuSy Pedicularis, MagnoUacem^ Anonacem, Bambusa, &c.

In the Preface to the first volume of this work I have stated that it
was proposed to include in it the Ferns and their allies. This intention
has been abandoned, owing to the appearance of excellent available
works describing the Indian species, especially Hooker and Baker's
" Synopsis Filicum " (1874) ; Col. Beddome's ** Review of the Ferns
of N.-W. India" (1880), and his " Handbook of the Ferns of British
India " ( 1 883), with Supplement (1892).

Having regard to this ** Flora of British India," I must remind those*
vho may use it that it has no pretensions to give full characters of the
genera and species contained in it. It aims at no more than being an
attempt to sweep together and systematize within a reasonable time and
compass, a century of hithorto undigested materials scattered through a
library of botanical books and monographs, and preserved in vastt
collections, many of which latter had lain unexamined for half a



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V



PREFAOB. VU

century in the cellars of the ludia House and in public and private
lierbaria. It is a pioneer work, which, besides enabling botanists to
name with some accuracy a host of Indian plants, may, I hope, serve
two higher purposes, to facilitate the compilation of local Indian
floras and monographs of the large Indian genera ; and to enable the
phytographer to discuss the problems of the distribution of plants from
the point of view of what is perhaps the richest, and is certainly the
most varied botanical area on the surface of the globe, and one which, in
a greater degree than any other, contains representatives of the floras of
both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

J. D. Hooker.
November, 1897.



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ADDENDUM.

YoL vii. p. 416, under 2. S. ehilianthum^ insert habitats:
Singapore, Wallich ; Malaooa, Stevens. Distrib. : Java, Samatra.



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FLORA OF BRITISH INDIA.



Okdzb, CLzxiri. o&AKxaras.

'Ee.bct ddi^nmbent or creeping herbs, or in Tribe Bamhu»e€e shrnbs or
trees. Stem terete or comprensed, jointed; internodes solid or hollo v.
Leaves simple, usnally long and narrow, entire, parallel-nerved, with a
sheathing base distinct frooa the blade; sheath split to the base (very
rarelj entire) with often a transverse hyaline erect appendage (ligula) at
the union with the blade, facing the latter. Inflorescence terminal, rarely
also from the npper sheaths, consisting of spicate racemed capitate or
panicled spikelets. Spikelets of three or more alternate distichous bracts
(fflumes), of which the two lowest are normally empty, and the succeeding,
if more than one, are arranged on »n axis {rachiua), and are all or some
of them flowering; within eaca flowering glume and opposite to it is an
erect narrow 2-nerved scale (palea), the margins of wbich are infolded
towards the glnme and enclose at the base the trae flower. Flowenf
uni- or bisexual, consisting of 2, rarely 3 or 6 microscopic scales (lodicules)
representing a perianth, and stamens or a pistil, or both. Stamens 3,
rarely 1,2, 6, or very rarely many, hypogynous ; filaments capillary ; anthers
versatile, fugacious, of two parallel cells, with no apparent connective;
pollen globose. Ovary entire, 1-celled ; styles 2, rarely 3, free or united at
the base, usually elongate, and exserted from the sides or top of the spike-
lets, clothed witb simple or branched stigmatic hairs ; ovule erect, ana-
tropous. Fndt a seed-like utricle (gram) free within the flg. glnme and
palea, or adherent to either or both ; pericarp very thin, rarely thick or
separable from the seed. Seed erect; albumen copious, mealy; embryo
minute, at the base of and outside the albumen ; cotyledon scutelHform,
bearing on its face an erect conical plumule, and descending conical '
radicle.

"'^ Gh*nera abont-800 ; species estimated at aboat 80)0, but many are doubtful, and
more mere Tarieties ; natives of all climates and regions.

In working up the grasses for this Flora, I find the multiplication of species
to have parsed all bounds, Hnd their nomenclature to be involved in a corresponding
degree. This has arisen from two principal omse^i, from authors not taking into
account the wide area over which the individual species of grasses range,* and from
the imperfection of the descriptions of the earlier nnd many later authors. It is
sixty-two years since Ennth published his *' Agrostographia Synoptica (Tubingen,
1838), which is an uncritical sweeping up of all previously known supposed genera and
species, with imperfect descriptions and synonyms. It was succeeded (in 1835) by a
second volume, in which a few hundred species of the first volume are very fully and
accurately described, snd valuable notes upon others are added. In 1855 Steudel's
^'^ Synopsis Orarainum " appeared. It in no respect advauces, and in many ways
retards the student of the Order. Of more recent works on QraminecSf three only
are of *great mark, namely, Mnnro's very able Ifonog^ph of the Bamhusece (Trans.
Linn. Soo. vol. zzvi. (1868) ; Bentham's revision of the genera, Qen. Plant, vol. iii.

* It is a foct familiar to every one who examines collections of plants from/
hitherto unexplored countries, that novelties amongst the grasses are very few indeed,
compared with what occurs in other natural families.

VOL. VII. B



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2 CLXXHL GRAMiNB^. (J. D. Hooker.)

(1883), a work of remarkable completeness and accnracy, considering the clinotic
condition in whicli the author found the Order; and Hackel's admirable mnnnn-Hph
of the AndropogonetB in A. de Candolle " Monogr. Phanerog.'* vol. vi. (ISS^Jkthe
largest and most difficult Tribe of gi-asses.

I have cited synonyms to a much greater extent in this than in any other Order
described in the " Flora of British India " (except the " OyperacefB *' by Clarke)
with the view of aiding the researches of future authors. Many of these synutiyms
had never been fixed with any approach to exactness, and many were for the first
time identified during? Mr. Jackson^s and my labours on the ** Index Kewensis.'* L
cannot expect that all will prove to have been satisfactorily reduced, aud stiU less
that all have been brought to light.

Heferriug to the classification of the Indian genera, I have been compelled to
diverge somewhat from Bentham's arrangement, and to abandon some of his Tribes
and Subtribes, in many cases following Hackel's more recent and wclUcousidcrcd
views. These divisions throughout the Order are of very unequal value, aud are as
difficult of delimitation as of definition upon any fixed principles. They are, indeed,
in some cases arbitrary, and in others more or less artificial. In this matter, and in
the description or revision of some of the very difficult genera, I have derived great
aid from Dr. Stapf, Assistant in the Herbarium of the Boyal Gardens, who has
lately been instructed by the Director of Kew to study and name, the materials in that
Herbarium critically. As Dr. Stapf shares ray views as to the wide ranges of the
species, and the undue multiplication of their synonyms, his labours may be expected
to yield far-rencUing results, taxonomic, morphological and geographical, aud to
modify some of the conclusions arrived at in the following attompt to method-.Ee
the Indian Qramineie. As afil'Cting the numbers and synonyms taken from** Wnl-
lich*s List," I have to observe that for some of them I have had to depend on the
ticketed duplii ates in Herb. Hook, and Benth.^ the types being wanting in the
WulUchian collection in the rooms of the Linnssan Society.

Senes A. Panioaoeae. Spikelets artil^ulate on their pedicels, or
deciduous with them, 1-2-fld.j upper fl. alone (if 2) fruiting.

Exceptions. Spikelets inarticulate on their pedid&Is in Arundinella and Isachne,
Spikelets articulate on their pedicels, or with articulate pedicels occur in Poacece, in
Alopecurus, Cyathopus, Polypogon, F ingerhuthia, and Lophathtrum, Upper
flower alone fertile in Tribe J^uilaridecB of Poaceo*, and in Trislach^a,

I. Eachis of infl. inarticulate, or subarticulate in Stenotaphrum, Fl.
gl. usually coriaceous or herbaceous.

Tribe I. Paniceje. Spikelets 2-fld., upper fl. bisexual, lower male or
neuter, rarely both fertile. {Sjjtnifex is dioecious.)

* Spikelets articulate on their pedicels, except Isachne and Arundinella.
f Spikrlets not invo'uoi'll it- by bristles.
§ Spikelets not auned (gl, 11 and III beaked or atoned in Pan, Cfus-gaUl),
(See also TrichoJctna and Arundinella,)
Spikelets dorsally flatteped, base not thickened ; gls. 3,

with very rarely a minute fourth (lowest) ... 1. Paspaluj^.
Spikelets o( Paspalum, but with a thickened basal callus . 2. Ekiochloa.
Spikelets subglobose, panicled; gls. 4, I and II se^ia-

rately deciduous, subcqual 3. Isacbne.

Spikelets panicled or spicate, gls. 4 (2 in P. suheglume)
I and II very rarely subequul, II and III awned in
P. Crus-galli, IV i-arely very sTiortly awned . . 4. Panictm.
Spikelets of Panicww, but gl. IV. narrowed into a short,

flattened stipes, or with 2 appendages near the base . 5. IciiNAXTurs.
Spikelets innumerable, very minute, hairy, den.«5ely
crowded in the capillary bnmches of a very hiVge
panicle C. Thysaxoi.«xa.



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CLXxm. anAMiNEiB. (J. D. Hooker.) 3

Spikelets panioled, brnnches of pimicle prodaoed beyond

the uppermo«t spxkelete ; gl. I minute, hyaline . . 7. Chamjeraphis.
Dioeoioas, male spikelets in clustered spikes, fern, soli-
tary 8. Spixifex.

§§ SpikeletH owned, eweept in some sp, of Tricholcena

and Arundinella,
Spikelets of Panicum, but nerves of gl. II brondly

fimbriate, and palea of 111 deeply cleft, IV awncd 9. Axgnopfs.
Sp'ikelots silky ; gl. I 0, or minute and distant from 1 1

and III with usually capillary awns . . . . 10. Tricholcena.
Spikeletfl solitary or fascicled on a simple rachis or the

branches of a panicle ; gl. I long awned . . . 11. OPLiSMENrs.
Spikelets persistent on the pedi?el8, op gls. I and II sepa-
rately deciduous, IV deciduous; usually awned, awu

bent 12. Aruxdinella.

ft Spikelets each surrounded by an involucel of bristles . 13. Setaria.

*♦ Spikelets persistent on their pedicels, at least the fertile, or deciduous with
their pedicels.

f Spikelets in invoVuceUed deciduous fascicles.

Involucel of bristles 14. Penxtpetfm.

Involaccl of spines connate at the base .... 15. CeaCiircs.

ft Spikelett not involucelled.
Spikelets 2-seriate on a flat subarticnlate rachis . . 16. Stenotaphrum.
Spikelets (at least the fertile) l-seriute on an inarticulate
flat rachis, the base of which dilates and encloses a
fruiting spikclet 17. Thuahea,

Tribe II. OrtzE/B. SpiheUU 1-fld., articulate on their pedicels and
decidaouB from them. Palea 1-3-aerved. Stamens 6 or fewer.

Spikelets 2-sexual, awnbd or not ; gls. 4, I and II minute

or setaceous 18. Ortza.

Spikelets 2-sexuaI, awnless ; gls. 2, broad, thin . . 39. Leeksta.

Spikelets 2-8exual, awned ; (;l!<. 2, narrow, thin . . 20. Hygkorhtza.

Spikelets 1-sexual ; fruiting gl. inflated ; leaves broad . 21. Leptaspis.

Tribe III. ZcYsiEiB. Spilcelets I-fld., deciduous with their pedicels,
2-8exQal, or some imperfect.

♦ Spikelets fascicled.
Spikes geminate; fascicles unilateral . . .22. Teach y8.

Spikes solitary; fascicles quiiquaversul ; gl. Ill echinate . 26. Tragus.

*♦ Spikelets solitary y redely 2-nate.
Bacenies slender; pedicels flattened ; gl. I and II ninri-

cate . . ■ . ... . . • . . 2i. Latipes.

Raceme slender ; spikelets minute, base of gl. I saccate . 25. Lopholepis.
bpike very slender; spikelets narrow; gl. I and II

avmed ... 26. Perotis.

Spike rigid ; spikelets appressed to the rachi$, not awncd . 27. Zovsia.

II. Bachis of inflorescence usually articulate.

Tribe IV. Andropogone.e. Spikelets usually 2-nate, or the terminal
in the infl. 3-nate, pairs homo- or heteropamous. FL gl. smaller than the
empty, hyaline, often awned or reduced to an awn.

Subtribe I. Maydea. Spikelets spicate, all 1 -sexual; male spikes in
terminal panicles, or continuous with the fem spike.

B 2



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4 OLxxiii. QRAMiNBA. (J. D. Hooker.)

FmitiDg spikelets enclosed in a stony, nut-like polished

bract ... . ' . . . . , .28. Coix.

Fruiting spikelets, baring all the inner gl. concealed

within the greatly enlfa*ged hardened oater . . 29. Polttoca.

Fruiting spikelets densely crowded un a cylindrie spongy

racbis, grain exposed 29*. Zea.

Snbtribe II.' Dikerteji. Spikelets homogamoas, second ou a slender
inarticnlate rachis, 1-fld., diandroas . . .30. Dimesia.

- Sobtribe III. Sacchabbju Spikelets bomogamoos, in compound racemes
or panicles (except Pollinia) ; gl. I not sunk in a hollow of tne rachis.

• Mcushis not or rarely fragile,
Spikelets in a cylindrie silvery thymus, 1-fld., not awned . 81. Imprbata.
Spikelets panicled, 2-nate, 1-fld., awued . • • .32. Miscakthus.

•• Bachis fragile.
Spikelets in panioled racemes, 2-fld., awned • • • 33. SpoDiopoaoN.
Spikelets in'gemin«te digitate or fiucicled spikes . . 34. Pollinia.
Spikelets in a thyrsus of splciform racemes, 1-fld., awnless 35. SACcuABrM.^
'pikelets in a thyrsus of spiciform racemes, 1-fld., awned . 36. Keianthuh.

ffi Subtribe IV. Isceescbjs. Spikelets many, in solitary digitate or

i^^JUM^-^ fascicled spikes, usually heteromorpbous ; gL t not sunk in a hollow of the
raobis. (See Pollvnia in Saceharea ; Vossia in Bottboelliea.)

MdrginM of gl, 1 of sessile spikelet infiexed.
Spikes rarely solitary ; spikeleu 2-nate, 2-f)d., awned . 87. Ischamuh.
Spikes solitary ; spikelets 1-dd., gl. I pectinate . . . 38. EbbjCoculoa.

•• Margins of gU I of sessile spikelet not injlexed.
Spikes solitary ; spikelets 2-nate, 1-2- fld., 2-awned . . 39. Pogonathebuh.
Spikes solitary or 2-nate ; spikelets 2-fld., diandrous ; gL

1 very broad, truncate . . . ^ . . .40. Apocopis.
Spikes 2-nate or digitate ; spikelets 1-fld. . \ . 41. Artmbaxon.
Spikes digitate ; spikelets 2-fld. ; gl. I tubercled . . 42. Thelrpooon.
Spikes 2-00 -nate ; spikelets 2-nate, upper alone awued . 43. LoPHOi'OQON.

Subtribe V. Apludea Spikelets 3 on an in-
articulate rachis 44. Apluda.

Subtribe Yl. BoTTBOBLLTEiS. SpiheWs homo- or hetero-gamous, 1-2-
fld., solitary, or 2- rarely d-nate on the internodes of an arricnlate S|»ike
or raceme, not awned (gl. I caudate in Vossia) ; gl. I not keeled, ad nate
to or sunk in a depression formed by the internode and pedicel of the
upper spikelet ; gls. of sessile spikelet 4. '

Spikelets 2-nate, gl. I caudate .....*. 4!>. Vossia.

Spikelets 2-nate, gl. I flat 46. Kottborllta.

Spikelets 2-nate, gl. I globose 47, MANierRin.

Spikelets solitary, gl. 1 convex . ^- . . . .48. Ophiubus.

Subtribe YII. BATZBBVftoisiB. Spikelets homo-
gamous, 8-nate on the slender internodes of a
solitary flattened fragile spike, two perfect, 1-fld.,
third imperfect ; gls. 4 49. RATzsBnseiA.

Subtribe VIII. BuAMDBOFOOONBiB. Spikelets heterogamous, l-fl<}-, 2-
raraly 3-nate on the whorled articulate branches of simple or compound
racemes or panicles (solitary in Cleistachne) ; gls. 4, I net kteled, IV
UttUally awned.



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OLXxm. ORAHIKEJB. (J. D. Hooker.) 5

Spikeletf 2-8-Qiite, in a simple ipike, gl. I with tnber-

ded penioillate ribs 50. ELiONtBTTS.

Spikelota solitary, tertuinadng the branches of a thyreoid

panicle . 51. Clbistachnb.

Spikelets capitate, male sessile, 2-6d., forming an inroln-

crifonn whorl roond the pedicelled fem. . . .52. Qebh ainca.
Spikelets 2-nate, or the uppermost S-nate, spicate, or

panicled .53. Andeopoqon.

Spikelets in 2 superposed series ; upper series of hetero-

gamons pairs, and a terminal male, lower a whoil of

4 persistent males or neuters^ * . .'54. Anthibtibia.

Spikelets as in AiUMstiria, bnt male and nenter spikelets

decidnoos with the fern. ; callos • . .55. Isbilema.

Series B. PoaceaD. Spikelets contiDa6tL8 (not articulate with) their
pedicels, 1- many-lid. ; raohilla articulate at the base, and often between
tlie fig. gls. ; lowest fl. always fruiting, upper often male or nenter.

SsKeptions, Upper fl. alone bisexual in Phalaridecs, SpikeleU articulate on
their pedicels, or gl. 1 and 11 separately deciduous occur in Alopeouru$, MeUea,
Fingerhuihia, Cyathopug, and Sphasrocar^on. — See under ParUcckcea some genera
with spikelets inarticulate at the base.

Tribe Y. Ph4i.akidbji. Spikelets with a terminal perfect fl., and one or
more imperfect male or nenter below it ; rachilla not prodaoed beyond the
perfect n.

Panicle contracted or spiciform ; spikelets awnless . . 56. Fhalabis.
Panicle spiciform ; gla. 6, HI and IV neuter, awned;

stamens 2 57. Antroxanthum.

Panicle lax.; gls. 6, III and IV male, awned or not . 58. UiKRocutoA.

Snbtribe VI. AoBOSTiDBiR. Spikelets 1-fld. ; rachilla jointed at the
base, produced or not beyond the flg. gl. ; gls. 3, 1 and II empty. III
flg. awned.

Excepfions. n SpikeUtt sometimes 2-fld. in Sporobolus and Mushlsnbergia.

Snbtribe I. Stipes. Spikelets panicled ; rachilla not produced beyond
gl. Ill ; fl. gl. rigid or hard, awned (except Milium),

Gl. Ill narrow, awn 8-fld 59. Abibtida. '

Gl. HI narrow, awn entire, grain terete .... 60. 8tipa.



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