Joseph Delcourt.

Medicina de quadrupedibus : an early ME. version with introduction, notes, translation and glossary online

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B E STS 3m


An Early ME. Version
With Introduction, Notes, Translation and Glossary

Presented in Partial Fulfilment of the Conditions
of the Paris University Litt. D

These compl^mentaire pour le Doctorat 6s lettres presentee
a la Faculte des lettres de TUniversite de Paris


Joseph Delcourt

agr6g6 de I'Universile, professeur au Lyc6e et charge de conferences
a rUniversit6 de Montpellier




Carl \A^inter

B 2 595309


An Early ME. Version
With Introduction, Notes, Translation and Glossary

Presented in Partial Fulfilment of the Conditions
of the Paris University Litt. D

These complementaire pour le Doctorat es lettres presentee
a la Faculte des lettres de TUniversite de Paris


Joseph Delcourt

agr6ge de I'Universite, professeur au Lycee et charge de conferences
a rUniversfte de Montpellier


Carl Winter


Alle Rechte, besonders das Recht der tbersetzung \irerden vorbehalten.

iEmilio Senart indianistae

Ihe Medicina de quadrupedibus, an early Middle -English version,
has long been announced as one of the future publications of the
Early English Text Society (Extra Series). Having failed to get it
printed by the Society within reasonable limits of time, I asked
Prof. Hoops's permission to have it published as one of the An-
glistische Forschungen. My respectful thanks are due to him for his
ready acceptance of the proposal for which I feel the more indebted
as Prof, Hoops is, as I was informed after applying to him, pre-
paring the publication of a critical edition of the Medicina himself.



Books referred to VI


A. General remarks VII— XX

B. Phonetics.

I. The vowels in accented syllables . . . XX— XXVI

Short vowels XX— XXIII

Long vowels XXIII— XXV

Diphthongs XXV— XXVI

II. The vowels in weakly accented and

unaccented syllables XXVI

III. Consonants XXVI— XXXI

The semi-vowel w XXVI

Liquids XXVII

Nasals XXVII

Labials XXVIII

Dentals XXVIII

Sibilants XXIX

Gutturals and palatals XXIX -XXXI

G. Accidence.

I. Substantives XXXII— XXXVIU

II. Adjectives XXXVIII— XL

III. Numerals XL

IV. Pronouns XL-XLUI


L» Strong verbs XLIII-XLV

2." Weak verbs XLV— XLVI

3.** Preterite-present verbs .... XLVI

4.« Verbs in wt XLVI-XLVII

Summary of results XL VII — LI

Text 2-25

Glossary ' 26—40


Books referred to.

H. Berberich, Das Herbarium Apuleii. Heidelberg 1902.

J. W. Bright, The Gospel of Saint John in West-Saxon, with a glossary
by Lancelot Minor Harris. Boston & London 1904.

J. Bos worth & T. N. Toller (BT.), Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Oxford

K. Biilbring, Altenglisches Elementarbuch. I. Teil. Lautlehre. Heidel-
berg 1902.

0. Cockayne, Leechdoms, wortcunning and starcraft of early England.
Vol. I (text) and vol. HI (glossary). London 1864.

Fr. Kluge, Geschichte der englischen Sprache in Pauls Grundrifi. Strafe-
burg 1899.

M. LSweneck, TTepl bibdHewv. Erlangen 1896.

R. Morris, Specimens of early English (A. D. 1150 — A. D. 1300).
Oxford 1887.

L. Morsbach, Mittelenglische Grammatih. Erste Halfte. Halle 1896.

J. A. H. Murray, H. Bradley & W. A. Graigie, A new English Dictionary
(NED.). Oxford 1884 -.

E. Sievers, Angelscichsische Grammatik. Dritte Auflage. Halle 1898.

H. Sweet, History of English Sounds (HES.). Oxford 1888.

„ The Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon. Oxford 1897.
„ First Middle-English Primer. 2d edition. Oxford 1899.
„ An Anglo-Saxon Primer. 8^^ edition. Oxford 1900.

E. Wiilfing, Die Syntax in den WerJcen Alfreds des Gro^en. 2 vol.
Bonn 1894 & 1901.

Add to these the review of Mr. Berberich's work contributed by Prof.
Max Forster to the Literaturblatt fiir germanische und roma-
nische Philologie. 1902 no. 8. 9.



A. General remarks.

§ 1. Object and method of the work.

§ 2. Description of the ms.

§ 3. A brief comparison with the other mss.

§ 4. Spelling.

§ 5. Dialect.

§ 1. — The present publication is intended as a com-
plement to those made by previous editors of the text of
ms. Harl. 6258 (Brit. Mus.). The third part of this ms.,
entitled TTepi bibdHeiuv, was published by Mr. Loweneck in
the Erlanger Beitrdge (1896) and the first, entitled Her-
barium Apuleii, by Mr. Hugo Berberich in this series
(Heidelberg 1902). It was at the kind suggestion of Prof.
Napier that I undertook to copy out the second and
shortest, namely the Medicina de quadrupedihus, which I
bring out to-day with introduction, notes, translation and
glossary, as a supplementary « these » for a doctor's degree
in the University of Paris. My copy includes the whole
text of the Medicina as given in the ms. without, how-
ever, the § Be beta which belongs to it, but which was
rightly taken in by Mr. Berberich. The two lines imme-
diately before, viz.: Wid eafodece poUege . . ., omitted by
him, are given here.

Of the two pubHcations just referred to, the first only
claims to supply students with a correct text, to which it
prefixes a few remarks on the mss. in which the said text

VIII Introduction.

is found. The second, besides establishing the text with
great care, gives a general description of the ms., followed
by observations on its relation to the older English copies
of the Herbarium, on its spelling, date, and dialect, and
by a full account of its sounds and forms. My edition of
the Medicina being intended exclusively for a contribution
to the study of early ME. grammar, I have of course
adopted the latter plan and considered it my duty to write
an introduction similar to that of Mr. Berberich. I have,
however, deviated from the model his work offered me in
a few points where improvement seemed possible. In
doing so I have paid special attention to the observations
made on the matter by Prof. Forster in his able review of
the Herharium.^ The main changes thus introduced are
the separation, in the Phonetics, of the weakly accented
and unaccented syllables from the others; the use of
spaced italics in the Phonetics and in the Accidence to de-
note the spellings which seem characteristic of ME.^, and
the addition of a glossary where all the words of the text
are recorded with the forms under which they occur and
numerous references to pages and lines.

The following points are to be noticed by those who
use the present publication:

1^. The text has been copied out with the greatest accu-
racy possible. However it has been thought useless to re-
produce all its features and principally its obvious mis-
takes where they offer no linguistic interest. Thus wrip
6i5 has been mormaUzed into wrip and loececroeftef 29, where
the two (Bs evidently represent le and where the second f

* cf. the list of books referred to p. VI.

* In determining those speUings I have been guided principally
by Bulbring's and Sievers's works.

General remarks. IX

can only stand for s has been replaced by Ixcecrseftes. Yet,
with the exception of the sign ce which has been silently
normalized into x wherever it occurs ^, I have never ven-
tured to correct a word without mentioning it in its in-
correct form in the footnotes, the form substituted being
always that of ms. V, unless otherwise noted. ^ Besides
those necessary substitutions, which are regularly indicated
by an asterisk, I have had recourse to ms. V wherever
the obscurity of ms. made it desirable. In such cases
I have inserted the reading of ms. V within brackets in
the text (with no asterisk) and quoted that of ms. in
the notes. Parentheses have been used only when a letter
was faint or had altogether disappeared from the text, f. i.
scinlaCc) I65. I have allowed myself a free hand with
regard to the separation of words, often uniting what is
separated and separating what is united: thus I have
written tvif-pingun lOie IO17 instead of wifpingun which is
the reading of the ms.; my principle in that respect has
been to write as two words united by a hyphen the
compounds which bear an accent upon the first element,
f. i. setl-gange 62, heafod-ece IO2, and as one word those
in which the first element, accented or not, is merely a
prefix.^ The glosses and also the pecuUarities of writing

^ This holds good of the Introduction and the Notes except in
the case of Se where the correction made by the scribe would be unin-
telligible without the oe. The spelling of the ms. is also mentioned in
the case of *lcecedom 613 where it is not Icecedon but laecedon.

2 cf. p. XIII for a comparison between the ms. printed here (ms.
0) and ms. V printed by Cockayne in his Saxon Leechdoms. My
corrections are taken from Cockayne's printed text which has been
collated with the original and I follow his spelling whether it agrees
with my principles or not. Words quoted from the ms. only in the
notes are transcribed unchanged.

^ However words in which the compound is less felt are written
as one word: thus lacedome %i. *morbeames 621.

X Introduction.


have been reproduced as they are in the ms., f. i. on

lineo panno

Unnenon hrxjele 2i4, ylcan IO3 and no special notice has
been taken of them in the notes. Finally the use of dots
over ^'s and ^s has been normalized and the accents of
the text have been retained.

2^. The translation is copied from Cockayne's Leechdoms
—at least v^here ms. agrees with ms. V, but some
alterations have been introduced to render the text with
greater precision. Latin has been preferred to English
where the previous editor chose to adopt it rather than
offend decency, but his unnecessary archaisms have not
been retained. Explanatory words are added within
parentheses f. i. Co> herry) li and those which correspond
to words taken from ms. V, or are otherwise required by
the text, are supplied within brackets, f. i. [aware . . of
thy virtues ... 84],

3^. In the Phonetics and Accidence I have limited
myself to comparatively few examples, except where some
particular point required to be insisted upon, and I have
excluded from each the forms which show a peculiarity
only from the point of view of the other. In the Accidence
I have chosen the same word to exemplify the various
cases of a noun or the various tenses of a verb wherever
it was possible. When a word written in spaced itaUcs
in one of the two sections also occurs in the other, I
have abstained from using that type where it was no
longer justified. Of course when a word had had to be
corrected in the text, it has nevertheless been quoted as it
is in ms. 0.

4^. In the glossary the order of words is strictly
alphabetical, se being placed between ad and af\ but initial

General remarks. XI

p follows t. All words are mentioned under their initials,
except compounds in je which will be found under the
simple words. All forms, either correct or not, and all
variant spellings are entered, the starting-point, however,
being only the OE. form which is quoted in spaced type.^
When there is no difference between that form and that
referred to, it is not repeated, even if the latter represents
a case or person which makes it different from the former:
thus after opt. 3d. pi. wexan (from 14i) is not quoted
because ivexan, being also the form of the infinitive, is
written in the margin. Contractions are expanded, and it
has been thought useless to reproduce the accents of the
text. The gender of nouns is designated except when it is
unknown to Sweet and BT; if it is doubtful it is written
within parentheses.^ Numerals indicate the six classes of
ablaut verbs (after Sievers's classification); w. 1, w. 2, w. 3
the three classes of weak verbs; pret.-p. the preterite-present
verbs; anv. the anomalous verbs; rd. the redupUcative
verbs. The case governed by the verb is mentioned if it
is not the accusative. The parts of the verb are quoted
in the following order: inf., pr. p., ger., ind. pres., opt.
pres., imp., ind. pret., opt. pret., pp., no designation being
used in the case of ind. and of pres. ^ Here again paren-
theses show that what they include has been entered with

^ The entries placed within brackets refer to words not belonging
to ms. 0. Those within parentheses are hypothetical forms: thus
(Ohyldan, f el-sty cce).

^ Parentheses are also used for explanatory words (cf. leoht) and
with the word Idpartus, my knowledge of which does not go beyond
the word itself.

' This and a certain number of the other principles adopted in
the glossary are borrowed from the glossary contributed by Prof.
L. M. Harris to The gospel of St. John in WS. ; cf. the list of books
referred to. One of the said principles is to add «etc.» after references
wherever at least two more examples might be adduced.

XII Introduction.

some hesitation: thus picjan which, although partly belonging
to the fifth ablaut series in OE., only shows weak forms
in our text, is followed by (5). Minor distinctions are
omitted; f. i. under se, seo, p{d)x(a)t, it has been thought
sufficient to make it clear that the vowel of the neuter
nominative or accusative may be ^ or a and no distinction
is made between the places which have p{^)£et and those
which have p{d)at

In conclusion of these preliminary remarks, I wish to
express my deep gratitude to Prof. Napier who, besides
setting me on the track of the Medicina^ gave me a lesson
in editing when I submitted him my copy of it and has
since read through my introduction with great profit to the
present publication.^ I shall be glad to hear of any sug-
gestion tending to the improvement of my work which may
have escaped the attention of that eminent scholar.

§ 2. — The description of ms. given by Mr. Berberich
in his introduction^ applies to our portion of it (pp. 44a — 51)
in so far as it refers to the sections of the Herbarium
which were left undamaged by the fire of 1731. As far
as I can judge the text is written in the same hand from
end to end, the hand belonging to a scribe who was not
very particular about the exactness and correctness of what
he wrote. The titles, isolated from the context, and a large
number of the first letters of sections are written in red;
such additional titles as occur in the margin are also in
red, with one exception^, the places where red colour was
to be used for the first letter of Wi|)(5) being sometimes

* I need not add that I am alone responsible for its contents.

2 p. 1-4.

^ The titles written in red in the ms. are reproduced in fat
spaced type in the present edition. In the margins, however, the
distinction has not been preserved.

General remarks. XIII

marked by a (W) sign. The few glosses, either in Latin
or in English, scattered in the margins or above the lines,
are more generally in black. Both titles and glosses are
occasionally framed in red. As to the dates to which those
various additions are to be ascribed and to the hands from
which they originate I can state nothing precise.

A few minor peculiarities are pointed out in the foot-

§ 3. — As pointed out above, a full comparison of the
text of ms. with that given by other mss. lies outside
the scope of the present work. ^ It may be of interest,
however, to those acquainted with the Medicina as it is
printed in Cockayne's Saxon LeecMoms^, to have an idea
of the chief differences between ms. and ms. V on the
one hand, and mss. B and H on the other.

Unlike the Herbarium^ the Medicina is transcribed in
ms. in the same order as in the other mss. If we leave
out of consideration a few titles and two portions of lines
which do not belong to the text^, it may be said that it
differs from ms. V in the following respects.

1^. It is considerably shorter, a number of paragraphs
which occur in V not being found in 0. Among the more
important omissions are the following:

^ My object being not to make critical a text of the Medicina,
but to bring out the characteristic points of its early ME. form, I
abstain from including here the lists of readings from mss. V, B and
H which I have drawn up.

2 Vol. I, p. 326 ff. I refer the reader to the preface of that
work for particulars about the Latin source and the English mss. older
than 0, as also about our knowledge of the remedies, charms and
superstitions used among the ancients. I may add here that in that
preface Cockayne expressed the opinion that ms. 0, which he had not
thought it fit to collate through, might some day be printed in full as
a contribution to the history of the English language.

? cf. note to p. 84.



p. 610 the Greek words are replaced by: Ic nime J5e 7

Cefa, followed by plura uerba;

p. 814 a paragraph (also containing Greek words) is

p. 824 six paragraphs are omitted;

p. IO18 two lines are omitted, the omission being ob-
viously due to the fact that mencg, or a similar word,
occurs both in the portion kept and in the portion
left out;

p. 12i5 after jedrijede, owing to the omission of two lines
two recipes are mixed up;

p. 2O26 more than one page is omitted.^

2^. Some passages offer readings different from those
of V. I limit myself to a few striking instances :




we nemnaff

man nemned 2io



^efarenne 4i5

ham to cyrrenne

hale to cumende


loca 6n


7 nseni^ man
ser mid cemde

7 nseni^ man 3er
mid cxmde

mid csemde

7 na mare ser
mid cemde 617

her bufan

her bufon

her bufon

her before IO3


eft gelice pon pe
her bufan je-
cweden is ge-

nim pat ylcan

7 IO3
eft nim pa ylcan

nim pa ylcan

gemylted drype

onb ■ r^e


gebr%de IO7

^edrupe 7 je-

mylted IO22
wude-gete 1427
hruca 166

* See p. 2221 for a case in which, on the contrary, a few lines
are erroneously omitted by V.

Gbnbral remarks.



hyt hifP gehseled wanting



hra&e hy fleod"





se wifman se pe

7 shuca hyt hyd
gehseled IGe

fort I610

rad'e se flewsa
from hym ge-
nnte& 2O2

fort 2O9

se wifman pat


It will be noticed that there are but few differences
between V and BH. The latter texts having, as far as they
go, none of the omissions pointed out above, it would be
tempting to infer that while there is no necessary connection
between VBH and 0, there is to say the least a possible
one between V and BH. This, however, is a mere hypo-

With regard to the dates to which the mss. may be
ascribed, the date about 1050 given by Cockayne^ for V
seems fairly correct and there is apparently no reason either
to dispute the other dates given by him^, viz. about the
same date for B and a little later for H. Ms. 0, on the
other hand, though preserving many characteristics of OE.^,
can safely be ascribed to about a century later. This is
supported by the following considerations:

1^. There are frequent cases of weakening and con-
fusion of the unaccented syllables, cf. p. XXVI;

2^. OE. «/, whether «fast» or «unfast», is often re-
presented by w. fot'Swulan 125, blod-rune 14-6 14ii, hure
826, cuse I613 16i5 16ifi — also ylcan IO3;

3^. OE. se is often preserved, but a is also frequently
substituted. The phonetics shows examples of ^as, hahhe etc.;

1 Lc.p.LXXIX. — 2 I.e. p. LXXXIV. — ^See under § 5 p.XlX.

XVI Introduction.

4^. The vocalism of leuiende 22i is ME. ; also that of
hermen IO17, ferres 228 22i2;

5^ We perhaps see a proof of Norman influence in
the use of u in leuiende^ 221;

6^. opper, odder (= mod. or) the first examples of
which known to NED. appear in the TTepi bibdHeiuv^ and in
the OE. Chronicle under the date 1127 is very frequent in
our text. Two other examples of comparatively recent
words are lefore in her-hefore IO3 of which NED. has no
example without the termination in n before 1200^ and
fort (= till) the first example of which to my knowledge
occurs in the Ancren Riwle^ (about the beginning of the
13^^ century).

§ 4. — The chief points to be examined in connection
with spelling are 1^. the cases of confusion of letters, the
additions and omissions; 2^. the abbreviations; 3^. the ac-
cents, doss etc.

1^. Confusion of letters; additions and omissions.

As in the Herbarium, the cases of confusion of letters
are numerous; they can be divided under three heads:
a) those in which the confusion is merely graphic ; b) those
which can be explained by some association; c) those in
which a pure scribal error has to be admitted. It need
hardly be added that several reasons may have contributed
to the confusion.

a) The confusion seems to be merely graphic, viz. to
be due to the resemblance of letters when we meet:

^ It is true that spellings in u occur in the word even as early
as the nth century (HES. § 589).

2 cf. s. V. under a). The TTepi bibdSeuiv is here dated 1200—25.

* cf. s. V. 3 b. biforr (Orm).

* cf. Morris's Specimens of early English IX, 3 11 etc. Of course
the A. R. writes uort.

General remarks. XVII

X for a: hxle IO13, hxres SOs.

X for e\ fuper-faete 44 4i8.

(B for «: (^ce? 48, wamhe-wyoece 142, etc. (As pointed out
p. XI all the oes due to that confusion have been
silently normalized into ^s.)

u for a: lescolupio 2?, pannum I220.

II (u) for 0: teu'rse I824.

u for en: ?ww^w 125.

y for r: wambe-wycece 142.

Z for ^: ?mra 4i3.

r for w: ares 4i6.

r for n\ to&reomera 2222.

»i for m\ laecedon 613, wiw 143.

jf for s: Isececrseftef 29, ^2//^ (for gytst) 222o.

/" for w\ nife I825, fif-^ingud 22i3.

^ for /t: ^eoj5 I65, purp I65, _peo_p-wrace I82.

5i<; for ^: 5i<;a I813.

^ for ^: hara 4i9, ^e 129, awirph I625.

b) It seems natural to explain by association a certain
number of other confusions. I understand them to be

a) letter associations. — Either a letter is anticipated:
lelome for jelome 14i, fulfes for tvulfes 20i7 2O202O21,
fulfune for tvulfune (i.e. wylfene) 2O25, merurh for
mearh — the a being moreover v^ritten «^ — 223
deolfolseocnesse for deofolseocnesse 20i7, nserdran for
nsedran 82 — notice the curious neardran 22? where
the erroneous insertion of r causes breaking (also
due perhaps to eardien which immediately follows?).
Add to these some cases of metathesis: swyrdanan
for swydran 220, diXi& nosprul I612 ;
p) grammatical associations. — receles for recelses 128 may
imply a tendency to understand receZi? as a gs.; in

Delcourt, Medicina de Quadrupedibus. II

XVIIl Introduction.

hring-fingrum 65 the scribe must have erroneously-
understood the plural to be meant; in spiwan SOs
we have a case of substitution of the verb to the
substantive; in scep^es (3*^ pers. sing.) 2i6 4i7 the s
may be due to that of the 2*^ person,
c) There is a considerable number of pure scribal

errors: thus ofslean 2i3 stands for ofslea, hale 4i5 for ham

etc. See the notes.

2^. Abbreviations.

a) and is always written 7.

b) The sign ~ is always meant to represent an m or
an n: jefremenne ^04.— pane 220, nyhtu 49 — also ne: ^on 222o.
Curiously enough we find it in swyrdanan 220. Except in
the case just mentioned the contractions thus marked by -
are expanded all through the present publication, thus

c) p represents either cj. pset or pset nns. and ans. of
the dem. pron. 29 2io etc., once pa the afs. of the same
pron. I811, or cj. ponne 28.

d) Other abbreviations, such as opp 2i4 222, eeft^ 49
need no special explanation.

3^. Accents, dots etc.

With the exceptions of egypHd 23 and aj'e lOio, the
latter an obvious mistake, the accents and dots occur only
over an i or an y. Ex. : yfel 2i7, sy 42 — hiwind 2i4, dinum
4i3, drowion 22i. It is clear from the examples quoted that
they cannot be taken to mark length. They may be in-
tended to distinguish an i or an y from a letter of the same
height on the line.

A dot or several dots under a word or part of a word
show a mistake; the word is generally re-written in its

General remarks. XIX

correct form or the correction is otherwise marked; cf.f.i.

a y

9'fy I flyjennysse 226 and smere 122o. In one case we find

the sign ^ used twice to show inversion of order: /^fexe
^feallendum 12i9. The same sign also occurs sometimes in
the text either in black or in red, to refer to a word added
in the margin, f. i. above egypHd 23, king and rex being
written in the margin (the latter twice), and after tvri^ 615,
on being written in the margin.

The glosses and minor pecularities will be found either

1 3 4 5 6

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