Joseph E. (Joseph Emerson) Worcester.

Elements of ancient classical and scripture geography: with an atlas online

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a Nazarene, and sometimes a Galilean.

3. His journeyings, during his ministry, were limited to
Palestine. The two principal centres of his labors were
Jerusalem and its vicinity, and the neighborhood of the Sea
of Galilee.

34. What was the most celebrated desert or wilderness of Pales-
tine ?

Chapter VI. — 1. What is said of the condition and divisions of
Palestine, in the time of the gospel history ?

2. Where was our Savior born, and where was his residence?

3. To what country were his journeyings limited, and what were

the principal centres of his labors ?



See Map JVo. VII. — How were the Amalekites situated with re-
gard to Judah and Israel ? How Damascus ? How was
Ammon situated ? Moab ? Midian ?

Which two tribes were situated farthest south ? Which three
farthest north ? Which on the Mediterranean or Great Sea ?
Which on the Dead Sea ? Which on the east of the Jordan ?

How was Judah situated ? Simeon? Manasseh ? Asher? Reu-
ben? Dan? Gad? Issachar? Naphtah? Benjamin? Zeb-
ulon ? Ephraira ?

What towns are found in the tribe of Judah ? In Benjamin ? In
Simeon ? In Dan ? In Ephraim ? In Manasseh ? In Is-
sachar ? In Zebulon ? In Asher ? In JNaphtali ? In Man-
asseh beyond Jordan ? In Gad ^ In Reuben ?



56 SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY

4. JuDEA comprised the territories which formerly bo
longed to the tribes of Judah, BeMJamin, Simeon, and Dan ;
and it was distinguished particularly for containing the city
of Jerusalem.

5. Jerusalem was styled by the Israelites the Holy City
and the City of God, and was regarded as, in a peculiar
sense, the dwelling-place of the Most High, as it contained
the Temple, and was the centre of the Jewish worship.

6. It was built on four hills, Zi'on, Mori'ah, A'cra, and Be-
ze'ta, which were almost surrounded by valleys, encompass
ed by mountains.

7. Two small streams, branches of the brook Kid'ron or
Ce'dron, flowed through the valleys, one on the east, and
the other on the south, of the city.

8. Mount Zion, which was the most elevated of the hills,
and on which the city of David was built, and also the pal-
ace of David, was the most southerly.

9. Mount Moriah, on which the Temple was erected, was
to the east ; and to the north were two other hills, less ele-
vated.

10. After the building of the Temple, ail the adult males
of Israel were required to go to Jerusalem, three times a
year, to keep the three great annual festivals ; namely, the
Passover, the Pentecost, and the Feast of Tabernacles.

11. The first Temple was built by Solomon, and was an
extensive and magnificent edifice, adorned with very costly
ornaments of gold, and encompassed by spacious courts.

12. In the innermost part of the Temple was the Sanctu
ary, including the Holy of Holies, so called because it con-
tained the Ark of the Covenant.

13. Into this most holy place, none but the high priest
was permited to enter ; and he only once a year, on the
great day of atonement.

14. The second Temple, which was built by Zerub'babelj
after the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity,
was much inferior to that of Solomon.

15. Herod began to repair or rebuild the Temple 16 years

4. What did Judea comprise ? 5. What is said of Jerusalem ? 6.
What of its situation ? 7. What streams flowed through the
valleys ? 8. What is said of Mount Zion ? 9. What of
Mount Moriah ? 10. At what three festivals were all thft
adult males required to be at Jerusalem?
11. What is said of the first Temple? 12. What was there in the
innermost part of it? 13. Who was permitted to enter into
the Holy of Holies ? 14. By whom was the second Temple
built ? 15. When did Herod begin to repair or rebuild the
Temple ^



SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY. 57

before the birth of Christ, and rendered it extremely mag-
nificent.

16. Near the Temple was the pool of Bethes'da ; and on
e northwest was the castle or for

which a Roo^an legion was quartered.

17. On the vest side of the city, and just without the walls,
was Calvary, a little hill, where our Lord was crucified.

18. To the south of the city was Gehen'na, or the Valley
of Hinnom, where the Israelites sacrificed their children to
the image of Mo'loch.

19. In the Valley of Jehosh'aphat, to the east of the city,
were the fountain or pool of Sil'oam or Sil'oah, and also
the Garden of Gethsem'ane, where our Savior was be-
trayed.

20. To the east of the valley of Jehoshaphat was the
Mount of Olives or Mount Ol'ivet, so elevated as to afford
a fine view of the city and temple.

21. The modern city of Jerusalem is built chiefly on
Mount Moriah, and is much visited by pilgrims.

22. To the east of Jerusalem was Beth'pha-ge ; and still
farther, Beth'any, famous for the residence of Mary and
Martha, for the raising of Laz'arus, and for the ascension
of our Savior.

23. Betli'lehem is memorable as the birthplace of our
Savior ; Em'maus, for his conversation with two of his
disciples after his resurrection.

24. Jer'icho, famous in the history of the Old Testament,
is frequently mentioned in the New, and was the residence
of Zacche'us.

25. Arimathe'a is noted as the residence of Joseph, who
begged of Pilate the body of Jesus ; Lyd'da, for the cure
of E'neas, by Peter.

CHAPTER VII.

Samaria : Galilee : Percza,

1 The country or province of Samaria derived its name
from the city of Samaria, which was the capital of the

16. Where were the pool of Bethesda and the castle of Antonia ?

17. Where was Calvary? 18. Where was Gehenna or the Valley

of Hinnom? 19. The Pool of Siloam and the garden of
Gethsemane ? 20. The Mount of Olives ?
21 What is said of the modern city ? 2'2. Bethphage and Betha-
ny ? 23. Bethlehem and Emmaus ? 24. Jericho ? 25. Ari-
mathea and Lydda ?

Chapter VII. — 1. What is said of the country or province of
Sa.Tiaria .

28



m SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY.

kingdom of Israel ; and it comprised the territory which
belonged to the tribe of Ephraim and half of Manasseh.

2. After the captivity of the Ten Tribes by Shalmane'-
ser, this country was repeopled by colonists from Assyria,
and such Israelites as remained or afterwards returned ;
and this mixed race of people were called Samar'itans.

3. They adopted the Law of Moses, and regarded the
Pentateuch as a book of divine authority ; but rejected the
rest of the Old Testament.

4. They built a temple on Mount Ger'izim, where they
celebrated their worship, instead of going to Jerusalem.

5. The greatest aversion existed between the Jews and
Samaritans ; and the two nations had no friendly inter-
course with each other.

6. Our Savior spent but little time, during his ministry,
in Samaria ; though he repeatedly passed through the coun-
try, in journeying from Galilee to Judea.

7. Sy'char, called in the Old Testament She'chem and
Si'chem, now Napolose, became the metropolis of the Sa
maritans, after the destruction of the city of Samaria.

8. Near Sychar was Jacobus Well, memorable for our
Savior's conversation with the vi^oman of Samaria.

9. In the vicinity was Mount Ger'izim, on which the Sa
maritan temple was built, and to which allusion is made in
the remark of the woman of Samaria, " Our fathers wor
shipped in this mountain."

10. CcBsare'a, a city on the coast of the Mediterranean,
was the seat of the Roman procurators, or governors, of
Palestine.

11. In this city Herod Agrippa was smitten with a fatal
disease, as related in Acts xii. ; here St. Peter converted
Cornelius, the centurion ; and here St. Paul defended him-
self before Felix, Festus, and Jlgrippa, before he sailed to
Rome.

12. Jop'pa, now Jaffa, is famous as the port of Jerusalem,
and for being the place where Peter restored Dorcas to life.

13. Antip'atris, a town built by Herod, is mentioned in
the history of St. Paul ; E'non and Sa'lim, near the Jordan,
were the places where John baptized.

2. Who were the Samaxitans ? and what was their origin ?

3. What their religion ? 4. Where did they build a temple ?

5. How did the Jews and Samaritans regard each other ?

6. Did our Savior pass much time in Samaria ? 7. What is said of

Sychar ? 8. For what is Jacob's Well memorable ?
9. What is said of Mount Gerizim ? 10. What of Caesarea?
11. What events took place in this city ? 12 What is said of Joppa .
13. What of Antipatris, Enon, and Salim ?



SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY. ^9

14. Galilee, the northern division of Palestine, com-
prised the country formerly occupied by the tribes of Is'sa-
char, Zeh'vlon, Naph'tali, and Ash'er.

15. It was divided into Upper and Lower. Upper Gal-
ilee, the northern division, was mountainous, and was call-
ed Galilee of the Gentiles, because it bordered upon Gen-
tile nations.

16. The chief town of Upper Galilee was Ccesare'a-Phi-
lip'pi, called in the Old Testament Dan.

17. Lower Galilee, which is called in the New Testa-
ment simply Galilee, is comparatively level, and was very
fruitful and populous ; and many of its inhabitants were
Israelites.

18. This division of Palestine was most honored with
our Savior's presence, and it was the native country of
most, if not all, of his twelve disciples.

19. Tibe'rias, situated on the sea of Galilee, which was
called also the sea of Tiberias, was once the capital of
Galilee, and was noted for its Jewish academy after the
destruction of Jerusalem.

20. Capei''naum, Chora'zin, and Bethsa'ida were all sit
uated near the sea of Galilee, and were memorable for our
Lord's discourses and miracles, which brought a heavy
woe upon them on account of their unbelief.

21. Bethsa'ida was the residence of the disciples Philip,
Peter, Andrew, James, and John.

22. Caper'naum was the residence of Matthew j and on
an eminence near this town, our Savior delivered nis mem-
orable discourse, called the " Sermon on the Mount."

23. Naz'areth is famous for having been the residence of
our Savior, before he entered on his public ministry ; Ca'-
na, for his miracle of turning water into wine ; JVa'in, for
his raising a widow's son to life.

24. Ptolema'is or Ac'cho, now Acre, a place visited by
St. Paul, is noted in the history of the Crusades.

25. PERiEA, or the country Beyond Jordan, comprised
the territories which formerly belonged to the tribes of
Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and it
was subdivided into several districts.

14. What did Galilee comprise ? 15. How was it divided ?

16. What was the chief town of Upper Galilee? 17. How is
Lower Galilee described ? 18. VVhat is further said of this
division .? 19. What is said of Tiberias ? 20. What is said
of Capernaum, Chorazin, and Bethsaida.' 21. Of whom
was Bethsaida the residence 1 22. What is said of Caper-
naum .? 23. What of Nazareth, Cana, and Nain .? 24. Ptol
emais ? 25. What did Pereea comprise .''



60 SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY

26. Decap olis was a combination of ten cities, which
were situated not far from the sea of Galilee.

27 The country on the east side of the sea of Galilee
was repeatedly visited by our Savior, and here were the
towns of Balmanu'tha, Mag'dala, and Gad'ara.

28. Farther to the south, on the Jordan, was Bethab ara,
where John baptized.



CHAPTER VIII.

Countries in which the Gospel was preached by the .Apostles

1. The labors of the apostles in preaching the gospel,
after the resurrection of our Savior, as related in the Acts,

26. What did Decapolis comprise ? 27. What is mentioned of the
country on the east side of the sea of Galilee ? 28. What
of Bethabara ?

Chapter VIII. — 1. In what countries was the gospel preached
by the apostles ?



See Map JVo. VIII. — What sea lies west of Palestine ? ^

How was Samaria bounded ? Judea ? Galilee ? Persea, or -Be
yond Jordan ? How was Galilee of the Gentiles situated f
Iture'a ? Phoenicia ? Syria ? Genesaret ? Decapolis ?

How is the Dead Sea situated ? ' The Sea of Galilee ? The Waters
of ^erom ? Through what does the Jordan flow ? Into
what does it empty ? Where does the Arnon empty ? The
Jabbok ? What streams empty into the Mediterranean ?

How is mount Lebanon situated? Anti-Lebanon? Mount Her-
mon ? Mount Carmel? Mount Tabor? The Mountains of
Ephraim ? The Mountains of Abarim ? Mount Gilboa ?

How is Jerusalem situated ? Samaria ? Csesarea ? Tiberias ? Si
don ? Gaza ? Hebron ? Joppa ? Jericho ? Ptolemais .'•
Capernaum ? Sychar ? Tyre ? Cassarea-Philippi ? Beer-
sheba ? Bethlehem ? Nazareth ? Cana ? Emmaus ? Gath ^
Ascalon ? Magdala ? Ramoth-Gilead ? Jezreel ? Bethab-
ara ? Azotus ? Engedi ? Salim and Enon ? Megiddo ?
Shunem ?

See Map JVo. IX. — In what part of Jerusalem was Mount Zion.^
Mount Moriah ? Where was the city of David ? The Tem-
ple ? The Palace of David ? Solomon's Palace? Salem,
or the Old City ? The Pool of Bethesda ? The Castle of
Antonia? Mount Calvary ? Which way from the city was
the Mount of Olives ? Where was the Valley of Jehoshaphat ?
The Valley of Hinnom ? The Pool of Siloam ? The Fuller's
and the Potter's Fields ? Gethsemane ? Which wa^^ from
erusalem were Bethphage and Bethany ''



SCRIPTURE GLOGRAPHY. 61

were confined chiefly to Palestine, Syria, Jls\a Minor ,
Greece^ and Italy,

2. These countries were all, at this period, subject to the
Romans ; and they embraced the portions of the earth
which were most distinguished for civilization, arts, and
literature ; but the inhabitants were all, with the exception
of the Jews, jcfag-afi idolaters, conimonly styled in the Bible
Gentiles.

3. Syria, which was, at this period, a Roman province,
had for its capital, An'tioch, which had been the residence
of the Macedonian kings of Syria, called the Seleu'cidce, and
was, for some time, the third city in the vi^orld in splendor
and population.

4. Antioch is frequently mentioned in the Acts of the
Apostles ; it was the native place o? St. Luke, and for some
time the residence of St. Peter and St. Paul ; and here the
disciples of Christ were first called Christians.

5. Eph'esus, the capital of the province of Asia, was a
large and splendid city, celebrated for a magnificent temple
of Dia'na, which was reckoned one of the Seven Wonders
of the World.

* 6. St. Paul spent some time at Ephesus ; here St. John
passed the latter part of his life ; and of the church here,
Timothy was appointed bishop.

7. The "Seven Churches of Asia," mentioned in the
Revelation, namely, Eph'esus, Smyrna, Per^gumos, Thya-
ti'ra, Sar'dis, Philadelphia, and Laodice'a, were all in the
province of Asia.

8. Smyrna, a large commercial city, is noted for having
been considered by some as the birthplace of Homer ; Per'-
gamos, as the royal city of Eu'inenes ; Sar'dis, as the resi-
dence of the rich king Crossus ; Mile tus, for its riches and
commerce, and the temple of Apollo.

9. Tarsus, the capital of Cilicia, was a large city, noted
for the arts and sciences, and as the birthplace of St. Paul :
Ico'nium, as the capital of Lycao'nia ; Pa'phos, as the cap-
ital of the island of Cyprus.

Q. What is said of these countries ?

3. What is said of Syria and Antioch ? 4. What further is related
of Antioch ? 5. What of Ephesus ? C. W^hich cf the apos-
tles resided here ? 7. What were the " Seven Churches,"
and where situated ? 8. What is said of Smyrna, Pergamos
Sardis, and Miletus ?

9. What is said of Tarsus, &c. ?
28*



62 SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY.

10. Greece, at this period, was divided into two Roman
provinces, namely Acha'ia and Macedo'nia.

11. Achnia comprised Greece Proper and the Pelopon-
De'sus -y and Macedonia consisted of Macedonia Proper
Thessaly, and Epirus.

12. Cor'inth, the capital of Achaia, was situated on a gulf
and an isthmus of the same name, and was famous for
commerce, wealth, and the arts, and for the celebration of .
the Isthmian. games in its vicinity.

13. Alh'ens, the most renowned city of Greece, was for a
long time the most celebrated seat of learning in the world,
and gave birth to many of the most eminent men of an
tiquity j yet this city, as well as those less enlightened,
" was wholly given to idolatry."

14. Crete, a large island lying southeast of Greece, and
much celebrated in Grecian history, was visited by St. Paul,
accompanied by Titus, who was left here to regulate the
affairs of the churches.

15 Pat'mos, a small barren island, is celebrated for being
the place to which St. John was banished.

16. The great and powerful city of Rome was the capital
of the Roman Empire, which, in the time of the Gospel
history, was nearly in its greatest extent, and embraced
most of the then known world. ^

17. The Roman Empire was, during the ministry of
St. Paul, successively governed by the Emperors Tibe'ri-
us, Cdlig'ula, Clau'dius, and Ne'ro.



CHAPTER IX.

Labors and Travels of St. Paul and the other Apostles.

1. The labors of St. Peter, so far as they are recorded in
the New Testament, were limited to Palestine and the city
of Antioch ; yet from his addressing his first epistle to the
Christians dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia,
and Bithynia, he is supposed to have preached in those
countries.

10 How was Greece now divided? 11. What did Achaia com-
prise, and what Macedonia? 12. What is said of Corinth''
13. Athens? 14. Crete? 15. Patmos?

16. What is said of Rome and the Roman Empire ? 17. By what
emperors was the empire governed during St. Paul's ministry''

Chapter IX. — 1 What is said of the labors of Peter ^



SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY. 63

2. St. John preached the gospel for a while in Palestine,
He was at length banished to the island of Patmos ; and he
passed the latter part of his life in Asia Minor, chiefly at
Ephesus.

3. James, the brother of John, suffered martyrdom under
Herod Agrippa, as related in Acts xii.

4. The other apostle James, the brother of Jude, some-
times called James the Less, was the author of the epistle
which bears his name, and was bishop o£ Jerusale7n, where
he suffered martyrdom, A. D, 62.

5. Of the labors of the rest of the twelve original disci-
ples or apostles, subsequent to the ascension of our Savior,
scarcely any thing is recorded in the New Testament.

6. St. Paul, who was appointed an apostle after the as-
cension of our Savior, and was preeminent for his various
endowments, "'labored more abundantly than all the oth-
ers ;" and he is styled the great apostle of the Gentiles.

7. He was a native of Tarsus, a Hebrew of the tribe of
Benjamin, was educated a Pharisee, and possessed, by
birth, the privilege of a Roman citizen. This privilege, it
has been maintained by some, was conferred on his ances
tors ; but others suj)pose, that, at this period, all the natives
of Tarsus enjoyed it.

8. St. Paul was, for a time, zealous for the Jewish re-
ligion, and employed himself in cruelly persecuting the
Christians ; and it was while on a journey from Jerusalem
to Damascus, for this purpose, that his miraculous conver-
sion took place, A, D- 35, or 36.

9. After his conversion, he went to Damascus, thence
into Arabia, where he passed considerable time ; then re-
turned to Damascus, and afterwards to Jerusalem.

10. After this first return to Jerusalem, subsequent to his
conversion, he performed four apostolic journ«ys from that
city, before he was sent a prisoner to Rome.

11. Some of the principal companions and assistants of
Paul in his labors amon^- the Gentiles, were Bar'nabas,
Silas, Timothy, Apollos, Titus, and Luke.

12. In his first apostolic journey from Jerusalem, Paul

2. What is said of John ? 3. What is said of James the brother of
Tohn? What of the other apostle James ? 5. What of the
Test of the 12 original disciples? 6. What is said of St. Paul '
T. What of his birth and origin ? 8. What further is re-
lated of him ? 9. To what places did he proceed after his
conversion ? 10. How many apostolic journeys did he per-
form after this return to Jerusalem .'' 11. Who were some
of his principal companions and assistants.? 12. What was
iiis route in his first journe\' ?



64 SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY

proceeded by way of CcBsai-e'a to Tarsi s ; thence to An^
tioch ; and, after spending considerable time here, he re/-
turned to Jerusalem, A. D. 44, accompanied by Barnabas,
bringing relief to the suffering Christians in Judea.

13. In his second journey, Paul returned to Antioch ;
thence by Seleu'cia first to Sal'amis in Cyprus, thence to
Paphos, the capital of the island, where he converted the
proconsul Ser'gius Pau'lus, and struck with blindness the
sorcerer Rl'ymas, who attempted to hinder his conversion.

14. From Paphos he proceeded to Perga : thence to An-
tioch in Pisidia ; thence to Lystra^ Mvheve he cured a crip-
ple ; and the people who saw this miracle, were at first
eager to ofi^er sarifice to him and his companion Barnabas j
but they afterwards stoned him, dragged him out of the
city, and left him for dead.

15. From Lystra he proceeded to Der'he ; thence returning
again to Lystra, Iconium, Antioch, and Perga; and thence
by way of AttalVa to Antioch in Syria. After spending con-
siderable time here, he, together with Barnabas, went again
to Jerusalem, A. D. 49, in order to consult the apostles and
elders, on the conti'oversy which arose respecting circum-
cision and other legal ceremonies.

16. After the council of Jerusalem, Paul commenced his
third apostolic journey ; returning with Barnabas to Antioch^
he took Silas for a companion, and proceeded to Der'he and
Lystra, where he received Timothy as an assistant ; thence
through Phrygia, Galatia, and Mysia', to Truas, where
Luke is supposed to have joined him.

17. From Troas he proceeded by Samothra'cia and JVeap-
olis to Philip'piy where he, together with Silas, was put In
prison, but was delivered by an earthquake ; and he after-
wards converted the jailer and his family.

18. From Philippi, he proceeded to Amphip'olis, Apollo'
nia, Thessaloni'ca, Bere'a, and Ath'cns.

19. At Athens, he was brought before the supieme court
of Areop'agus for trial, and before this tribunal, composed
of statesmen and philosophers, he delivered the speech re
corded in Acts xvii.

20. From Athens he proceeded to Cor'inth, where he re

13. What course did he pursue in his second journey, and what
took place at Paphos ? 14. To what places did he proceed
from Paphos, and what took place at Ljstra?

15. What was his course afterwards, and on what occasion did he
return to Jerusalem ? IG. What was his course in his third
journey? 17. What was his course afterwards, and what
took place at Philippi ? 18. What places did he next visit ?

19. What took place at Athens ? 20. What city did he th»n visi*
and what took place at Corinth?



SCRIPTURE GEOGRAPHY. 65

malned about a year and a half, and was here brought by
the Jews before the proconsul Gallio.

21. Embarking from CerVchrea, a port of Corinth, after
touching at Eph'esus, he landed at Ccesare'a, and proceeded
again to Jerusalem, A. D. 53.

22. After a short stay at Jerusalem, Paul went to Jlntioch^
proceeding on his fourth apostolic journey through Gala'tia
and Phryg'ia to Eph'esus, where he remained two or three
years, and left the city after a riot was raised against him
by Demetrius, the silversmith.

23. From Ephesus he proceeded by way of Troas to
Macedonia, passing through that country and Greece, again
visiting Corinth and Philippi ; thence sailing by Troas to
Mile'tus, where he met the Ephesian Christians, and took
the affecting leave of them recorded in Acts xx.

24. From Miletus he proceeded by Cos, Rhodes, Pat'ara
Tyre, Ptolema'is, and Ccesarc'a, to Jerusalem, where he ar-
rived before the feast of Pentecost, A. D. 5S.

25. After his return to Jerusalem from his fourth apostol
ic journey, the Jews caused an excitement against him,
and he was sent a })risoner by way of Antip'atris to CcBsa-
re'a, to be tried by Felix, the governor.

26. Having been detained a prisoner two years at Ceesa-
re'a, where he delivered the defences recorded in Acts xxii.
and xxvi., he availed himself of his privilege of a Roman
citizen by appealing to the emperor.

27. He was accordingly sent to Rorne with other prison-
ers, under the care of the centurion Julius, and was accom-
panied by St. Luke.

28. In their voyage (see Map jYo. X.), they touched at
Sidon and Myra, sailed near Cnidus, thence round the east
end of Crete ; and after being ''exceedingly tossed with a
tempest," for fourteen days, they were shipwrecked near
the island of Mel'ita, where they all got safe to shore.

29. From Mel'ita they proceeded by Syr'acuse, Pute'oli,
Ap'pii Fo'rum, and The Three Taverns^ till they finally ar
rived at Rome, A. D. 61.

30. Paul dwelt two years in the city, in hired lodgings

21. By what places did he return to Jerusalem ? 22. What was his


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