Joseph E. (Joseph Emerson) Worcester.

A pronouncing spelling-book of the English language online

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The plural of quarto is wi'itten quartos or qm,rtoes.

4. The following nouns ending in / or fe form the plural by changing
these terminations into ves ; —



beef


half


life


sheaf


wife


calf


knife


loaf


shelf


wolf


elf


leaf


self


thief





Other nouns ending in / or fe, and those ending in ff, form the plural
regularly. The plural of xvharf, however, in the United States, is generally
written whai-ves, but- in England_?oAar/s. Staff becomes staves ; but its
compounds are regular; a?,, flagstaff , jlag staffs.

5. The plurals of the following nouns are variously and irregularly
formed : brother, brothers (of the same family), brethren (of the same
society or profession) ; child, children; die, dies (for coining), dice (for
playing) ; foot, feet ; goose, geese ; mcn^ men ; * mouse, mice ; ox, oxen ;

* So also the compounds of man j as, freeman, freemen ; Dutchman, Dutchmen ;
Frenchman, Frenchmen ; tut the vV'ords cayman, firman, Oerman, Mussulman, and
Ottoman, be&ig simple English words, form the plural regularly ; thus, caymans^
firmans, Qerntans, Mussulmans, Ottvmuns-,



RULES FOR SPELLING,



pig^, pease (collectively), ^ets^s (as individual seeds) ; penny, pence (as a sum
of money), penrdes (as individual coins) ; tooth, teeth ; woman, tcomen.

6. Compound words formed of a noun and an adjective, or of two nouns
Bonnected by a preposition^ generally pluralize the first word ; as, kmght»*
errant, cousins-german., s-ons-in^laK).

Remark. Nouns ending in ftil are not properly compound words, and
therefore follow the rule, by adding s to the termination; as, handfuls,
spoonfuls^

7. Nouns from foreign langua^s often retain their original plurals, and
isome have also an English form ; as, memorandum, memoranda or m,emt>-
randuins ; stamen, stamens and stamina. For the plurals of such words
Ike pupil must consult his dictionary.

Exercises for Writing. — The evening shades, "What can en-
noble sots, or slaves, or coivards f^ " Tis with our judgments as our
watch&s" " Even in our ashes live their wonted j^re^." A bunch of
trocuses. The bowses are painted white. "^o#oes of the heart." A
band of desperad<?es. " Etches are the baggage of virtue.'* The bright
Jlamingoes. ""We were binding sheaves in the field." The leaves of
the forest. Children, obey your parents. Etna and Vesuvius are
celebrated volcanoes. Do not mispronounce the word brethren.
Many women were there. Thieves break through, and steal. De-
structive tornadoes. Amend your ways and your doings. The wages
of sin. Bring lilies in handfuls.

Apply the rule to the formation of derivatives from the following
words : —



arc


case


latch


ray


ash


crime


life


ri(%e


beU


dew


mass


seam .


bone


fox


mat


sob


bud


gold


muiF


strife


cap


grief


rag


toy.


can


jaw


raiDe


vdn


cable


court*martial


negro


seaman


chorus


grotto


pailfiil


stratum



15. In ail cases of doubt or of dispute to which the preceding
rules do not apply, the spelling of words should be conformed to the
best usage of the present day.

Observations. — 1. There is a class of words ending in or or
owr, as faxor^ honor, or favour, honour, respecting the orthographjr

13



146 RULES FOR SPELLING.

of nrHch there is a diversity in usage ; but it is the preraiEBg, thongli
not uniform, practice in this countrj^ to spell almost the whole of this
class of words without the ic } as, favoi\ honor. Yet enamour and
tambour retain the u, and both of the two forms, Saviour and
Savior, are in common use.

Exercises for Writing. — " Honor and shame jfrom no condition
rise." The vigor of manhood. Fortune favors the brave. The em-
peror of the French. A tamhour-hdine. Hard lator. A favorite
author. Enamoured of virtue. The terror by night. The rigor of
a frozen climate. A pleasant JIavor, Our Lord and Saviour, Jesu»
Christ. A famous ivairior. His writings are full of humor. A tale
of horror. An innocent error. The splendor of the rising sun.
The governor of a state or a territorj^ The mirrors of the ancients
were made of brass or of steel. " Thou shalt love thy neighbor as
thyself An unfounded rumor. Clouds are vapors floating in
the air.

2. Words of two or more syllables, which formerly ended in ick,
as musick, publick, are now written without the Jc, as music, public j
bailiwick and candlestick are exceptions. The verbs to frolic, to
mimic, to physic, and to traffic, on assuming another syllable begin-
ning with e or i, insert the h, in order to keep the c hard ; as, traf-
fcked, trafficking, trafficker. ^

Exercises for Writing. — Logic is the art* of reasoning. An
unprovoked attack. Bhetoric is the art of composition. " A band
of maidens gayly frolicking." The practice of magic. Soldiers^
barracks. There is considerable trafficking along the coast. Arctic
discoveries. A romantic adventure. You should not have mimicked
the old man. A rheumatic fever.

3* Words ending in ise and ize are mostly verbs ; and in relation
to these terminations there is a diversity in usage, the same verbg
sometimes ending in ize and sometimes in ise.

The following list comprises most of the verb-s which are generally
written with the termination ise : —

advise apprise comprise despise

advertise chastise compromise devise

aflSranchise circumcise demise disfranchise



RULES FOR SPELLISTG.



14T



disguise


enterprise


merchandise


supervise


divertise


exercise


misprise


surmise


enfranchise


exorcise


premise


surprise


emprise


fr-ancMse


revise





In relation to the following words, catechise or catechize, criticise
©r criticize, patronise or patronize, recognise or recognize, the dic-
tionaries and usage are divided, though the greater part of the dic-
tionaries give the termination ise to these verbs. There are also
various other verbs of this termination, with respect to which both the
dictionaries and usage are divided. .■ . ■.>.

Exercises for Writing. — How do you plurdlize nouns ending
in y preceded by a vowel ? Apologize for your mistake. You sur-
prise me. I must premise a few things. Familiarize yourself with
this idea. Devise a better plan. Sympathize with the afilicted.

4. There is a class of words ending in tre, bre, chre, gre, and
vre, as, centre, fibre, ochre, ogre, manoeuvre, &c., whieh are by
some written center, fi^er, ocher, oger, maneuver, &c. ; but the former
mode is supported by the prevailing and best usage.

Exercises for Writing. — The centre of the grove. Sabre, a
sort of sword. A bishop's mitre. A whited sepulchre. A hymn
in short metre. A bold manoeuvre. The kingly sceptre. A spectre,
or apparition. Did you go to i^theatre ? The lustre of satin. A
sombre color.



*^5. There^ is a class of words which have in their derivation a
twofold origin, from the Latin and French languages, and are indif-
ferently written with the first syllable ewjgr in, the former being
derived from the French, and the latter from^he-Latin. With re-
spect to some of these, it is diflBcult to determine which form is best
supported by usage j as, for example, in/iuire os^mquire, insure or
«mwre, ii^c. ^ — ^



148



CHRISTIAN NAMES OF MEN AND WOMEN.



I. Christian Wames of Men and Women.



!• Names of Men^



ib'dj-el

S'bel

^-bl'si-tliar

A'bj-el, or ^-bl'§l

^-bl'jstll

Ab'ner

A'br^i-hjm

A'br^m

Ab's?-loni

Ad'?ra

A'djn

i^-dol'phus

Ad-o-nI'r?m

Al'?tn, or Al'l^n

Al'?i-ric

Al'bert

Al-ex-an'der

Al'fred

Al'len

A-lon'z5

Al-phe'u8

Al-phon'fo

Al'v?ih

Al'vEin

Al'vin, Al'wjn

Am-^-rl'jh ^

Am'a-sgi, or ^^-ma's^

Am'brose

Am 'ml

A'mps

An'drew

An-dr9-ni'cu8

An'selm, An'sSl

An'tho-ny (-19-)

An'to-ny

Ar-£he-l5'ua

Ar'chi-bjild

A'ri-ei

Ar'nold

Ar'te-fli^s

Ar'thur

A's? "

As'51-hel

A'ssiph.

Ash'bel



Ash'er
Ash'ur
Au-gus'tus
^u-gua'tin, Aus'tjn

Baid'wjn

Bar-a-ghl'^s

Bar'n?i-155is, Ba.r'njt-by

B^-thol'9-mew

Ba?'il

Be'lj

Ben'e-dict, Bgn'net

Ben'ja-mln

Be-no'ni

Be-ri'jh

Ber'nard

Be-thu'el

Bon'j-face

Bri'sui

Cjd-wal'lji-der (-wol')

Ca'lebf

Cal'vin

Ce^'il

Ce'ph?3

Charley

jehris't9-pher

Clar'ence

Clem'ent

Con'rsid

Con'st^in-tine

Cor-ne'li-Gs

Cuth'bert

Cftm

Dan'i-el

Da-ri'us

Da'vjd

De-m§'trj-u3

Di-9-ny"si-us, DSn^nis

fib'en
Eb-en-e'zer
Ed'g^ir
Ed'm^nd



fid'w?rd

fid'win

Eg'bert

fil'bert

El'dred

K-le-a'z^r

E'li

?-lI'?b

?-li'hu

^-Il'j^ii, ?-Il?s

5-liph'a-Iet

5-li'sh9i

:^-li'zur

£l'n?i-than

5-man'u-el

E'ne-as

K'nogh

E'n93

E'plir?i-im

?-ra§'mti3

Jp-ras'tya

Er'nest

E'saLu

E'th?in

Eii'gene

Eu-se'bj-us

Eu'stjice

fiv'^in or Iv'^n

fiv'er-ard

?-ze'ki-el

Ez'r§i

Fe'ljx
Per'dj-nand
Fer-nSln'do
Frin'cjs, Frink
Frank '1 in
Fred'er-ic

Ga'bri-§r

G9-ma'li.-el

^dpfrey-'y

9^ebrge

^6r'?ird

;©id'e-9n

j&il'bert



CHRISTIAN NAMES OF MEN AND WOMEN.



149



^ile?


J5'nah, Jo'nsis


Ngi-tl^n'a-el, Nj-than'j-^


God'frey


Jon'Mhan


Neal


God' win


Jo'^eph


Ne-he-ml'^h


Greg'o-^
Grlf'fitff •


Jo-sl'ah, J9-sI'§i3


Nich'o-l?s


Josh'u-ai


N6'"?h


Gus-ta'vua


Jo'thsun


No'el


Guy


Ju'daJi
Ju'li-Ein


Nar'maji


Hin'ni-b^l


Ju'li-us *


6-bMl'?h


Hec'tor


Jiis'tin


Qc-ta'vi-us


He'm^in




6l'}-ver


Hen'ry


Ken'ehn


O-res'tef


Her'bert




Or-ian'd3


Her'maii


La'bsin


Ow'en


Hez-e-kl'ah


Lam'bert


Q-zi'§s


Hil'a-ry '


Lan'ce-lot




Hi'ram


Lau'rence, Law'rewce


Pat'rjck


Hor'ace, H9-ra'tj-o (-she-)


Lem'u-el


Paul


Ho-|g'si


Leon'ard


Pe'leg


How'eil


Le'o-pold (or lep'p9ld)


Per'e-grine


Hu'bert


Le'vl


Pe'rez


Hugh (hu)


Lew'is, Lou'is


Pe'ter


Hum'phrey


Li'nus


Phj-ian'der




Li'o-nel


Phi-le'mQn


Ich'?-bod


Llew-el'ljn (lu-el'jn)


Phil'ip


Jg-na'ti ijs (-she-)


Lo-am'ml


Phi'l5


Im-man'u-el


Lo'do-wic, Lu'd9-ViC


Phin'e-Ss, PhYn'e-Irit^


In'gr?im (Ing')


Lo-ren'zo


Plin'y


I'r^i


Lot


Pt51'e-my (tSl')


l'§9ac


Lu'bjn




i-§a'ifth (i-za'y?h)


Lu'ci-us


duin'tjn


I?'rfi-el


Luke




Xth'i-el


Lu'ther


Ralph
Ray'mynd


Ja'bez


Mal'a-£hl


Re^'i-nald


Ja'cob "^


Man-n&s'seh


Reu'ben


Jacques (zhik) b-


Mar-cel'lus


Reyn'9ld


Jame^ j


Mar'ci-us


Rich'aird


Ja'i-ru3


Mar'cus, Mark


Rob'ert


Ja'red


Mar'ma-duke


Ro-dol'phus


Ja'son


Mar'tin


Ro^'er


Jas'per


Mat'thew (math'thu)


Ro'land, Row'ljaii


Jed-e-di'ah


Mat-thl'as (Hijth-thi'js)


Ru'fus


Jeffrey


MSiu'rice




Jgr-e-ml'iih, Jgr'e-my


Mer'e-dith


Sam'son


Jer'ome


Mi'cah


Sam'u-el


Jes'se


Mi^chfi-el


SSiul


Je'thrS


Mbr'gah '


Se-bast'igin (-y^n)


Jo'^ib


Mo'§e§


Seth


Job




Si'las


Jo'el


Na'hum


Sjl-va'nus, Syl-va'nu8


JSIm


Na'thain


SJl'ves-ter, S'yl-vgs'tet



13



150



CHEISTIAN NAMES OF MEN AND WOMEN.



Slm'e-9n, Si'imjii
Sol'(?-mon
Ste'phen (ste'vn)
Syd'ney
Syl'vjin

Th?d-d5'u3

The'o-b^ld {or tib'b|ild)

The'o-dore

The-8ph'i-lus

The'ron

Tbom'fis (tSm'?s)



Tim'9-thy
Ti'tua
T9-bi'5is
Tris'tr^m, Trls'tjim

Ur'b?n
tJ-ri'Eih
U'ri-jtn
tj'rj-el #

Vdl'Sn-tlne
Vin'cent



ViV'i-ain

Wai'ter

Wil'li^im

Win'fred

Zab'di-el

Z?c-che'us

Zach-a-rl'sih, ZSgh'ji-^^

Zed-e-ki'^ih

Ze-l6'te§

Ze'n^s



3. Names of Women.



Xb'i-g^ii.

A'd^ •

Ad'a-llne

Ad'e-l^i

Ad'e-laide

A-de'lj-fi

Ad'e-llne •

Ag'ft-tha

Ag'ne§

Al'ice, A-li"c}-?i (-sh^)

Al-ml'rai

Al-th5'gt

Am'91-bel

A-raa,n'd§i

A-mS'lj-ai

A'my

An-ge-ll'n^i

An'na, Anne, Ann

Ar-a-bel'l^

A-ri-a'na

Ar'ri-ai

Xu-gus't^

Au-rS'lj-j

B"4r'ba-ra

Be'^-trice

Be-lln'dgi

Ber'thsi

B^t'sey

Blanche,

Brid'get

Ca-mll'la
CSir'9-l!ne

Cath'a-rine, CSlth'?-rine
Cf-cil'i-?i



Ce'lj-a
_— -^liarMotte



JBhlo'e '

jBhris-tj-a'nji (krist-ye-)

CT^'e-ly

Ciar'? '

Cla-ris's?

Clem-en-tl'n^

Cyn'thj-?

Deb'9-rah

De'lj-a

Di-a'na

Dl-an'thgi

Di'nsih

Dor'c£is

D5r-9-th5'5t, DSr'9-thy

Dru-sil'lst

E'djth

Ed'na

El'ea-n9r

£l'i-n9r

?-lI'za

]g:-liz'5i-betli, ?-Ii?'5i-bgth

El'la

fil'len

El'sie

fim'e-llne, Era'me-lino

fim'i-ly

Em'msi

Er'nes-tine

Es'ther (-ter), Hes'ter

£th'§-lind



Eii-|5'ni-5i

Eu'ge-nie

Eu'njce

Eu-phe'mi-a

?-van'ge-lIne

E'va, Eve

Ev-e-li'nfi

F&n'ny

Fe-li"ci-a (fe-lish'e-j)

Fi-de'li-?i

Fl5'ra

Flor'ence

Frin'cef

^en'e-viSve
^eor-li-a'n^i

j&er'trude

Grace, Gra'tj-^i (-shf-)

H&n'n?ih

mr'ii-et

Hen-rj-et'tj

Hel'en

Heph'zj-b^h

Hes'ter

Ho-no'r^i

Hul'd§ih

I'd?

I'nez

I-re'ne-

i§'a-bel, If-fi-bSl'la

Jane



CHRISTIAN NAMES OF MEN AND WOMEN.



151



l?-mgt', Jean-nette'


Mat'tha


RS^'a-mond


Je-ml ma


Ma'ry


Rox-a'na


Je-rii' shsi


M?-til'd9, Maud


Ruth


Joan, Jo^n'n?


May




l6'§e-pliine


Me-het'|i-ble, M?-hit'#-ble


S^i-bl'n?.


Joyce


Mel'i-cent


8%-bn'n^


Ju'dith


Me-lis's?i


Sal'ly


Ju'li-a


Mer'cy


Sa-lo'me


Ju-lj-a'n^


Mi-ner'vgi


Sal'va


fa'Ij-et


Min'n?


Sa'r^h, Sa'r?




Mi-ran'd^


Se-li'na


KSLth'9-rinej Kath'e-rlne


Mir'}-5iKi


Sj-byl'lft, Sib'yl, SfV^


Ke-tu'rah




So-phl'a


Ke-zi'jh


Nan'cy


So-phr5'ni-ai




No'ra '


Stel'l^


f.sB-ti"ti-? (-tisii')




Su'sain, Smjan'nj


Lau'r?


Oc-ta'vj-a




La-viix'i-51


Ol'jve, O-liv'}-^


Tab'i-tha


Le-9-no'r|i


0-Iyin'pi-£i


Tem'per-ance


Le-ti"l{-ai, Let'tice




The-o-do'r?


Lil'y


Pa'tience (-shens)


The-o-do'si-51 (-she-)


Lo'js


Pau-ll'na


Thorn'a-|ine (torn'}


Lou-f^a, lK)u-t§e'


Pe-nel'o-pe •


Try-phe'nai


Lu-cin'd5i


Per'sis


Try-pho'sfi


Lu-cre't}-?L (-she-)


Phe'be




Lu'ci-^ (-all?-), Lu'cy


Phi-lip'pat


£r-ra'ni-?i


Lyd'i-fi


Phce'be
Phyl'li's


ijx'su-l^


Ma'bel


Pol'ly


Va-le'ri-?,


Mag'da-)en ^


Pris-cil'la_,-''^"


Vic-to'rj-gi


Mad'e-lMe.' "~* '


r-e^ttM^ncQ


Vi'dsi


^mrg-d-^-i.e'TT^^ ^




Vro-l?, Vi'9-Iet


Ma'ha-I? '^^


Ra'chel ^


Vir-gin'i-ai


Mar'ci-a (-she-)


fie-bec'ca




Mar'g^-f'et


Rho'd^i


Wil-hel-mi'n^


Mj-rl'a


Eo'^a, Ro§e


Win'j-fred


Ma-ri-^n«e'


Ro-§a-bel'lgi




Ma'rJ-ja


Ee§'5i-lie


Ze-Bo'bj-gi



152 MARKS OR POINTS IN WRITING AND PRINTING.



Comma.


it »'


Quotation.


Semicolon.


[]


Brackets.


Colon.


>^-


Index.


Period.


^


Caret.


Interrogation.


\


Braee.


Exclamation.




Parentliesis. .


** *


Ellipsis.


Dash.


% t A


Accents.


Apostrophe.


*"


The Long.


.Hyphen.







II. Marks or Points -used in Writing ^id Printing,

The Short.
Diaeresis.
Cedilla.
Asterisk.
Dagger.
Double Da^ac.
() Parenthesis.. *** Ellipsis. ^ Section.

Parallels.
Paragraph.

The points or marks most frequently employed in "written compositioa
serve to show more clearly the "writer's meaning, and the pauses and in-
Sections required in reading.

The Comma ( , ) marks the smallest grammatical division of a sentence,
and usually requires a momentary pause.

The Semicolon ( ; ) is used to separate such portions of a sentence as are
less closely connected than those divided by a comma^ and requires ^
somewhat longer pause.

The Colon ( : ) is used between parts less connected than those which
are separated by a semicolon, and admits of a longer pause.

A Period ( . ) indicates the end of a sentence, and requires a full stop.

Remark. — The period is also used after all abbreviations j as, Eng. for England.

The Note of Interrogation (?) is placed at the end of "a direct question ;
as, What is the matter ? *

The Note of Exclamation, or Admiration, (!) is used after expressions of
strong emotion, and after solemn invocations and earnest addresses ; as.
Liberty ! Freedom ! Tyranny is dead ! f

The marks of Parenthesis ( ) are generally used to enclose a word,
phrase, or remark, which is merely incidental or explanatory, and which
might be omitted without injury to the sense or construction ; as,
Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase !)
Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace.

The Dash ( — ) is used to denote an unfinished sentence, a sudden turn,
an abrupt transition, or that a significant pause is required j as, "The pages
of history — how is it that they are so dark and sad ? "

Remark. — The dash may be used after other points, to increase the length of a
pause. By some writers dashes are employed instead of the ma^ks of parenthesis.

* This mark is said to have been formed from the first and last letters of tha
Latin word Qumstio (question) placed one over the other ; thus, ^.

■(■ Tills mark is said to have been formed from the Latin word /% joy, written «Ha«
over the other : thus, !•



ma:^ks or points in writing and printing. l53

The Apostrophe ('), a mark differing in appearance from the comma
only in being placed above the line, is used to denote the omission of one
or more letters ; as, we'e/* for never, tho' for though. It is also the sign of
the possessive case of nouns, being used before s in the singular number,
and commonly after it in the plural ; as, hoy^s, boys'.

The hyphen (-) is used to separate syllables, and to join the constituent
parts of some compound and derivative words ; as, cit-i-zen, toion-house,
pre-eminence. It is also used at the end of a line, when the whole of a
word cannot be got into it, and shows that the rest of the word is at the
beginning of the following line.

Quotation-marks (" ") are uScd to show that the exact words of anoth-
er are exhibited ; as, There is much truth in the proverb, ** Light gains
make heavy purses." A quotation within a quotation is marked by single
points ; as, " The 'broad Hellespont' stUl rolls into the -^gean." " One
of the greatest names in English literature is that of Chaucer, — * Brit,
ain's first poet.' "

Brackets, or Crotchets, [ ] are chiefly used in citations to enclose an
explanation, correction, or omitted word, phrase, or sentence, inserted by
some other person than the author ; as, " She [Nature] gave him [man]
alone the power of laughing.' *

The Index, or Hand, ( j^= ) is used to show that special attention i3
directed to a particular passage. Sometimes three stars, arranged thus
( *^* ), are used instead of the Index.

The Caret ( /s ), a mark used in writing, shows that a letter or word,
wbich was accidentally omitted, has been inserted above the line ; as,

0t^&t/u fee t<i- K/^l0^c^n, t^u d^iu^fi.

The Brace C'^-*^) is used to connect two or more words or lines with
something to which they are related ; as, James ~\

Charles > Stuart.
Mary J
Marks of Ellipsis ( * * * ) indicate the omission of letters, words, or sen-
tences ; as, iiC**^ G****e for King George. Sometimes a long dash,
or a succession of dots, is used instead of the stars; as, L d M y

for Lord Murray.

A simple child,

That lightly draws its breath.

And feels its life in every limb, —

What should it know of death ?

There are three marks termed accents, — the Acute ( '), the Grave (^),

and the Circumflex ( "^ ). The acute accent is used to indicate the syllable

in a word which requires the principal stress in pronunciation; as,

nav'i-ga-ble. It is also used to denote the rising inflection of the voice.

The grave accent is sometimes used in poetry over the letter e, to show

that it must be fully pronounced ; as, —

Hence, loathed Melancholy.

It is also used to denote the falling inflection of the voice. The circum*



154 MAUKS OR POINTS IN WRITING AND PRINTING.

flex accent is sometimes used to indicate a peculiar wave of the voice, a»d,
in works on pronunciation, as in this book, to denote the broad sound cf
a vowel.

The Long, or Macron ( - ), is used to denote the long sound or quantity
©f a vowel ; as infamous, silent.

The Short, or Breve ( ^ ), is used to denote the short soimd or quantity
of a vowel ; as in matter, silver.

The DicBresis ( •• ) is placed over the second of two vowels, which might

otherwise be mistaken for a diphthong, to show that they must be sounded

separately ; as, atrial. The diseresis is sometimes used, in poetry, instead

of the grave accent, to show that the letter e, in the syllable ed, is to be

fully pronounced. Occasionally the acute accent is used f©r the same

purpose. Thus :

Hence, loath^ Melancholy !

Hence, loathm Melancholy !

The Cedilla ( * ) is placed under the letter c, in words from the French, to
show that it has the sound of s; as in facade. It is also used, as in thib
book, on the letters ff, s, and x, when they have their soft sound.

The Asterisk, or Star (* ), the Dagger, or Obelisk ( t ), the Double Dag-
ger (t), the Section (^),* Parallels ( 1| ), and the Paragraph (II),* are
marks, used in the order here given, referring to the margin or the bottom
of a page. Small italic letters or Arabic figures are sometimes employed
for the same purpose. The mark called the Paragraph ( H ) is used in the
Bible to denote the beginning of a new subject. In other books the be^
ginning of a new subject is now indicated by commencing a new line a
little farther from the margin than the beginning of the other lines. This
is termed indenting. .

The following characters, the general iise of which has already been ea>
plained, are sometimes employed for other purposes.

Two Commas (" or ") are occasionally used to avoid repetition, instead
of the word or words immediately above them. In catalogues of books, a
dash is sometimes employed for the same purpose ; as,

Cowper's Complete Poetical "Works, 4 vols. calf.
Task, and other Poems, 2 " "

Leaders are periods or hyphens used in indexes to books, tables of con-
tents, and similar matter, to lead the eye across the page or column. An
illustration may be seen in the table of contents at the beginning of this
book.

In addition to the marks already treated of, arbitrary characters are
sometimes used, as in this book, and in dictionaries, for the purpose of
indicating the pronunciation of words.

* The mark for the Section ( $ ) is said to have been formed from the initial letters
of tlie two Latin words Sipium Sectionis, meaning the sign of the section. The para-
graph ( IT ) is nothing more than a capital P reversed, the white part b&ing made
bldck and the black part white, for the sake of greater distinction.



RULES FOR SYLLABICATION. 155



III. Syllabication, or the Division of Words into

Syllables.

In writing, a word frequently occurs so near the end of a line that it becomes
necessary to carry over a part of its syllables to the beginning of the next line. It is,
therefore, a matter of considerable practical importance, to understand the proper
mode of dividing words into syllables. The following rules are of general applicatioa,
though liable to some exceptions.

1. Consonants should be joined to the vowels or diphthongs whose
sounds they modify ; as, trig-o-nom-e-try, e-qtd-Ub-ri-um.

Remark I. In separating words into syllables, we are to be guided chiefly by the
©ar. Some words are allowably pronounced in more than one way, and a change
in the pronunciation of a word will sometimes affect the syllabication. Thus,
whether we say brU'vo or bra'vo, the v is joined to the latter syllable ; but, in
phalanx, the I will go to the first or to the second syllable, according as we pro-
nounce the word phdl'anx or pha'lanx.

Remark II. Two or more consonants forming but one sound, as ch, tch, gh,
ng,ph, sh, th, wh, are never separated ; as,fask-ion, fa-ther, featk-er^ ei-ther, cipher ,
proph-et. "

Remark III. Rule 5, in all cases to which it applies, takes precedence of this
rule ; as, bask-ing, Idnd-er, reject-ed.

2. Two vowels coming together, but not constituting a diphthong, are
separated ; as, a-erial, cre-ator, ge-ometry, tri-al, sati-ety, sci-oUf po-em^
vaeu-ity.

3. Compound words are separated into the simple words of which they
are composed; as, book-sellet' {not book^ell-er), noble-man (not no-bleman).

4. Prefixes are generally separated from the radical word; as, de-pop-
iilate, e-normous., re-create (to create anew), re-present (to present again),
post-script, trans-mit. But when the first letter of a radical word is joined,
in pronunciation, to a prefix ending in a vowel, the word is divided as if it
were a primitive one ; as, ded-icate, el-igible, rec-reate (to refresh), rep-
resent (to exhibit).

o. Suffixes and grammatical terminations are generally separated ; as,
teach-er, sail-ing, sad-der, stop-per, rap-ping, prov-est, ros-es, free-dom,


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