Joseph E. (Joseph Emerson) Worcester.

Elements of ancient classical and scripture geography: with an atlas online

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Memnon ; Cop'tos, as an emporium of Arabian and Indian
commodities ; Ten'tyra, now Dendera, for temples of Isis
and Venus ; Sye'ne, for a well, the bottom of which, at the
time of the summer solstice, was illuminated, the sun being
exactly perpendicular over it.

11. Some of the most remarkable antiquities now found
in Egypt, are the Pyramids, the Obelisks, the Sphinx, the
Catacombs, or Mummy-pits, and numerous ruins of Tem-
ples and other splendid edifices.

12. The Pyramids are the most remarkable monuments
of ancient art that now remain ; but history furnishes no
authentic information respecting the time or the object of
their erection.

13. The Sphinx, which is situated near one of the Pyra-
mids, is a statue of a huge monster, cut in solid rock, hav-
ing the face of a virgin and the body of a lion.

14. The Land of Goshen, the country occupied by the
Israelites, in Egypt, is supposed to have been in the north-
eastern part.

7. What other towns in Lower Egypt ? 8. What is said of Thebes?

9, Arsinoe? 10. What other towns in Upper Egypt? 11. What
remarkable antiquities are there in the country ? 12. What
is said of the Pyramids ? 13. The Sphinx ? 14. Where
was the Land of Goshen ?



See Map of the Roman Empire. — How was Egypt situated ?
Libya? Africa? Numidia ? Mauritania? What river in Egypt ?
Lake? How was Memphis situated ? Alexandria? Thebes? Oasis
Magna? Oasis Parva? Canopus? Pelusium ? Arsinoe ? Tentyra ?



34 LIBYA, AFRICA PROPER, &g.

LIBYA, AFRICA PROPER, NUMIDIA, AND
MAURITANIA.

1. liiBYA was divided into Marmar ica and Cyrena'tca ^
which latter was also called Pentap'olis, from the five prin-
cipal cities which it contained.

2. Cyrehie, now Curen, once a large city, was settled by-
Greeks, and was noted as the birthplace of Callim'achus»
Eratos'thenes, Carne'ades, and Aristip'pus ; Bereni'ce or
Hes^peris, according to some, for the fabled garden of the
Hesper'ides, containing the golden apples ; though others
place this garden on the west coast of Africa.

S. In a beautiful oasis, in the Libyan desert, was Ammoriy
now Siwah, noted for the temple of Jupiter Ammon, with
a famous oracle that was consulted by Alexander.
/ 4. In Africa Proper, was the celebrated city of Carthage,
once the rival of Rome, famous for wealth jind commerce,
and for its siege and destruction by the Romans.

5. U'tica was noted for the death of Cato ; Vac'ca, for
transactions in the Jugurthine war ; Thap'sus for a victory
gained by Caesar j Za'ma, for the defeat of Hannibal by
Scipio Africanus ; Cap'sa, now Gafsa, as the place where
Jugurtha deposited his treasures ; Sufet'ula, now Spaitla,
for its extensive ruins.

6. The Bagh-adas^ now Mejerdah, the principal river of
this country, was noted as the place w^here the Roman
army, under Reg'ulus, killed an enormous serpent. A long
lake southwest of Syrtis Minor, was divided into two parts,
one called Pa'lus Trito'nis, noted as the place where Mi-
nerva is said first to have appeared, hence called Tritonia ;
the other Pa'lus Lib'yiB, the fabled residence of the Gor-
gons.

7. In Numidia, were Cir'ta, now Constantina, the resi-
dence of the kings, noted for its strength ; Hip'po Regius,
as the episcopal seat of St. Augustin.

8. In Mauritania, were CcBsare'a, noted as once the cap-
ital ; Si'ga, as the residence of Syphax ; Tin'gis, now
Tangier ; Mount Ah'yla, opposite to Calpe in Spain, one
of the Pillars of Hercules.

Libya, &c. — 1. How was Libya divided ? 2. What is said of
Cyrene and Berenice ? 3. What of Ammon ? 4. What is
said of Carthage ? 5. What other towns in Africa Proper ?
C. What river and lake ? 7. What towns in Numidia ? 8. In
Mauritania ?

See Map of the Roman Empire. — How was Marmarica situated ?
Cyrenaica? Ammon? Cyrene? Berenice? How were
Syrtis Major and Syrtis Minor situated ? Carthage ? Utica?
Zama ? Thapsus ? Tritonis Palus ? How was Cirta situa-
ted ? Hippo Regius ? CsBsarea ? Siga ? Tingis ? Abyla ^



EXTENT OF ANCIENT EMPIRES. 35

EXTENT OF ANCIENT EMPIRES,

According to Tytler.

1. The Empire of Assyria, under Ninus and Semirarnis,
comprehended Asia Minor, Colchis, Assyria, Media, ChaU
dea, Egypt.

2. The Empire of Assyria, as divided about 820 B. C,
formed three kingdoms, Media, Bahylo-Chaldea (Syria and
Chaldea), and Lydia (all Asia Minor).

3. The Empire of the Persians under Dari us son of
Hystas'pes, 522 B. C, comprehended Persis, Susiana, ChaU
dea, Assyria, Media, Bactriana, Armenia, Asia, Parthia,
Iberia, Albania, Colchis, Asia Minor, Egypt, part of Ethi-
opia, part of Scythia.

4. The Empire of Alexander the Great, 330 B. C,
consisted of 1. all Macedonia and Greece, except the Pelo-
ponnesus ; 2. all the Persian Empire, as above described ;
3. India to the banks of the Indus on the east, and the Jax-
artes, or Tanais, on the north.

5. The Empire of Alexander was thus divided 306 B. C,
betw^een Ptolemy, Cassander, Lysimachus, and Seleucus, —

Empire of Ptolemy.
Libya, Arabiaj Ccelo-Syria, Palestine.

Empire of Cassander.
Macedonia, Gieece.

Empire of Lysimachus
Thrace, Bithynia.

Empire of Seleucus.
Syria, and all the rest of Alexander's empire.

6. The Empire of the Parthians, 140 B. C, comprehend
ed Parthia, Hyrcania, Media, Persis, Bactriana, Babylonia,
Mesopotamia, India to the Indus.

7. The Roman Empire, under the Kings, was confined
to the city of Rome, and a few miles round it



36 EXTENT OF ANCIENT EMPIRES.

8. The Roman Empire, at the end of the Republic, com
prehended all Italy, great part o? Gaul, part of Britaiiij
Africa Proper, great part of Spain, Illyria, Istria, Libur-
nia, Dalmatia, Achaia, Macedonia, Dardania, Mcesia,
Thrace, Pontus, Armenia, Cilicia, Judea, Syria, Egypt.

9. Under the "Emperors, the following countries were re-
duced to Roma Provinces : —

All Spain, thf Alpes Maritimse, Piedmont, &c., Rhsetia,
Noricum, Pannonia, Mossia, Pontus, Armenia, Assyria,
Arabia, Egypt.

10. Constantius Chlorus and Galerius divided the Empire
into Eastern and Western ; and under Constantine,
each empire had a distinct capital or seat of government.

11. The extent of each division was fluctuating from time
to time ; but, in general, the Western Empire compre-
hended Italy, Illyria, Africa, Spain, the Gauls, Britain.

12. The Eastern Empire comprehended Egypt, Thrace,
Dacia, Macedonia, Asia Minor, Pontus, Armenia, Assyria^
Media, &c.

13. The Empire of Charlemagne, A. D. 800, compre
handed France, Marca Hispanica (or Navarre and Catalo
nia), Majorca, Minorca, and Ivica, Corsica, Italy, as far south
as Naples, Istria, Liburnia, Dalmatia, Pho&tia, Vindelicia,
Noricum, Germany, from the Rhine to the Oder, and to
the shores of the Baltic.

France contained, 1. Neustria, comprehending Brittany,
Normandy, Isle of France, Orleannois ; 2. Austria, com-
prehending Picardy and Champagne ; 3. Aquitania, com-
prehending Guiennc and Gascony ; 4. Burgundia, compre-
hending Burgundy, Lyonnois, Languedoc, Dauphine, Pro-



SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY.



CHAPTER I.

Geography of the Early Jiges ; with Explanatory Remarks.

1. Scripture or Sacred Geography is that part of Ancient
Geography, which treats of the countries and places that
are mentioned in the Bible.

2. The historical parts of the Scriptures relate almost
wholly to the Is'raelites, and to nations whose history was,
in some way, connected with that of the Israelites.

8. No one of the four quarters of the world, as they are
now understood, is mentioned in the Bible.

4. The term Jlsia, as used in the New Testament, some-
times denotes a small district round the city of Eph'esus,
and sometimes the proconsular province of Asia, which com-
prised Mys'ia, Phryg'ia, Lyd'ia, and Ca'ria ; but never more
than Asia Minor.

5. The Mediterra'nean Sea is called in the Bible the Great
Sea; and most of the countries mentioned in the Scriptures
either bordered upon it, or were situated not far distant ;
some of the most remote were Chalde'a, Per'sia, and Me'dia.

6. The other seas, which are much spoken of, are the
Red Sea, the Sea of Sodom or Dead Sea, and the Sea of Gal-
ilee ; the last two of which are comparatively small. But
no one of the five great oceans of modern geography is
mentioned in the Bible.

7. The three great rivers, which are found within the
limits of that portion of the globe which is embraced by
Scripture Geography, are the JVile in Africa, and the Eu-
phra'tes and Ti'gris in Asia. The Hid'dekel, mentioned

Chapter I. — 1. What is Scripture or Sacred Geography ?

2. To what people do the historical parts of the Scriptures relate ■*

3. Is either of the four quarters of the globe mentioned in the Bi-

ble ? 4. What does the term Asia denote in the New Tes-
tament ? 5. What is said of the Mediterranean Sea ? 6.
What other seas ? 7. What rivers ?
26*



38 SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY.

in Genesis, is commonly supposed to be the same as the
Tigris.

8. Scriptm'e Geography has scarcely any connection with
Europe, except as it respects the illustration of the travel*
of St. Paul.

9. Most of the places mentioned in the book of Genesis,
before the migration of the Israelites into Egypt, were sitU'
ated in the southwestern part of ^sia.

/ 10. From that time, Egypt and the country lying be-
tween it and the land of Canaan, were the scenes of most
of the transactions recorded by Moses.

11. The Land of Ca'naan then became the scene of most
of the events contained in the history of both the Old Tes-
tament and the New ; and this country included more than
half of all the places mentioned in the Bible.

12. Almost all the countries and places, which are men-
tioned in ancient history, have been known by different
names in different ages ; and the greater part of those
which are spoken of in the Old Testament, had assumed
new names before the New Testament was written.

13. With respect to the situation of a number of
places rendered memorable by transactions recorded in the
Old Testament, there is great uncertainty ; and men of
learning differ much in their opinion respecting them.

14. various opinions have been entertained by learned
men respecting the situation of the Garden of Eden ; and
many have supposed the account of it is not to be under
stood literally, but allegorically or figuratively.

15. The most common supposition of those who have
undertaken to assign it a particular place, is that it was sit-
uated near the confluence of the Euphra'tes and Ti'giis^ or
near the sources of these rivers.

16. Respecting the situation of O'phir, the country from
which Solomon obtained gold, there has been much learned

8. What connection has Scripture Geography with Europe ?

9. Where were most of the places mentioned in the book of Gen*

esis, before the migration of Jacob and his family, situated?
10. Where were the scenes of the subsequent events recorded by
Moses? 11. What country afterwards became the scene of
most of the events recorded in the Bible ?

12. What is said respecting the changes which have taken place

with regard to geographical names ?

13. What is said respecting the situation of some memorable places^

14. What is remarked respecting the Garden of Eden ?

15. What is a common supposition respecting its situation ?

16. What is said respecting the situation of Ophir?



SCRIFTURE GEOGRAPHY. 39

inquiry, and various opinions have been maintained but
it is commonly supposed to have been situated on the cist-
ern side of JJfnca, or in the East Indies.
^ 17. The situation of Tar'shish or Thar'shish, has furnish-
ed another topic of learned discussion, and has given rise
to a great variety of opinions. Some of the suppositions
respecting it are, that it vv^as the same as Tarsus in Cilicia,
dar'thage and Tunis in Africa, and Tartes'sus in Spain ; and
also that it means the sea or ocean in general.

18. It has also been supposed that there were two places
or countries so called, one on the Mediterranean, and the
other on the east side of Africa or in the East Indies.

19. The ark of Noah, after the waters of the flood began
to diminish, is said, in Genesis, to have ' rested upon the
mountains of Ar'araV

20. A mountain in Arme'nia, now known by the name of
Ar>aral, is supposed by many to be the mountain on which
the ark rested ; but some suppose it was a summit of the
chain of Cau'casus, between the Black and Caspian seas ;
others, a summit of Taurus, in the eastern part of Asia
Minor ; and others, that it was a mountain near the
sources of the river Indus.

21. The three sons of Noah, by whom the world was
peopled after the flood, were Shein, Mam, and Japheth.

22. The residence of Noah and his posterity, till after
the dispersion at Babel, is supposed to have been in tho
country watered by the Euphra'tes and the Ti'gris.

23. The tower of Babel was erected on the Euphrates,
on or near the site where the city of Bab'ylon was after-
wards built ; and from this point the human race were dis-
persed over different parts of the earth.

24. This position, which may be regarded as the second
cradle of the human race, is nearly central, as it respects
the residence of the most ancient nations of which we have
any knowledge, namely, the Babylo'nians or Chalde'ans, As"
syr'ians, Per'sians, Hindoos', He'brews, Ca'naanites, Phceni
cianSj and Egyp'tians. <

17. What is remarked of Tarshish or Tharshish ? IS. What other
supposition has been made ? 19. Where is the ark of Noah
said to have rested ? 20. What is supposed to have been the
mountain on which the ark rested.? 21. Who were the three
sons of Noah, by whom the world was peopled after the
flood ? 22. Where is the residence of Noah and his family
supposed to have been .''

23. Where was the tower of Babel erected ? 24. What is said of
this position, with relation to the most ancient nations .-*



40 SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY.

/25. The posterity of Shem is supposed to have peopled
the greater part of Asia ; that of Japheth, Europe and Asia
Minor ; and that of Ham, Africa and part of the southwest
portion of Asia. - >>

26. Of the sons of Shem, ^^rphaxfad is supposed to have
resided in the country near the Euphra'tes ; Ash'er, to have
been the founder of JWn'ere^ and the empire o? Assyria;
E'lam, to have given name to the country of Elam, aft^r-
w^ards Per'sia ; and A'ram, to the country of A'ram or
Syr'ia.

27. Of the sons of Ham, Miz'ra-im was the reputed foun-
der of the kingdom of ^g-i/pf, sometimes called in the Bible
the Land of Miz'raim and the Land of Ham ; Cush, the
father of the Ethio'pians ; and Canaan, the father of the
Ca'naanites.

28. The foundation of Bab'ylon is ascribed to Mm'red,
the son of Cush.

29. Ja'van, one of the sons of Ja'pheth, is commonly sup-
posed to have been the father of the Greeks-

80. The Greeks themselves maintained that- Jap' etus,
whose name has a near resemblance to that of Japheth,
was the father of their nation, and of all mankind.

31. A'braham was a descendant of Arphax'ad, the eldest
son of Shem; and he and his posterity are supposed to
have been called Hebrews, either from Eher or Heher, the
grandson of Arphax'ad, and the ancestor of Abraham, or
because they came from beyond the river Euphra'tes into
Ca'naan ; the word in the original signifying beyond or from
the other side.

82. Abraham was born at Ur of the Chaldees, which some
suppose to have been situated not far from Bab'ylon ; oth-
ers believe it to have been on the site of the modern town
of Ourfa, north of west from Nineveh ; and others place it
much further to the east.

S3. Te'rah, the father of Abraham, was a worshipper of
idols, like his countrymen.

25. What parts of the globe are the three sons of Noah supposed to
have peopled ? 26. What is mentioned respecting several
sons of Sheni ? 27 What of the sons of Ham ?

28. To whom is the foundation of Babylon ascribed ?

29. Who~is supposed to have been the father of the Greeks .''

30. Whom did the Greeks consider as the father of their nation.?
31- From whom was Abraham descended, and why were he and

his posterity called Hebrews ? 32. Where was Abraham
born ? 33. What is said of Terah ?



SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY. 41

34. A'hraham, together with his fiither, his wife Sarah,
and his nephew Lot, left Ur, and took up his abode, for a
while, at Ha' ran.

35. While at this place, he was called by God to leave
his country and his kindred, to go into the land of Ca'naan,
which was promised to his posterity

36. Although he had much property in cattle and ser-
vants, he did not acquire any permanent possession in Ca-
naan, but sojourned at several different places.

37. Some time after his arrival in the country, he was
obliged, on account of a severe famine, to retire, for a
while, into Egypt.

38. On his return, he pitched his tent between Beth'el
and A'i.

39. As Abraham and his nephew Lot, who accompanied
him to Ca'naan, possessed large flocks, and therefore could
not conveniently dwell together, Lot retired to the plain of
Sod' 0711, and Abraham to the plain of Mam re, near He'hron.

40. Hebron and its vicinity became the more common
residence of the patriarch and his family ; and in the cave
of Machpe'lah, in the plain of Mamre, Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob, together with their wives, were buried.

4L Abraham, however, did not, after this, reside cor
stantly at Hebron, but sojourned for a while at Ge'rar, the
city of Abimelech, in the country of the Philistines, and al-
so at Beer' sheba. where Ish'mael was born.



34. Where did Abraham take up his residence after leaving Ur ?

35. What call did he receive while at this place ? 36. In what

manner did he reside in Canaan .'' 37. To what country did
he retire for a time .? 38. Where did he pitch his tent on his
return.' 39. What is mentioned respecting Abraham and
Lot .'' 40. What is remarked of Hebron and its vicinitv ^
41. At what other places did Abraham reside ''



See Map JVb. V. — How was Egypt or Mizraim situated .' Pa-
thros.? Cush or Ethiopia.? Goshen.?

How was Arabia situated .? Midian .? Hav'ilah .? Canaan.? A^^^
alek.' Edom .? Aram or Syria.? Mesopotamia.? Pada.i-
Aram .? Armenia.? Assyria? Babylonia or Cbaldea ?
Shinar .? Elam or Persia .? Parthia .? Meshech .? Magog T
Ash'kenaz .? Javan .? What countries were watered by the
Nile .? What by the Euphrates and Tigris .? The Ulai .?

How is mount Sinai situated .? Mount Ararat .? How was Baby-
lon situated .? Nineveh .? Susa or Shushan .? Calneh .-'
Car'chemish .? Haran or Charran .? Damascus.? Tadmor?
Hamath .? Tarshish .? Ezion-geber .? Noph or Memphis ?



i% SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY.

42. Me'b7'on, Ge'rar, and Beer'sheba were also, at different
timesj the residences of Isaac.

4? Jacob, after having resided about twenty years with
his father-in-law, Laban, at Ha-ran^ returned with his fami-
ly and flocks to Ca'naan.

44. At Mahana'im he was met by his brother Esau, and
also by an angel, and had his name changed to Is'rael.

45. Having resided a while at Suc'coth, on the east side
of the Jordan, he then crossed the river, and took up his
abode near She'chem.

46. He next journeyed to Beth' el, where he had seen a
vision before he went to Haran. Afterwards he removed
to He'bron ; and, finally, after Joseph had revealed himself
to his brethren, he migrated, by way of Beersheba, with
his whole -family, into £gT/j9^



CHAPTER n.



57ie Region between Egypt and Canaan : Joumeyings of the
Israelites.

^ 1. The country lying between Egypt and Ca'naan, and
between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, consists most-
ly of extensive deserts, having few streams of water ; and
it now forms a part of what is called Ara'bia Petroe'a or
Stony.

2. In this region the Israelites passed 40 years.

3. Their route from Egypt to Canaan is differently delin-
eated on different maps. The positions of most of the
places of encampment, which are all enumerated in the
thirty-third chapter of Numbers, are laid down on maps
from no better authority than probable conjecture.

4. The Red Sea, of which only the northern extremities
appear on the Map (No. VI.), is about 1400 miles in length,
and 200, where widest, in breadth.



42. At what places did Isaac reside ? 43. What is mentioned re-
specting Jacob ? 44. What happened to him at Mahanaim .'

45. Where did he afterwards reside ? 46. What were his subse
quent movements ?

Chapter II. — I. What is said of the country lying between
Egypt and Canaan.? 2. How many years did the Israelite*
piiss here .'' 3. What is mentioned respecting their route ''
4. Wliat is the extent of the Red Sea .'



SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY. 4^>

5. Esau was called Edom, which, in Hebrew, signifies
red, because he sold his birthright for a mess of red pottage
and, as his posterity inhabited the country to the north of
this sea, some suppose it was called, after his name, the
Red Sea. Others supj^ose it was so called from its red
sand ; others, from coral ; and others, from its waters be-
ing colored by small animalcules. \

6. Mounts Si'nai and Ho'reb, celebrated in Scripture his-
tory, belong to a range which is situated between the north-
ern branches of the Red Sea, in the midst of a gloomy
desert, and contains several lofty summits.

7. At Ho'reb, God appeared to Moses in a burning bushj
while he kept the flocks of his father-in-law Je'thro j and
from Si'nai he received the law.

8. The summit of Sinai has been estimated at the height
of about 6,000 feet ; and it affords an extensive prospect of
the Red Sea and the adjacent countr3^

9. On this summit there are now a Christian church and
a Mahometan mosque ; and near the bottom of the moun-
tain a convent, from which to the top steps are cut in the
rockj or formed by loose stones piled in succession. -

10. The children of Israel sojourned in Egypt 215 years,
reckoning from the time of the migration of Jacob and his
family.

11. During this period, they were reduced to cruel bond-
age ; but, notwithstanding the oppression which they en-
dured, they increased so rapidly, that, at the end of it, the
number of men, exclusive of women and children, amount-
ed to 600,000.

12. After a variety of grievous plagues had been inflict-
ed upon Egypt, the Israelites were, at length, delivered
from Egyptian bondage in a miraculous manner, by Moses,
who had previously resided 40 years in Midian.

13. Having passed over the western branch of the Red
Sea on dry ground, they commenced their journey through
the wilderness, in order to take possession of the land of
Ca'naan, which had been promised to Abraham.

5 Why was it called the Red Sea ?

6. How are mounts Sinai and Horeb situated ? 7. What memora-
ble events took place at these mountains ? 8. What is said
of the summit of Sinai? 9. What are now found on the
summit and near the bottom ? 10. How long did the chil-
dren of Israel sojourn in Egypt ? 11. What is said respect-
ing their increase .' 12. By whom were they delivered from
Egyptian bondage .' 13. What is mentioned respecting the
commencement of their journey ?

E



44 SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY.

14. They passed through the sea at Ba-alze'phon, and en
camped in the wilderness at Ma'rah, where the waters,
which were bitter, were made sweet.

15. Their next place of encampment was E'lim, where
there were twelve wells of water and seventy palm-trees.

16. From Elim they proceeded to Reph'idim, through the
Wilderness or Desert of Sin, passing by Doph'ka and
A'lush ; and in this wilderness they began to be fed with
manna, which was continued till they entered Canaan.

17. At a place called Mas'sah, or Mer'ibah, Moses pro-
cured water for the people by smiting a rock in Horeb.

18. Not far distant, at a place called Jeho'vah-nis'si, the
Am'alekites attacked the Israelites, but were entirely de-
feated.

19. Near this place Moses received a visit from Je'ihro,
his father-in-law, priest of Midian, who brought to him his
wife and children.

20. At Mount Sinai, the Law, containing the Ten Com-
mandments, was delivered to Moses.

21. After the memorable transactions at Sinai, the Isra-
elites proceeded to Tab'erah, Kib'roih-Hatta'avah, and to
Haze'roth ; at the last of which places Aa'ron and Mir'iam
were guilty of sedition against Moses.

22. From Haze'roth, they proceeded through the Desert
of Pa'ran, or Ka'desh, to Rithhnah, near Ka'desh-Bar'nea.

23. From this place twelve men, one of each tribe, v/ere
sent to search or spy out the land of Canaan.

24. All these twelve men, except Joshua and Calebs
brought back an unfavorable report res])ecting the country;
on account of which the Israelites were disheartened, and
resolved to return to Egypt.


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Online LibraryJoseph E. (Joseph Emerson) WorcesterElements of ancient classical and scripture geography: with an atlas → online text (page 4 of 7)