Joseph E. (Joseph Emerson) Worcester.

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PRONOUNCING



S,PELLING-BOOK



OF THB



ENGLISH. LANGUAGE.



By J. E. WORCESTER, LL. D



PHILADELPHIA:
ELDREDGE AND BROTHER

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EnUrcd according to Act of Congress, in the year 1857, by

JOSEPH E. WORCESTER,

In tlas Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.



PREFACE



There are now so many siielling-books of different degrees of excel"
fence, more or less in use in this country, that it may well be thought
not desirable to have their number increased ; but tbe compiler has
t>een desired to prepare one suitable to be used in connection with
liis Dictionaries, conformed to them in orthography and pronunciation,
and having the same system of notation in marking the sounds of the
ietters.

The design has been to give both the orthography and pronuncia-
'tion which are in accordance witli the practice of the best writers and
'Speakers both m England and in the United States. With respect to
■orthography, the best American writers vary Utile from the estab-
lished English usage. The most noted difference relates to a number
•of words ending in or or our ; ViS, favor, honor, o^ favour, lionour. In
this country it is the prevailing practice to omit the u ; though in
England it is the general custom to retain it in a number of words,
the most of which are dissyllables.

In the orthography and orthoepy of the English language th-ere are
many irregularities and difficulties ; and in this book an attempt has
been made so to classify the words as to present these irregularities
and difficulties distinctly to the mind of the learner, that he may see
and become famiharized with the irregularities, and enabled easily to
overcome the difficulties.

The greatest difficulty in spelling EngHsh words aiises &om the
different modes in which several ef the elementary sounds of the lan-
guage are represented by the letters of the alphabet ; and from the
sise of the same letter, or the same combination of letters^ to express
(different sounds. The long scund ©f a^ for example, is represented in
eight different ways ; as in fate, aid, hay^ they, veil, break, gauge^
gaol. On the other hand, the letter a stands for five different sounds^
;as given in the Xeyj and^ besides^ it lias the sound of short o, as in



4 PREFACE.

was. The diphthong ou is employed to express eight varieties of
sound ; as in bought (a), bound (bu)^ cough (6), could (u), course (5),
journal (ii), row^A (ii), soi^p (6).

The occurrence of silent letters in many words, and the slight o?
obscure sounds which the vowels often have, when not accented, are
likewise causes of embarrassment or difl&culty in spelling.

The words for spelling are presented in numerous classes or divis-
ions, in order to illustrate the various principles s>f orthography and
pronunciation j words of the simplest form, mth respect to spelling
and pronunciation, being first exhibited, followed, in regular order, by
such as are less simple and more difficult.

According to the views of experienced teachers, frequent practice in
writing is i^cessary in order to acquire a practical and thorough
knowledge of orthography, and it is chiefly for this purpose that the
Exercises are intended. The pupils, after spelling the words orally,
may have the sentences dictated to them, and they may be required
to write the words printed in italics. The judicious teacher, however,
win vary the mode of using the Exercises as he may find most useful j
and in reviewing, he may dictate the sentences promiscuously, so as
to avoid any leading hints in regard to the correct spelling of the
italicized words. Other sentences may be framed by the teacher for
such words in the columns as are not found in the Exercises. It is
particularly desirable that this should be done with reference to the
Kulesfor Spelling, for Syilabieation, for Capital Letters, and for Italics,
which admit of wide application. The Exercises will be found more
or less useful in illustrating the meaning of the itaHcized words ; and
it may be advantageous for the pupils to read them ©eeasionaUy, in
order to test their knowledge of pronunciation.

In the preparation of this book, the design has been to furnish a
■useful and convenient manual for teaching the orthography and pro^
nuneiation of the English language. It will be found to differ r»uch
from any other work of the kind which has heretofore been publisJ>ed i
but whether it possesses any peculiar advantages must be left to tlie
judgment erf those who take an interest in elementary education.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE

Alphabet. ....,,.,. 6

Letters, Syllables, and Words. .i>. ...».•. 7

Key to the Soimds of the Marked Letters. .•«.,, 9
Sounds of the Vowds and Consonants, .«r>,,..lG

Table of Elementary Sounds. ..12

Bemarks upon the Table of Elementary Sounds, o , . , 13

L Monosyllables with no Silent Letter. « . , . 15

II. Monosyllables ending with a Silent E, « . . 20

ni. The Equivalents C, Q, ^d X, , , „ . , . 22
IV. Dissyllables in which the Sounds have the Signs

already explained. .24

V. Modes of expressing the Elementary Sounds. . 29

VL "Words containing Silent Letters. 76

VII. Words containing Syllables liable to be ctm-

founded „ 95

VIII. Words pronounced alike, but spelled differently. . 109
IX. Words spelled and accented alike, but differently ^

pronounced. 129

X. Words difficult to spell 131

XI. Rules for Spelling. ,.,.....,. 137

I. Christian Names of MeiT and Women. . . . » .148

II. Marks or Points used in Writing and in Printing. . 152

III. Bules for Syllabication, 155

IV. Eules fOT the Use of Capital Letters 156

V. Italics, Old English, etc 157

VI. Poman and Arabic Notations 160

VII. Abbreviations and Signs. 162

VIII. Words and Phrases from Foreign Languages. . . .173
IX. The Ten Commandments, and the Sum of them. • • 178

The Beatitudes. ™ The Lord's Prayer 17^

1* ^)



THE ALPHABET,



ROMAK

Capital Small
Letters. Letters.

a
b
c
d
e
f

g
h



k

1

m

n

a

P

q

r

s
t
u

Y
W
X

y



Italict.



Capital
Letters.

A
B

a

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N



F

Q

R

JS

T

U

V

w

X
Y

z



Small
Letters.

a
h

e
d
e

f

9

h

I

J •

7c

I

m

n

o

P

9
r

s

i

%h

V
ID

y



&



Old English.

Capital Small
Letters. Letters.

a a

13 b

€ £

« £ •

if f
05 g

fi I)
1 i

3 i

K k

% i

ill m

N n



P
r

t

K
»

m
t

2

?



®

s



to

X



^



SCKIPT.

Capital SraalT
Letters. Letter^












/

c



F

/









/



a;



#-



Double Letters.

^ ^ (E oe ff fi fl



(6)



INTRODUCTION.



LETTEKS, SYLLABLES, AND WORDS.

Obthogeaphy treats of letters and syllables, and of the proper mode of
spelling words.

Orthoepy treats of the right pronunciation of words.

A LETTER is a character used in writing or printing to represent a sound
of the human voice.

In the English alphabet there are twenty-six letters, written and printed in
two forms, by which they are distinguished as capitals and as small letters.
Letters are also printed in various kinds of types, of which the most common
and important are the following : —

Roman, Italic, <©ltl JElXfllfsf), or SSlacfe Setter, and <Mi^.

Letters are divided into two principal classes, — vowels and consonants.*

A vowel is a letter which represents a free and uninterrupted sound of the
human voice ; or, as it is commonly defined, " it is a letter which can be per-
fectly sounded by itself." The vowels are a, e, i, o, u ; also w at the end of
a syllable, and y except at the beginning of a syllable.

A diphthong is the union of two vowels in one syllable ; as, oi in hoil.

K proper diphthong is one in which both of the vowels are sounded ; as,
oi in voice, ou in sound.

An improper diphthong is one in which only one of the vowels is sounded ;
as, ea in beat, oa in boat.

A triphthong is the union of three vowels in one syllable ; as, eau in
beauty, iew in vieio.

A co7isonant is a letter whieU represents a sound that is modified by some
interruption during its passage through the organs of speech ; or, as it is
commonly defined, "it is a letter which cannot be sounded, or but imper-

* By some writers, letters are also divided into tonics (having tone), subtonics
(having a slight tone), and atonies (having 710 tone) ; or into vocals, suhvocals, and
aspirates (whispered). The former division is that of Dr. Rush. The tonics are a
(as in ale, an, art, awe), e (as in eel, end, err), i (as in isle, in), (as in old, ooie),
and ou (as in onr) ; the subtonics are b, d, g (as in give), I, m, n, r, v, w, y (as in ye),
z (as in ieal), % (as in azure), th (as in this), ng (as in sing) ; the atonies are/, h, k,
f, s, t, th (as in thin), sh (as in shall), wh (as in which). The latter division, as
stated by Dr. Bullions, is as follows : vocals, a, e, i, 0, u, ow, subvocals, b, d, g,j, I,
m, n, ng, r, th (as in this), v, w, z (as in zeal), z (as in azure) ; aspirates,/, h, k, p, s,
t, th (as in faith), sh, ch, wh. The teacher who prefers the names used by thess
writers to those of vowels, semivowels, and mutes, can Bse thera withott incon-
venience in connection with this work.

(7)



8 LETTEKS, SYLLABLES, AND WORDS.

fectly, without the aid of a vowel." The consonants are &, c, d,f^ g, h,j, k^
I, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v,x,z; also w and y before a vowel in the same syllable.*

The consonants are di-^ided into semivowels and mutes ; and also into la»
bials, dentals, palatals, gutturals, and nasals.

A semivowel is a consonant, the utterance of which is only slightly ob=.
structed by the closure of the vocal organs. The semivowels are c soft,_/,
g soft, hj, I, m, n, r, s, v, w, x, y, z. Four of these, /, w, n, r, are termed
liquids, from their smooth and flowing sound.

A im.de is a consonant, the sound of which is almost completely interrupt-
ed by a mutual contact of the vocal organs. The mutes are h, c hard, c?,
g hard, k, p, q, t.

The labials, letters sounded chiefly with the lips, are h, f, m, p, v, and to.

The dentals, letters sounded with the tongue against the upper teeth, are
d, s, t, z, and th.

The 2}ctlatals, letters sounded in part with the palate, or roof of the mouth,
are J", I, n, r, z (as in azzire), and ch and sh.

The gutturals, letters sounded in the throat, are c kard, g hard, k, q.

The nasals, letters sounded through the nose, are m (which is also a
Jubial), n (also a. palatal), and 7ig.

A digrajjh is a union of two letters representing one sound ; KS,th in thing.

A SYLLABLE is a letter, or a combination of letters, pronounced by a single
impulse of the voice, and is either a word, or a part of a word ; as, a, an,
an-vil. In every syllable there must be at least one vowel.

A word of one syllable is called a monosxjllable ; as, art ; — a word of two
syllables, a dissyllable ; as, art-ist ; — a word of three syllables, a trisyllable ;
as, ar-ti-Jice ; — a word of more than three syllables, a polysyllable ; as,
ar-ti-fi-cial, ar-ti-fi-cial-ly .

The last syllable but one of a word is called the jsenw?^ ox penuUima', and
the last syllable but two, the antepenult.

Syllabication is the correct division of words into syllables.

A WORD expresses an idea : when spoken, it is a sound or a combina-
tion of sounds, uttered by the human voice ; and when written, it is a letter
or a combination of letters representing a sound or combination of sounds.

A. prefix is a word or syllable joined to the beginning of a word to modify
its meaning ; as, out in outrun, un in unjust.

A suffix, affix, ox postfix, is a word or syllable joined to the end of a word,
to modify its meaning ; as, like in saintlike, ish in foolish.

A simple wgrd is one that is not compounded ; as, book, moM, xcorJc.

A cotnpound word is one that is composed of two or more simple words ;
as, bookbindei', fellow-icorkman.

A primitive or radical word is one that cannot be reduced or traced to
any simpler word in the language ; as, hook, man, icoi'k.

A derivative word is one formed from a primitive by the additiom of some
prefix, suffix, or grammatical termination ; as, unman, bookish, working.

* The term corisonant is derived from the Latin consonans, and means literally
sounding with. It is applied to thia class of letters for the reasoH that they denote
sounds which are usually joined with vowel sounds in forming the articulattoas of
ordinary speech.



KEY TO THE MARKED LETTERS.



9



KEY TO THE SOUNDS OF THE MAHKED LETTERS.



Vowels.



Examples.

1. A long Fate, aid, player.

2. A short Fat, man, carry.

3. A long before R . Fdre, pAir, beAr.

4. A Italian or grave Far, father, cS.]m.

5. A intermediate ... Fist, griss, branch.

6. A broad FS.11, Mul, wArnj.

7. 4- obscure or slight Ligir, paljtce, riv^il.

1. Elong Mete, seal, keep.

2. E short ..•. MSt, men, ferry.

3. E like A Heir, there, where.

4. E short and obtuse Her, herd, fern.

5. Jg obscure or slight Brier, fuel, celery.

1. I long Pine, mild, fire.

2. 1 short Pin, fill, mirror.

3. I like long E . . . . Machine, marine.

4. I ^hort and obtuse Fir, bird, virtue.

5. I obsotre or slight Elixjr, ruin, logjc.



Examples.

1. O long Note, foal, toW.

2. Q short Not, con, borrow.

3. O long and close Move, food, soon.

4. O broad, like A .. Nor, form, ought.

5. 6 like short U .. . Son, done, come.

6. Q obscure or slight Actor, fel9ny.

1. U long Tube, tune, pure.

2. tJ short Tiib, tun, hurry.

3. V middle or obtuse Bull, full, push.

4. a short and obtuse FUr, turn, hurt.

5. tl like O in move Rule, rtide, true.

6. V obscure or slight Sulphur, sirup.

1. Y long Type, style, lyre.

2. Y short Sylvan, symbol.

3. Y short and obtuse Myrrh, myrtle.

4. Y obscure or slight Truly, martyr.



61 and 6Y Boil, toil, boy, tbj?.

OU and 6W Bound, town, nbw'.

EW like long U Few, new, dew.



Consonants.



9j ?, .. sofi, like 3 A^id, placid.

je, £, . . . hard, like k . . . . Flagcid.

£h, ch, hard, like k . . . . jBharacter.

^'h, ^h, soft, like sh .... ^haise.

Ch (unmarked) like tsh . Charm.

;&,§,.. hard, jSet, |ive.

^,ti " sofi) likB J 9^ender, |iant.

§, §, ... soft. Wee z Mu^e, choofe.

^,^, .. soft or flat, like gz Example.

Th, th, softorflut This, then.

Th, th, sharp (unmarked) Thin, pith.

ti?!* },.,-, ( Nation.

_ > like shun ■< „ - .

BiQJx 3 ( Pensi9n.

fl^n .r.. Wi6 zhun Confufion.



like shao . . .



ce^in

cisin )

ci^il ^

sial > . . . like shal

ti§il J

ceous ■)

cious (" '" like shus

tious J

^eous )

^iou3 5

Ph (unmarked) like f

Clu (unmarked) like kw

Wh (unmarked) Uke hw



like jus



Oce?n.

Optician.

Commercigil.

Controversi^iL
. Parti?il.
' Farinaceoyg.
I Capacious.
- Sententioas.
\ Coura|eous.
• Religious.

Phantom.

Q.ueen.

When.



it) VOWELS AND CONSONANTS.

SOUNDS OF THE VOWELS AND CONSONANTS.

Vowels.

The vowel sounds are fully exhibited in the Key ; and most of them will
btt easily understood.

The vowel a, marked thus [4], has an intermediate sound between the
short sound of a, as in fat, man, and the Italian sound of a, as va. far, father.
A, in words having this mark, is pronounced by some orthoepists with the
•hort sound, and by others with the Italian sound.

The peculiar sound of a indicated by this mark [i], is heard only when
it precedes the sound of the letter r ; as in fare, pair.

In some words, a has the same sound as short o; as, was, what. See
page 44.

Vowels marked with a dot underneath, thus (9, e, \, o, u, y), are found so
marked only in syllables which are not accented, and which are but slightly
articulated. This mark is employed, not to denote any particular quality
of the sound, but only to indicate a slight stress of voice in uttering the
appropriate sound of the vowel ; and the vowels, in these cases, might per-
haps, without impropriety, have been left unmarked. If the syllables on
which the primary and secondary accents fall, are uttered with a proper
stress of voice, these vmaecented and comparatively indistinct syllables will
naturally be pronounced right.

This mark may be regarded as generally indicating an indistinct short
sound, as in mental, travel, peril, idol, forum, carry: — friar, speaker, na-
dir, actor, sulphur ; and the vowels in the second syllable of the last five
words might be changed, one for the other, ^\ithout perceptibly changiug
the pronunciation. In many cases, however, it indicates a slight or unac-
cented long sound ; as in sulphate, emerge, obey, dxiplicity, ediicate ; and, in
these cases, the vowels with a dot under them could not be changed, one
for the other, without materially affecting the pronunciation.

The vowel u at the beginning of words, when long, has the sound of yw,
as in union ; and in many words in which it occurs -without being accented,
it has the same sound of yu, slightly articulated ; as in educate and gradual^
which are pronounced as if written ed'yu-cate, grad'yu-al.

Vowels which are not marked are silent ; thus a in seal, e in. fate, i in hSir,,
u in haul, and y ia player, are not soimded.

CONSON.\NTS.

B has only one sound, as in bid, rob.

C has two sounds ; one hard, before a, 0, and u, as in can, cot, cut ; the
other soft, before e, i, and y, as in cell, citej cyst. It is sometimes silent
before t, as in indict, and always before k, as in hack.

The regular sound of the digraph ch is heard in chair, child; its hard



SOUNDS OF CONSONANTS, H

wmndflike k, in chord; its seft or French sound, like 5^, in chaise. -^It
is siient in drachm, schism, yacht.

D has onb/ one priacip-al sound, as in, done, had. — It sometimes has the
sound of t in the final syllable ed of the past tense or past parti^ple of %
verb; diS in annexed, expressed.^ iA [: ,

F h«5 only one sound, as infan^fop^ except, in of (av).

G has two sounds ; one hard, before a, a, and ti, as in ffale, got, gun ; the
-other soft, before e, i, and y^ a^ in gem,, gin, .gyre ; but it is also hard hefere
« and i in some words, as in get, give It is sometimes silent, as in gno.t,
desigp.. ^ n

H, which is, commonly called a breathing, has only one sound, as in hat^ *
^ne. In some words it is silent, as in heir, hour, rhetoric

J has only ene sound, the same as soft g, as 'mjest.

K has only one sound, the same as hard c, as in kin, kill. It is sometimes
silent, as in hwb. *

L has a soft, liquid sound, as in. lad, sell. In some words it is silent, -as
in talk, half.

M has onlj- <5ia.e s-ound , as in man, make. *

N has two sounds, one simple, as in not, fan ; the other compound, ot
aasal, as in anger, finger. It is silent in a few words, as in hymn.

P has only one sound, as in poi, pond. In some Avords it is silent, as m
psalm,. The digraph jaA has the same sound asy, as hx phial.

Q is always followed by w ; and qic has the sound of kw, as in queen, quilL

R has a rough or jarring soimd, as in rob, race ; and a smoother one, as
xafair, more,

S has two sounds, one sharp and hissing, as in safe, this ; the other soft,
flat, or vocai, (the same as the letter s), as in wise, has. It is in some words
silent, as in island.

T has only one sound, as in tell, tone. The digraph th has two sounds,
one hard, or sharp, as in thin, breath ; the other soft, flat, or vocal, as in
this, breathe.

V has only one sound, as in vale, vine.

W, consonant, has nearly the sound of 00, as in way, water. In some
words it is silent, as in write.

X has a sharp sound like ks, as in expect, tax, and a flat, soft, or vocal
sound, like gz, as in exist-. At the beginning of a word it has th© sound of z,
as in XenojjJion.

Y, consonant, has nearly the sound of es, as in you.

Z has the same sound as soft, flat, or vocal s, as in seal.

^@=" The consonants c, s, and f, when they come after the accent in many
words, and are followed by one of the vowels e or i, have an aspirated sound,
or the sound of sh, as in optician, ocean, pension, nation ; and s, in the
same situation, sometimes takes the sound of zh, as in confusion. See
the examples given in the Key, and in Section V., pages 62, 67.

* For the reason of tills change in the sound of d, and for other examples,
see pages 14 and 55.



12



ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.



TABLE OF ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.
L Vowel Sotjnd3.



1.


Sound of a in fate.


marked


&


11.


Sound of ^ in Mi?«?e, nc


arke


d


2.


«(


of a in fatf


M


a


•12.


u


of in not.


«


6


3;


M


cf a m fare.


((


t

a


13.


((


of w in <ii6e,


((


u


4.




of a in far,


«


a


14.


«


of w in tvh.


M


u


5.




of a in fast.


<(


a


15.





of w in n#^e,


U


A


6.




of a in fall.


<^


A

a


16.


M


of M in hull.


({


u


7.




of e in tnste,


M


e


17.


it


of w in yi^r,


((


G


S.




of e in met.


((


6


1&.


U-


of oi in 60^7,


<>.


03


9.




of i in J^^?^e,


i(


r


I».


t*


d €Wf in souttd.


^i-


{)^


10.


M


ef » in J7»9i>


M


1













n. Consonant Sounds.







Iidbial Sounds.




20.


Sound of p in pm, \


, sbarp


21.


«


of 6 in bin, j


. flat.


22.


<(


of/ in /an, ?
of V in vaw, 5


. sharp


23.


((


. flat.


24.


«(


of m in maw.




25.


«i


of «o in wei.
Dental Sounds.




26.


Sound of ^ in tin, \


. sharp


27.


<(


of <f in din, )


. fiat.


28.


«i


of th in iAm, 1
of ^Ain ihine,S


. sharp


29.


(<


. flat.


30.


<(


of s in sea^, >
of 2 in zeal, 5


. sharp


SI.


«<


. fiat.






Palatal Sounds.




32.


Sound of ch in cAes?, ^


. sharp


33.


((


of J in^es^, 5


. flat.



Palstal Sound£v

34. Sound of sh in shall, } . sharp.

35. *' of 2 in azure, ) . fiat,

36. " of 2/ in you.

37. ♦* of I in let.
38v *♦ of r in run.

39. " of n in not.

Guttural Sounds.

40. Sound of k in kid, ) . sharp.

41. " of ^ in go, 5 . fiat.



Ifasal Sound.

42. Sound of ng in sing.

Breathing.

43. Sound of A in ha4.



REMAUKS ON ELEMENTARY SOUNDS. IS



REMARKS ON THE TABLE OF ELEMENTARY SOUNDS,

!• Of the voTfel sounds, as exhibited in the Table, four are sounds modi-
fied by the consonant which foUowg^, them, and six are sounds compounded
of other vowel sounds.

Modified Vowel Sounds. — No. 3 (a in fare) is the long sound of a (No. 1),
qualified by being followed by the letter r.

No. 4 (a in far) is the short sound of a, and No. 17 (ti in fur) the short
sound of u (No. 14), both of them qualified by being followed by the letter r.

Note. — The sounds of the vowels e, i, and y, as in the words her, mercy; Jir^
virgin j myrrh, myrtle, all followed by r , differ little from the sound of u in fur.

No. 5 (a in fast) is an intermediate sound between No. 2 (a in fat) and
No. 4 (a in^r).

Compound Vowel Sounds. — No. 1 {a in fate) ends with a slight sound of
long e (No. 7).

No. 9 (i in pine) begins with the sound of a in fa/r (No. 4), and ends
with the sound of the first e in mete (No. 7).

No. 11 (o in note) ends with a slight sound oiuin. rule (No. 15), which ia
the same as that of oo in fooL

No. 13 (u in ttibe) begins with the sound of the first e in mete (No. 7),
and ends with the sound of u in nile (No. 15).

No. 18 (oi in boil) begins with the sound of o in nor (same as a in fall.
No. 6), and ends with the sound of i in pin (No. 10).

No. 19 (OM in bound) begins with the sound of o in nor (same as a in fall,
No. 6), and ends with the sound of ti in bull (No. 16).

2. Of the consonant sounds, two are strictly compounded of other conso-
nant soimds.

Compound Consonant Sounds. — No. 32 {ch in chest) begins >vith the
sound of i in tin (No. 26), and ends with the sound of sh in shall (No. 34).

No. 33 {j in Jest) begins with the sound of d in din (No. 27), and ends
with the sound of z in azure (No. 35).

There are six classes of consonant sounds, named from the organ by which
they are chiefly pronounced.

(1.) Six Labial Sounds,* uttered by the use of the lips.


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Online LibraryJoseph E. (Joseph Emerson) WorcesterA pronouncing spelling-book of the English language → online text (page 1 of 14)