Joseph Edkins.

A grammar of the Chinese colloquial language commonly called the Mandarin ... online

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J^ J^ ,po .li, glassy from the Sanscrit sphatika; 7[|| /^ 'yap4en^,optt*?w;
Hj ^^ ,ai yaS alas! ^ ^% 'fang fuh, like) fj Pj ,ting .ning, to inti-
mate ; Pjig Pq 'ya ,pa, a dvmh person ; ^^ jt^ ,c^heu c'liw,^, perplexed] q\
^5 l^^ '^9 a fox.

5 None of the words in these groups are used alone in the same sense,
but some of them may be replaced by another word ; e. g. PjiJ 4 'ya 'tsi,
a dumb person; PJ PJ|§ ,ting chuh, to give directions.

6 Among inseparable groups are many whose constituent words would
have a different force if separated. Many verbs resign their governing power
when they enter these combinations, taking the character of the entire group
whether substantive or adjective; e. g. it ,fung, to seal, in it ^ ,fung
'V% ^ popper pasted on doors to seal them up ; P|| .sui, tofoUow, in ^ y%.
,t^sin .sui, his ovm servants; ^^ .lai, to come, in ^f^ ;^ .lai lih, origin;
5y Jff- tung^ tsing^, to wore, to rest, in© ^7" W) W'" 1^^ .hing(8)tung^
tsingS his words, actions and movements; Jj\] /v p^ ^ ^p P^^^ J^^
tih shl^ ,fei, other vnen's virtues andfauUs.

7 So also many substantives and adjictives lose their proper force when

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they enter into oombination with verbe, and assume the character of the
whole group. H \j^ 'k*eu ,kung, to cot\/^e8S a Griine;/(^ {jft ,kwangchau%
to shine upon; 1|Q \l\ ^ y^f J ,t'a .men k*i* ahali 'liau, thci/ died of
grief. ^ fiJi, punishment, becomes a verb, in ^ ^ tsoh (chai) fah, to

punish. In Is W ^ ^ i& 'tsung yau* 'siau ^sin ,t^a, you must be
careful of him, siau little^ an J sin Jieart^ join to form a verb be careful. KV,
a prqfect, in y^ ^ ^ 6l* /v ngan^ 'li swan^ ki^ jen, secretly lie plots
against mem, is part of a verb.

8 Substantives in a group whose predominant character is adjective, then
take that force. Thus in /^ (1| /\ J^ .jen ,8han .jen 1iai, mvH in vast
numbers, jshanand 'hai, mountains and seas ^wxi^iiw wry nmnvroHH, from the
space they occupy in a landscape. ^ P^ W [email protected] n^.t'iin 'tsui ngai* 'tsicMi
tih, gluttonous and fond of wine; /V llQ P(a '(^ P^ ^ -.l^*" mien' sheu'
jsin tih .jen, a man human in face but a brute in heart ]yCi ^5 ^ \ P^
07 'pi 'wo ,keng .nien ,k'ing tih, he is younger than I. Here the substan-
tive .nien, years, forms with ,k^ing light, an adjective «ift(.T the adverb ,keng
more. In f pj j\^ si^ ,8in, carefvl, sin Aear^, is an adjective.

9 In names of agents many verbs are employed, which then lose their ac-
tivity, /pk "5* .yuen kau', (accuse) plaintij^; f^ pa pei^kau^, defendant;
|5j j^ .t^ung ,chi, assistant officer in a department

10 In many inseparable groups one of the component words adds nothing
to the sense, as 7u jkwang, light, in Tu ^ ,kwang 'king, appearance of
things, ]%i jfeng, windj in '^ )$t ^ chieu^ ,feng 'king, an old wrinkled
look, J ,ting, a man, in ^ J ,ping ,ting, a soldier. ^ k^i', in /J ^
lih k^i^ or k*i' lih, strength, p| 'sheu, head, in /"^ ]g ,6lu 'sheu, a corpse^
H muh, eye, in ^ y tsl^ muh, cAarac^er* (used in Kiang-nan) ; and in
^t H shli^ muh, influence. In some of these examples, the reason for the
use of the superfluous words may be detected. Thus in the last, muh eye,
indicates that he who has influence is looked up to by others. In ,shi 'sheu,
sheu head, is probably an old numeral particle, which as such r^ulariy fol-
lows its subfltantive, when no num])er is used. In ,ping ,ting, ^ting is an

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agent ^ In some such names of things the etymology cannot be discovered;
e. g. jg 'tnng, in pT st '^^ 'tung, a curiosity. In ^ Q ,tnng ,8i, a
thiMg, boUi words lose their own sense, and join to fomi a meaning entirely

Separable Groiij>s.

11 In a group of two co-ordinate words, a governing term maybe prefixed
to each. ^^ 5bP -^ tT ^^^ ,hiang koh ,t^suD, each hamlet and villar/e;
y^ BM y< t §■ ta' 'sing ta* wu^, greatly wakened and enlightened;P}
V] ^ 'k'o king' 'k'o ngai', to be reverenced and loved) Yi W 1^
'yen .i 'yen k'au', he lias something to trust to and rely upon; \^ nsK
^ ,kau ,t^an k'woh lun', loud and boastful ivords; '^-^ %rp iK ^ ?l^wa
iw jkii 'nil, widoios and orpJuin girls; yJP /j^ ^£1, |^ .ju ,kiau si' t'sih,
sticking together a^ if tvifh glue and paint lym ^fQ. ^^ ^^ ,fan.Iai fuh k'li^^
turning backwards and for tear ds; j^ ^ ^ml ^^ .p^ing ,8heng sih k4',
holding their breath from speaking] ^^ ^ 'fo p^ 'k4au .yen ,hwa 'ii,
floioery and subtle words

12 An object may follow each member of a group of two coordinate words.
m »n W^ iP?*sung .t'sing fang' si', giving loose to the feelings] ^ W|^
1^ /l3 'sheng c'hih 'kien yung', to be economical in food and expenditure.
In the first of these examples, the order of the two verbs is inverted, g^ TpJ
i^ Iri -y^i^g jtsung yau' 'tsu, to bring honour on one's aiicestors] 'p ^c
S mWj^'si^^ ,chen \^2Ln^\L^io\ perfectly trus and accurate'/^^- ZL pM ^-^
jC'heng ,8an tsan' si', to praise on various accounts] |^ |£L 4^ "^ 'hien
'tsu .yang .ming, to glorify ancestors and spread one's fam^.

13 Adjectives are inserted between numeral particles and their substan-
tives. . "^^ y^ ^ n^ yih p'ih c'hih'ma, a bay horse; ""^ ^ ^^ |Kj
yih .c'heng su' kiau' (ch), a plain sedan chair] — ' ^ y^ ^ j|5 yih
,fan ta' tau' 'li, a great doctrine or argument]^ ""^ ^K ^ M 'hau yih
,chang li' 'k'eu, a very sharp month (cutting in speech). But where a num-

* See chapter on substantives.

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oral particle, or the name of a subdivision of a substance is qualified by an
adjective, the adjective precedes it, as in — i^ "P ^ (or ^ .lai, covie) y^
i^rV shTh ,to chang^ tiS more than 200 feet of land; "f^ ^ ^^^ shfli
.lai i)4h 'ma, viore than 10 horses; — ^ rK Mi J'^'^ tso' p'o' luiau-, a
ruined temple; — ' m 5 W J^^ >^®^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^ J^^ hatr-pin; ^P
E ^' "ft ^»' P'il^ c'hYh 'ma, fAo< rerf horse; U) J — t^ /h H ^1
shell 'liau yih k^vai^ 'siau shxh p'ien^, he picked up a small stone.

14 Auxiliar bs and other words are inserted between a verb and
its object. J J $Q 4 'ta .wan 'liau kieh 'tsT, finislied tying this
knot; ^£ — ' 'yang yih 'yang .shen, to refresh one's spirits a little;
" — ' IW ^^ \ Jv yili .t^ung tai^ 'liau .lai tih, brought toith him; J J
f H J ^r JJ ^^^ '^^^^^ swan* .p^an, Ac has calculated ioj-ong on the

15 Auxiliary and other words occur between a verb and its auxiliaries.
JS T lii i 'P'au 'liau c%uh kW, he loalhd out; tl ft it ® #
^ ,1 : .mang lih 'k'i ,8hen .lai, hastily he raised himself up; [B| f ^
nfg I V .hwei 'chwen 'ma .t^eu .lai, he turned the horse's head round ;
^( ^ h ^ ^ 'siang 'k4 kieu* shiMai, he began to think of old things;
JH . I ^ 'pai shang' 'tsieu .lai, set on wine ; JJlI ]^ ^ ^Cl i^
J4C " C iS J r ^ na* lei* (ui) ,kengsT* 'tseu ,chu yih ,pan 'kwen
'liau hia* .lai, those tears yet more like moving pearls rolled down,

16 In negative verb groups, an adverb is sometimes placed after the prin-
cipal verb, ^g >^I ^ UJ ,t*ing ta* puh c*huh, I do not hear xoelL
(Southern) This may be regarded as abbreviated from ^ !^ 3k ^& ^
p4 puh ta* 'hen ,t*ing teh c*huh. It is not admissible in Peking mandarin.

17 In verb potential groups with the negative and affirmative particles,
the object is frequently introduced after the principal verb. g% yjA^ ^^ ^^
shwoh ,t*a puh kwo*, / cannot overcome him with wo^^ds,

18 When repeated verbs with the tentative ^^ k*an* or Hj 'k*o, separate
to receive a word expressing the object, the division takes place before k*an*
and 'k*o. JJ J J 1^ ^ 'ta 'ta ,t*a k*an*, strike him and see.

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cHAPTSt 6. OX sucniE PROFOsmoim. 237


Ox >SiMrLE Propositions.

1 A proposition in its simplest foi-m contains a subject (3E 'chu, Iioaty)
and predicate (^^ ,pin, guest). The subject precedes, J^^ ^fi .c'hau .lai,
^A^ *icfe co7ne8 ; >\^ >{x ,t'ien 'hau, the weather is fair. The predicate is
an adjective or verb, '^ ^ ^J ^5 .c'hang .mau li^ hai^, the long-haired
men areformidahle ; /J/ J ^ |Q| ^ .p^eng 'yen .hwei .lai, my friend has

2 In the cast* of some verbs as fX4> y c^huh, hia*, the subject followi
the verb ; uJ ^ j cHiuh ten* Hsi, to have the sitialUpox] y ^ hia
'ti, it rains ; jS tS loh (lau) .c^hau, ^ TfC loh 'shui, the tide falls; "T
^P hia^ (s) siufeli, it snows. Yet in such examples the noun may also be
considered as the object of the verb, and a nominative, supposed to be lost
by ellipsis, supplied.

3 The copula is inserted or omitted, as clearness and rhythmus require.
W ^^ '^o sl^^ -fong >tu°g> I «^ ^^ landlord (of a house) ; ^^

fan^ 'hau, tlie rice is ready) j|fl -^ ^ ^ ^ /V ,t^apuhshi^ 'mai
mai^ .jen, he is not a trader] ^\] /\ yf\ ^ 35 pieh .jen puh ,cht tau^,
others do not Tcnoto, The omission of the copula before adjectives itf as com-
mon as before verbs, ^f^ Xy^ ye^ ,shen, the night is far advanced; /v ^^
.jen ,to, the men are nwnerous,

4 A proposition in a still fuller form contains, also an object, viz. the
noun governed by a transitive verb. ^S5 '^ TK vSk '"^^ P^ ^^^^ j^% ^
do not dislike him; ^ ^6^ ^ ^%M^ ihfjL^ 'yen .t^sien
tih sht^ ,hwan hi' .yen ,shan .wan 'king, those who have money are fond of
toandering among hills and fine scenery,

5 A subject may consist of a substantive, or a substantive group, or of a
pronoun, a verb or verb group, an adverb of place and time, or an adjective
construed as nouns. ^ S|/ llli ^ )l|j| jt'sin tsX' k^uen^ ,t*a ,kwei
shun^, he himself exhorted him to std>mit; ^ ^ ^ ?R shan' 'yen shan'
pauS virtue has a good reward;]^ jS» ^ B T" ^ ^ jig P7 jt'^i

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jiigen clie^liwei^ 'tsi shV puh .nen^ tih, to show 'mercy this time is impossible ;
/V ^ Zl I* ""* |Sj ^ J jen 'ma ,8an jt^sien yih .t^ung .lai 'liau,
three thousand men and horses came together,

6 The pronoun or noon is often not expressed, so that a proposition some-
times may appear to be without a subject. ^ -3^ /h \^ ^ /V 'tsung
yau^ 'siau ,8in .hien jen, you must he careful of loiterers ; Wt'^ J tsieu'
k^ii^ (c*h) 'liau, he v>ent at once ; CL ]^ W ^ Ht '7j J 'i ^^^^ .hwang
jhwen .shi fen' 'liau, it is already the time of txoiUght] Ji -T^ ^ y^ 'ic^i
puh shT* 'hau, is it not goodf

7 In very many sentences, the predicate is a transitive verb with an ob-
ject, consisting of a singte word or a group of co-ordinate wonls. Sometimes
there is a double object, one direct and one indirect. -^ 'f^f IM ^a >P>nfC
,tu .hwei .ying, the soldiers aZl returned to the camp; JH A. wP I^ ^*
jsan .jen ,tu hia* 'ma, the three m^n dismounted from tlieir horses; jlft \^
jQ "^ ,t'a pien* p'eh 'sheu, he then clapped his hands; "y^ ^Q ^ 'j{^
— 't^ffiiB'f^&ffiR >t'a tsi^u' 'tt ,t'a rT' shih 'liang .yin 'tsT
.wei .p^an fei', he then gave him twerUy taels of silver for his travelling ex-
penses. The place of the object is after the governing verb, but there are
exceptions to this arrangement, jfi isl -^ '^ /^7^^^ shI' shY' puh ,ch]i,
he does not understand the business of the world.

Extension of the Subject,

8 Great variety is introduced into sentences, without the addition of
separate clauses, by applying qualifying words and groups to the parts just
enumerated. The subject is extended, for example, by prefixing an acyective.
/h ® IM K 1!S >^ ^ 'sia^ tH pien* 'kai tso' ta' .Vi, a smaUcharge
is then magnified into a great one; ^ ^ /v ^ inx aB T^ ^ shan*
.liang .jen puh tso' che' yctng^ shI', a good man will not do such things.

9 Numbers and numeral particles are prefixed to substantives. **^ "7^
^ Ca Ix uHl J yih ,t*sien .nien 'i ,king kwo' 'liau, a thousand years
Jiave already passed; aS iB /v ^ h9C cbe* ko' .jen shl* tfieh(tsei), this

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man in a thief; Zl vPi /v QP 'E ,san ko^ jen ,tu tsai^, ike three men
are all here,

10 A substantive is preceded by another, expressing some speciality or
attribute belonji^ng to it, with or without the connecting particle p^ till.
H^^^^illftiBSlliS^ kwoh ,kia tih fah tu^ sh!* .nan
^k'wan jsung tih, the latv of the stable is hard to relax; "^ 'fx ^ ^ -y*^
yuh puh .lai, the yameii police did not come ;]^ >f§ ^ JU J '^^ -^^^^
kai* 'hau 'liau, tJie drum tower is completed) ^t 3^ By ^ ^C^ ^ E
Enf V^^ >P^®^ *^^ 0^^ 1^^^ ®^"^ ^^^ *^^> ^'*^ ^^'^ ^ ^^ Mor^A are straight-
forward in their disposition,

' 11 Adverbs of time and place are prefixed to a substantive, in the same
manner as attributive substantives, with or without o^tih. -jQ, ^ / v icy>
j^ che^ 'li .jen ,chung heu^ thenten liere are honest and liberal; y^ H!j
6^ y^ 3^i ^ .t^sung .t^sien tih ,fang fah 'hau, the method formerly used
is good,

12 Substantives with prepositions or postpositions also precede another
substantive with or without By tih, to form the subject.^ PS A. ^ uh
'li .jen ,to, the people in tJte house are many.

13 A reflexive pronoun often follows a noun or pronoun in the sense of se]f,
4fi S 2L ^ ^ Ifi^ ^ ^*'» *s^' '^ V^^ 'siang tso^ ,kwan, he himself
does not desire to become a mandarin ; ^ 'W ^ ^ '^^ ^'* ^^^
tau* 'li, / myself have a way of acting. y -\ -^^

14 A numeral particle sometunes follows a noun in the subject. ;5C TT
^ 1^ ~" JSj ^ fii^ 'tsl 'liang ko' yih .t^ung 'sT, the father and son died

15 Demonstrative, possessive and other adjective pronouns precede a sub-
stantive to form the subject. ^ A ffi Mrc^^^g' 0^^ j*'^^ ^^^'> «^^
the people heard it; 1fi 6^ jfe ife ?S A g ^E 7 ,t^a tih 'hu ,wei
pei* .jen mau* fan^ 'liau, his tiger pride has been rudely injured by some om.

16 A verb with its objective case may form a subject. IfiX jll f tu W^
tso* ,kien si* .nan, to be a spy is difficult.

17 Each member of such an extended subject may further be qualified by

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some Other word. Jp T If ^^ 6^ ^ IK fe A SP i^ 7 -lang

hia* si* heu* tih 'Hang ko* 'lau jen ,tu k^u* 'liau, the two old men who wait
in the verandah have both gone; 'j^ji j^ "^^ f^ Q f ^ /V Em 7u
;^ 1 X 'W JT ,t*a na* yih ,chung muh ,chung .wu jen till ,kwang 'kin^
.mei 'yen 'liau, tJuU air of his, expressing universal contempt for mnnkind,
is gone.

Extension of the Predicate,

18 The predicate is extended in a similar manner. Thus it may consist
of a substantive with its'adjective. ig I^ ^ ^[§ J. elie^ k^wai'sh'r' 'kia
u^, this piece is false Jade-stone.

19 A number and humeral particle with a substantive may iorm a ]>redi-
cate, or the substantive may constitute a subject, and the number and ]>ar-
ticle a predicate with ^^ 'yeu, to he; M ^ ^ ^Z Wj ^^ S H
.yuen .lai shV' yih fu* ti* 'li .t^u, it was a map ; ^ ^ J^ ZH "y" |H|
che* .fang uh ri* shT* ,kien, this house has tiocnty rooms ; gP ]^ • — " J^
y^ ^^ ,tu shi^ yih .c^iang ta* meng*, it was all a long dream.

20 Another substantive expressing some speciality or attribute mny Im»
prefixed to the principal substantive in tlie predicate. ^^ ^ /I* ttM /v

■\rir J-V^ IXl "its' "^

'wo shl* wai* lu* .jen, I am atravell^ from other parts;i^ >f^ 7q ^^ -4\
^ A ^ ^^^^ yai^g^ ,hiung ngoh puh shy* ,t4en 'li, this violence does not
agree with heavenly reason,

21 Demonstrative, adjective and other pronouns are also prefixed to the
substantive. ^ ^ ^ 0gf f|f $it 'wo 'yeu 'wo tih .yuen ku*, / have
my reasons; ^^' — ^ 6^ 1M 1^ 't^s! shX^ yih kung* tih kia*
.t*sien, this is the price of the whole.

22 When the principal word in the predicate is an adjective, an adverb
may be prefixed or affixed to it. Sl^ ifi S^i "f #1 ill i^® ^ oa' ko*
.;igai 'tsl 'tau 'ye ,piau chi'^, that idiot is indeed pi*etty; ^t& wv ^ wH ^n
1^ OK >*^a tih ,shen 't'i 'leng teh 'hen, his body is very cold.

23 Adjectives also take the verbal auxiliary ^i ^^ 'k*i ,lai, as verbs do

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chaptkr 6. KZTKimenr of ths prxdcoate. 241

the adverbs that qualify adjectives. X ^ ^^ ^ ?fc ,t4en k^i^ 'leng
'k*i .lai, the weather is getting cold,

24 The predicate may coiuuBt of two or more verbg in apposition. ^ J^
5c ^ n^ ,kwan 'fu yau^ .lai wen^, the mandarin xoiU come to ask; j^\^
;S J ^ Sa Jl By na^ ,chwang ,ting puh 'kan Bhang* .t'sien, thatviU
lager did not dare approach) ^W^W^^^ ,t*a tsieu* c'huh k'u^
,k*ai ^fang, he then went out to tvrite a perscription) Jgj^ ^jpt iffl |Gj fSk
HvdVi^ fang* ,t*a .hwei kwoh, he then let him go back to his country.

25 The predicate may consist of a verb and its object^ and further the ob-
ject may be double, viz. direct and indirect. The direct object is usually
next to tlie verb. 1& ^ ^ ^ ^ ,t^a puh ,cRt shI* wu*, he does not
know biMiness; J^ lA VvJ >^ \^ ^^ -Diai f*uh tih ,piug .hwei .ying, the
soldiers in ambush returned to tlie camp] J & ^ H ^^ ?t^a P^h hwei' i*,
he does not understand what is meant; ^ v!\^ 1% ^\^ "^'^
.men puh yung' ,t'ung ,chY ,t'a, we need not inform him; ^ ^ J J ^^
^^ tI[ f^' jt'sin 'ta ,t*a yih tun*, his /other gave him a beating ; ^ ^
^ ICi ^ 1^ J5|| .hwang ti* sung* ,t*a .lung fmng* .k*i, the emperor pre-
sented him a dragon and phcenix banner.

26 A substantive with a preposition or postposition, preceding another
substantive may form a predicate. 3^ ^ ^ f ^ q^ 5? M ^^^^ ^^^^
,kia 'li tih 'pau pei*, this is a thing of value belonging to the family,

27 A verb with ^ teh or x^ puh, and an adverb following it form a
predicate. *^Wi^%%^^ .l^^Sf ^en* kai* teh ,tiing 'k*iau, ihe
palace is iiigeniously built ; $5 >£ 5Xi ^ 5^ tau* 'li shwoh teh
.ming peh, the argument is clearly expressed] j{^ fg ^ ^^ ,t*a 'tung
teh 'hen, he understands extremely well.

28 A verb and adverb may form a predicate, ^f iJC 4^ ^ ^ jKV ia.
^3 'ni .mei 'yeu .t^siuen .jan ,wen sih, you have not yet learnt it perfectly;
tP ftf A S6 SS S! 6^ It T na* fu* .jen chan* 'king 'king tih kwei*
hia*, the woman tremblingly kneeled down ; ' " ^ aC tT *^ im 7^^ y^^
tsin* .hing ,c*hau mieh, the family was entirely exterminated; ^ Ci f ^

O* B^ ^ '^^ '^ ^^^ ^^* ®^* kwo*, / A«ve already informed him; 1^

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y3E ^x J yJ 5^ ^1^®' ?^^^ »^^'* ^^^''^ ?^®^ .ming poh, dAf« cA/W uu-
(lerstands perfectly tcelL

29 A noun expressing the cause, mfinncr, time, or place of an actitui com-
bines with a verb to form a predicate. The noun may have a preposition or
postposition attachtnl to it. ^4^ Itj f I jl^"» j^h c'huli .men, he k (/one
out to-day ; ife in tt ^ n til -^ ,t^a .men .I'sung hen* .menc^huh
k'tt^. they tvent out by the back door; m1\\^Wf^±yC^K jt'a .men
'siau .fang 'li ,ngan hidh, they went to rest hi the small room; •""" ^fl^ /V
"fe /»S I ^£ y^^^ ^^^ J^^ ^^^^^ j^^'^o ^^^^^ *'^*^'7 ^ ^'*^^'* *'''^ //(*«/(/e a lamp:
J% 4^ ?0 1^ y^^^g* 'sheu 'chi ,t*u, with his hands he pointed at him] \^
H itti -^ ^""^ 7*^^ >y'^ '^^^^ 1^^^ •^^'' ''^ ^'' account of this did not come.

30 The noun with its adjunct follows when the order of time requires it.
a^ ^^ W^ "F i^ T* -i^a 'tiling fang^ hia^ 'tsing.chung, hetoohahuclcd
and let it down into the well 'y^^] ^ HU '^seu tau^ .'ma .t'sien, he
walked to the space before the horse.

31 Each member of an extended predicate may have a qualifying word
attached to it. 8f5 ft >^ SS fi" tt M ^^^' ^^^'^ '^^^'^ -c^wen chili
'ti .hu ngan^, that small boat came direct to the shore of the lake; ^p ' '
|{^ Jft. ^f ^ @ ^ tjj f^ na^ yih tui^ ,ping 1iau ,sheng ku^ 'sheu
.c^heng .men, that company of soldiers kept good guard at the city gate)\\S^
^ ft ^S! fe ~ fl? E3 ^ ^,t'a soh sing^kih 'kq yih ,k4ang meii^
k4^ .lai, he quickly began to feel a bosom full of grief; ^ ^ H^ ^ 1 ±

ft H 5S "^ >fe tR S 1^ fo' ;t^8i 'Hang ko^ chu^ tsai' yih 'ting

p*o^ .nieu .p*i chang' .fi^g nui*, the husband and wife lived in a torn cow-
skin tent,

32 Sometimes expletive particles terminate the predicate.^ ^ J ye'
tsmg' 'liau, the night is quiet ; ^ BR ifii eP ^^ J »^ ^^ 'y^ ^^^S' -^^
'liau, his clothes also are all pawned ; /^^mZLm iSrWM
-^ PJt; chlh 'yeu 'Hang ,8an ko' ,ya .t'eu ,k'an uh 'tsi .ni, there were only
tivo or three girls watching the house.

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Extension of the Copula,

33 Rhytlmms tbrows many adjectives, adverbs, and conjunctions before the

coi»ubi, even uhen it is Hin»])ly connective, and hm no siguificanco of its own.

as in ^ ;^ ""^ 'JP veu* triiV yih ko^, that is another; ^Jf. ;^ \m ^?i

f ei _e ^rf AA
tsieii' sbi- ebe' y^ng', it is in this way, A^ ^ ^ iO WJ ,sin tsui' sbi-

bwuh tih, th^. heart is very variable. Hence it becomes pro])er in Chinese

grammar to speak of the extension of the copula.

34 The copula is extended by prefixing a negative 2)article. x^ ^^ |p
?3C piib sbi- cheng^ jl^J^g, it is not correct. Before a verb predicate, ^
pub stands alone ;^ /v ^ jjp ^ che^ .jen i>uh tsoh ,sheng, the man
did not speak, Sb'i' is omitted in any case where tlie rhytlinius would be
improved without the sense being injured. .Mei and .mei 'yeu are both used
iHjfore verbs; — ^ 1W i® ^ 3^ ^ M^ 3® yih ko^ .t^sien .mei k^an^ kieu^
kwo^, / have not seen a single cash,

35 It is further extended by prefixing emphatic adverbs expressive of what
is known to be (positive or objective certainty), of what ought to be (moral
or subjective certainty), and of what is by nature (natural certainty). ^^ J'^
» ™ EI king' mull ,t'ing .ming i)eh, toe have certainly not yet heard
clearly] IE :^ ™ ^ M /V cheng' shr yau' lui' ,t'sin .jen, this mtcst
involve relatives) "m^ i ^^ S^M* ,t-a ,t-ing liau ping' puh
,8heng k'i', tohen he heard it he certainly teas not angry \ ^(Q. ^^ -^ ^
^ W Jn ^ che' yang' yih ting' sbi'yau' sheh '|)en, in this toay yon
must lose money] g ^ ;^ ^{11, ^ ^ J tsi' .jan shi*' ,t'a .na k'li'
'liau, of cotirse it is he that has taken it aioay; /!^ ^^ ^^ j^ ^?\ 'pen
shY' yau' shang' ,king, he originally wished to go to the capital]^ ^ ^
Jtr /v ting' .jan shi' 'hau .jen, he is certainly a good man, |,^ xj\ P|^
'tsung puh c'hih, he would not eat on any account,

36 Other adverbs also i)recede the copula. ^Q. ^^ gj( ;^ -fpl ^ che'
'ying 'kan shY' ko' 'kwei, this shadow is probably a ghost] 5^ P| |^ /^

Jl ^T MV R 'X.iningjih tsieu' shi'shang''hau tihjih'tsi, ^o-?/iorr^^
then is a most lucky day.

Digitized by



37 In the same manner conjunctions are thrown before the copula. jH x|f\
J© 3® to I I '**^ P^^ yuen* i* c*huh .men, but he is unwilling to go ovt.

38 The pronouns that mark the plural precede the copula.^ ^ Mr ^
ifill «i MV 'Hang ,kia ,tu sh!^ tso' ,kwan tih, both the families have rtiefii'

hers who are mandarins ; pX ^ "^Wc TS W^ Y^^ ^^'^^ .t'siuen .wu
t*su* pai^S their food afid drink they were entirely without means o/pro*
curing; ^ ^ J^ ^ 13^ ,8hen .wei .k'i kwai^, it is much to be wondered at,

39 Some adjectives precede the copula ^ 'yen, and occasionally >t sliT-^
etc. ^ ^ A M i^ "S* ^1^ "ffi'tsau 'yeu .jen tsiu^' k^a^ kau* su' ,t^a,
ihfre was some one who had gone in betimes to tell him; ^ ^^ ^ ^Q
,to 'yen mau* fan', / have greatly insulted you,

40 Adverbs precede not merely]^ shX*, the common substantive verb but
also copulas, iffi y^ W ^ S >*** ^ng' 'yeu i' ,sT, he has other plans;
^R ^ 5C^ /li '1^^^ puh^heu^ yungS he teas very iU'Satisficd; ^^ T^
4 ft 58 S K IS S5 "["^ ?S ,t^a .men .hau .wu tau^ 'li chlh ,ti
.t'eu tsoh hwoh, they taere left with nothing to say, and could but bend dotmi
their Jieads and work; W ^ ^ m^ shen^ shl^ 'k^o 'lii, it is gi^eatly to be
rejoiced in.

41 Many verbs not havmg a full predicate sense, may be taken as little
more than an extension of the copula or substitutes for it, [email protected] /v ^ ^T
557 \ che^ .jen puh kiau* 'haii .jen, this man is not to be considered good;
HP^ ^ ^ MV P^^ »^^^^' '^0 ^} ^ ^^ ^^^ *o ie considei^d mine. The
verb iSic tso', is used before relative nouns, professions, etc. ^ ^^ iStW
tK m V 'wo puh tso' 'kwan chang* tih, / am not a keeper of accounts,

42 The negative^ puh, when taking as its opposite ^ teh, to obtain,
Ibrms degrees of comparison and intensitive adverbs to adjectives, and the
potential mood to verbs. In such cases the verb and adjective precede. ±J
•^ ^ ito ibK © ,fnng puh teh ,t^a tso* ,kwan, he should not be ap-
27ointed to office; [email protected] ;^ >^ T> ^ B^ che^ shI' 'shau puh teh tih, tJtis
is indispensabk;^^ Si 6^ ?S ^ Sl^ ?i ^iS .% * M ^ bI' sui'
tih .hai 'tsY 'na 'li tso' teh .lai .hwang ti*, a child of/our years, how can he
act the part of empero^^lf

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Online LibraryJoseph EdkinsA grammar of the Chinese colloquial language commonly called the Mandarin ... → online text (page 21 of 24)