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shall cease, the meek inherit the earth, and
righteousness, peace, and joy shall fill th©


In what sense one day is with the Lord^ as a
1000 years, — J\*ebuchadne%%ar^s visionary
image, — BanieVsJonr beasts, — The eleventh
horn of the Roman Beast,

From a very brief consideration of some of
the principal signs of the times in the pre-
ceding lecture, we have seen, that from them
there is reason to hope,that Christ's Millen-
nial kingdom is at hand. If we turn to the
bible, the more sure word of prophecy may
serve to confirm this pleasing hope, >

Some have imagined that the Millennium
will commence nearly or exactly six thous-
and years after the creation of the world.
As God was engaged six days in the work
of creation, and rested on the seventh,
and as he sanctified each seventh day
as a day of holy rest, or Sabbath, so it
has been supposed, tliat the church after
being in a state of labor and toil and
distress, for six thousand years, will find
the seven thousandth, a period of holy rest^
of peace and glory. Accordingly, as the
world stood about 4000 years before Christ,
so it is supposed, that the Millennium will
commence about A. D. 2000. This is indeed
a very short and easy way of computing the
commencement of the Millennium. But I
must acknowledge, I could never feel the

§ne Day as 1009 Fears, 137

force of the argument, nor perceive the just-
ness of the conclusion. Upon what ground
is it concluded, that the six days of creation
and seventh of rest, hav« any relation to the
suhject? There are indeed many things
mentioned in the bible, which are types or
figures of other things. But what reason
have we to conclude, that these days are
typical; unless we adopt the unfounded, the
wild, tlie extravagant notion, that every
thing mentioned in the Old Testament is a
type, and that every passage has a spiritual
meaning, distinct from the literal? But
€ven if we sliould grant, that these days
may be typical, why make each signify just
a thousand years? Is the passage, w^hich is
sometimes adduced for this purpose sufficient
to establish the point? As there is some-
thing in the sound, which may make it seem
sufficient, and as many have thought it
sufficient, it may be proper to attend to
it for a few moments. 2 Pet. 3:8. <'15ut
beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing,
that one day is with the Lord as a thous-
and yearsj and a thousand years as one
day." By the expression, "Be not igno-
rant," tlie apostle seems to intimate, tiiat
he alludes to something, w4th which his
brethren were w^ell acquainted, or of which
they ouglit not to be ignorant, if v/e can
ascertain the jueaning of the expression, to
which the apostle alludes, it may assist us in
understanding the passage under considera-

138 One Day as 1000 Fears,

tion. Now there is no doubt that he alhides
to Ps. 90:4. '*For a thousand years in thy
sight are but as yesterday, when it is past,
and as a watch in the night." No one can^i
imagine that this passage has the least allu4
sion to the first seven days at the commence-l
jnent of time. No doubt, it means, that to
Him, who is from everlasting to everlasting,
a thousand years is but a very short time;
as "all nations are as nothing, and they are
counted less than nothing and vanity ,"to Him,
who is omnipotent,and filleth immensity. The
apostle adopts the expression with little va-
riation,and seems to use it in the same sense.
Let us look at the connexion. The apostle
had just been speai^ing of "scoffers, who
sliould come in the last days, walking aftei*
their own lusts, and saying, Where is the
promise of his coming? for since the fathers
fell asleep, all things continue as they were
from the beginning of the creation." The
scoffer's objection seems to have been, that
the Lord had delayed his coming so long,
that it was doubtful whether he would ever
fulfil his promise for this purpose; or rather,
that there was no reason to expect the ful-
filment, so long after the promise was sup-
posed to have been made. But the apostle
intimates, that there is no reason to doubt
the accomplishment, on account of the long
delay. For tho the time may seem long to
man, wlio is of yesterday, and knows com=
paratively nothing, and whose days are as a

One Bay as 1000 Fean* X39

'iand's breadth, yet to Him, who iiihahiteth

f sterility, with whom one day is as a thousand

/ears, and a thousand years as one day, the

ime i.s not long; and the Lord is by no

iieans to be accounted slack in accomplish-

iig what he has promised. To me this ap-

ears to be the plain and obvious meaning of

he passage; and so it appeared to most of

he commentators, that I have found it con-

enientto consult, namely, Baxter, Burkitt,

^ol,(or rather Neal, one of hiscontiniiators,)

poddridge, Macknight, and Scott. Not one

fthpqi gives the least intimation, that ever

t was conjectured, that in any case a day

vas designed to represent a thousand years.

The paraphrase of Doddridge runs thus,

«All the divisions of our time are so abso-

utely disproportionable to his eternity, that

he difference between one and another of

hem, seems to be lost in his presence; and

vengeance certainly to be inflicted after a

;housand years, is nearer in his estimation,

ban that w hich is to he executed tomorrow,

s in ours." Upon the passage w^e find the-

following Note in Macknight. <'This is an

allusion to Ps. 90:4. But neither th<3 apos?

tie, nor the psalmist,meant, that God does not

perceive any difference, between the unequal

durations of a day and a thousand years, but^

that these differences do not affect either hig

esigns, or actions, or felicity, as they dq

those of finite creatures. So that what he

firings h} pass on ihc day he declares hj^

140 One Bay as 1000 Years, 1

purpose, is not more certain, than what h
will bring to pass a thousand years after hi
declaration. In like manner, what is to bi
brought to pass a long time after his declar
ation, is not less certain, than if it bad beei
donawhen declared."

But it is said "there is an old traditioi
among Jews and Christians, that at the enc
of six thousand years, the Messiah shal
come, and the world shall be renewed, th<
reign of the wicked one shall cease, and the
reign of the saints upon earth shall begin/
But is it not too late in the day-r-are we no
too far removed from the thraldom and dark
ness of Popery, to think of gaining ligh
upon such a subject as this, from an old tra-
dition? No doubt we may often derive muct
from traditions in relation to facts, that hav<
heftn long past; but can tradition tell us o
whatisto;come? ld|t not astonishingthat zeal-
ous Protestants of such talents and piety as
Hopkins and Bp Newton should think of ask-
ing tradition, when the Millennium will com-
mence? Where did that tradition originatei
No doubt in the lively imagination of some
person, when thinking of the first week ol
time, and of the abundant use of sevens in the
bible. But even if it had been the most de-
liberate opinion of the greatest of the fathers
of the primitive church, what would his
opinion be to us? Might we not presume,
that the opinions of the fathers w^ould most
probably be incorrect upon such a subject?

Daniel and Revelation, 141

is probable that the prophets themselves
d not generally know, if indeed they ever
lew, the time of the distant ex ents, which they
jre inspired to foretel; fcho they "searclied
lat, or what manner of time, the Spirit of
lirist, which was in them, did signify."
1 ere is reason to believe, that all the most
ficult prophecies relating to the Millenni-
1 would remain in great darkness and obscu-
:y,till near the time of their accomplishment,
le greatest evidence, that can be derived
)m tradition upon this point3therefore,raust

considered as of the negative kind, tend-
^ to disprove the proposition, that it is ad-
ced to support.

I am inclined to think, that no parts of the
)Ie can afford us any definite information

pecting the time, when the MillenniuiR

II commence, except what are to be found
Daniel and Revelation. It is confidently
lieved,that these two books contain much
;ht upon the subject. But the prophecies-
ating to the subject are so intricate and
ficuit in themselves, and so connected with
ler prophecies, that fully to exhibit the
;ht which they contain, would require a dis-
ssionsufficientto fill a volume. (Inly an im-
rfect outline of such a discussion can be here

Ihibited. To the uninformed reader, whose
som glows to gain information concerning
B Millennium, a very imperfect view of
is part of the subject, may be interesting
d useful. The reader will have patieiic(5

142 JVebuchadne^%ar^s Image ^

to take a view of the prophecies relating t<]
this subject in their connexion, in order tif
perceive the force of the arguments deduced
from them.

The first intimation of the Millennium 1
which Daniel gives us is in the latter partos
the second chapter. Nebuchadnezzar hac
dreamed a dream, which he seems to bavi
forgotten, tho it greatly affected him. Thii
dream Daniel was inspired to relate, and U
interpret. "Thou, O king," said the proph
et,«'sawest, and behold, a great image. Thi^
great image, whose brightness was excel-
lent, stood before thee, and the form thereol
was terrible. This image's head was of fint
gold, his breast and his arms ofsilver, his bell;y
and his thighs of brass, his legs of iron, his
feet part of iron, and part of clay. Thoi
ss west till that a stone was cut out without
hands, which smote the image upon his feeti
that were of iron and clay, and brake them
to pieces. Then was the iron, the clay, the!
brass, the silver, and the gold broken to
pieces together, and became like the chaff o
the summer threshing-floors^ and the win(
carried them away, that no place was founi
for them; and the stone that smote the imagi
became a great mountain and filled the earth
This is the dream; and we will shew the inter-|
pretation thereof before the king. Thou,
O king, art a king of kings; for the God of
heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power,
and strength and glory. And wheresoever

J\'*€buchadnez%ar^s Image. 14S

;he children of men dwell, the beasts of the

ield, and the fowls of the heaven, hath

he given into thine hand, and hath made

thee ruler over them all. Thou art this head

)fgold. And after thee shall arise another

kingdom inferior to thee, and another third

kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule

)ver all the earth. And the fourth kingdom

ihall be strong as iron; forasmuch as iron

)reaketh in pieces and subdueth all things;

md as iron that breaketh all these, shall it

)reak in pieces and bruise. And whereas

hou sawest the feet and toes part of potter's

;lay, and part of iron; the kingdom shall be

! iivided; but there shall be in it of the

j ;trength of iron; forasmuch as thou sawest

I ;he iron mixed with miry clay. And as the

I oes of the feet were part of iron and part of

;lay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong

md partly broken. And whereas thou saw-

ist iron mixed with miry clay, they shall

ningle themselves with the seed of men; but

hey shall not cleave one to another, even as

ron is not mixed with clay. And in the

lays of these kings shall the God of heaven

let up a kingdom, w hich shall never be de-

itroyed; and the kingdom shall not be left to

ither people, but it shall break in pieces,and'

onsume all th.ese kingdoms, and it shall

itand forever. For as much as thou sawest,

! hat the stone was cut out of the mountain

1 vithout hand3, and that it break in pieces

I he iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and


144 MbuchadneX>xar^s Image,

the gold; the great God hath made kno
to the king what shall come to pass he

The following explanation of the al>o\
passage is principally taken from the ei
ceilent Notes of Mr. Scott's Family Bible c

<'The Chaldean monarchy, 6\er whic
Nebuchadnezzar was the only king of gre^
renow n,was represented in the vision by th
head of gold. For monarchies under a sue
cession of princes of the same nation, an
not individual monarchs, are meant by kine
in the general language of prophecy. Th
vast riches, magnificence, and prosperity (
the Chaldean monarchy, and of Babylon,it
1 enowned metropolis, give it that pre-em
iicnce over the succeeding empires, whic
c;old has above other metals. Perhaps moi
liberty and peace were enjoyed under i
than under those which followed. The hea
of the image, being the emblem of this moi\
jirchy, seems only to denote its priority
the order of time. The term of its contiri
nance was far shorter,than tliat of any of tb
otiiers. I

"The breast and the two arms of silve
of the io^age, represented that monarch) I
which succeeded the Chaldean. This wa ii
the kingdom of the Mcdes and Persians; th I
united power and authority of w!»icli, migl k
be denoted by the two arms, sliouJders, ki |
This was inferior to the Chaldean monaiJ^

^ebucliadne%%ar^s Image. 145

chy, as silver is to gold, perhaps in wealth,
splendor and prosperity; at least it was so
in the characters of the kings. For the Per-
sian monarchs, from the death of Cyrus to
the subversion of the monarchy, were per»
haps as vile a set of men, as ever disgraced
human nature.

" The third kingdom, represented by the
belly and thighs of the image formed of
brass, must be that of the Macedonians or
Grecians; which succeeded to the Persian
monarchy. This was established by the
conquests of Alexander the Great, and con-
tinued under his successors. It had less ex-
ternal magnificence than those which pre-
ceded; and it was founded and supported by
arms, many of which were of brass. But
it was more extensive, than either of the oth-
ers, including many dominions in Europe,
as well as those of the Persians in Asia and
Africa,and many regions farther to the east,
than they had ever penetrated. It was there-
fore foretold, that this kin|fdom would bear
rule over all the earth; which may also allude
to the vain-glorious boast of Alexander, that
he liad subdued the whole world.

"The Roman kingdom or empire succeed-
ed to the Macedonian. <*It was as strong as
iron; and like iron it subdued all before it.
No other people ever made such extensive
conquest through so many ages. In the ear-
ly part of their prosperity, they were re-
markable only for valor, hardiness, frugali-

146 J^ebiichadne%%ar's Image

ty, and poverty, of which iron is a proper
emblem. The two consuls, by which they
were long governed, and the eastern and
western empires, into which their dominions
were at length divided, might be denoted by
the two legs and feet, on which the image
stood. The ten toes, into which the feet di-
vided, represented the ten kingdoms, into
which at length the whole empire was brok-
en. The civil wars, which weakened the
state and the conjunction of the Romans
with the conquered nations, and after-
wards withtheGoths,Vandals and other bar-
barians who subdued their empire, was de-
noted by the compounding of the iron with
the potter's clay, which cannot unite or
strengthen each other. Thus the Roman em-
pire decayed in strength, even when it was
growing more extensive. At length it began
evidently to decline till it was divided into
many subordinate kingdoms — This monar-
chy still subsists in the toes or kingdoms,
into which it was broken.

<«These four monarchies, probably the
mightiest that ever appeared on earth, have
certainly been far more celebrated than any
others. The history of them in fact com-
prises the grand transactions of mankind
from the days of Daniel to this present time.
The church of God likewise has had vastly
more concern with these, than with any oth-
er empires. The countries belonging to
them Rave hitherto been the chief seat of the

J^ebuchadne%&aT^s image. L47'

Redeemer's kingdom, which will be render^
ed universal by the total sabversion of the
last of them. It cannot therefore be thought
strange, that so many more prophecies
should be inserted in the sacred oracles con-
cerning tliese four kingdoms^than about oth-
er nations and empires."

But the grand and all-important subject is
the kingdom destined to succeed, and greatly
to surpass them all. *^In the days of those
kings, or during the prevalence of the Ro*
man authority, the God of heaven had de-
termined to set up another kingdom, which
Would never be destroyed, or fall under the
power of any conqueror, seeing it would
break in pieces and consume all these king-
doms, and stand for ever. This was repi^-
sented by a stone cut out without hands,
which smote the image and utterly destroy-
ed it, and became a great mountain, and fill-
ed the whole earth." According to Dr.
Lowth, <*the Jews unanimously agree, that
by the stone is here meant the Messiah. His
kingdom from small beginnings should pro-
ceed to fill the whole earth; as if a stone
should grow to a mountain. Mr. Mede has
judiciously observed, that this kingdom is de-
scribed here in two states, as the kingdom of
the stone, and the kingdom of tlie mountain.
The small and progressive success of Chris-
tianity is meant by the former; its universal
triumph, by the latter." "The stone was
entirely distinct from the image, nay di?

148 JSTehuchadnex^ar'^s Image*

redly opposite to it in all its interests. It
must therefore mean a kingdom set up by
the power of God, without the concurrence
of human policy or force, and in opposition
to all the authority and combined efforts of
the princes of this world. The kingdom of
Christ was evidently intended. From small
beginnings it has already made vast pro-
gress. It has subverted, and will continue
to subvert, pagan and antichristian king-
doms, and to entirely destroy and disperse
them. At length it will triumph over all
opposition, and become a great mountain
and fill the whole earth. This part of the
prophecy remains to be accomplished. So
that we have in this dream a most extraor-
dinary prophetic abstract of the most signal
events that would take place through all suc-
ceeding ages, nearly to the consummation
of all things. As far as the accomplishment
has proceeded, it has been most exact and
undeniable; and future ages will be filled with
sistonishment and awe, by witnessing this
Stone, cut out without hands, destroying the
remaining toes of the image, and universally

Tho this prophecy does not inform us in
what year, nor in what century, the Millen-
nium is to commence, yet it gives us some in-
formation upon the subject. It assures us,
that there will not be another universal hea-
then or antichristian empire; but that the
next universal kingdom on earth is to be that

^ BanieVs Four Beasts, 149

©f the stone becoming a great mountain and
filling tlie earth, and destined to stand for
ever. As it is a long time, more than a tlioii-
sand years, since the Roman empire was
divided into the ten kingdoms symbolized by
the toes of the image; and as several of those
kingdoms have been destroyed, we are en-
couraged to hope, that the reign of the moun-
tain cannot be very far distant.

Thus we have taken one step in the re»
gion of prophecy toward discovering tiie
great and glorious era, when the kingdoms
of this world shall become tlie kingdoms of
our Lord Jesus Christ. We are now pre-
pared to take another step with greater ease
and less danger of losing our way.

In the first year of Belshazzar, Daniel
had a vision, in which the same kingdoms
were represented to his vie w by different
symbols.^ To use nearly the words of Mr.
Scott. "Mighty conquerors and extensive
flourishing empires might well be represent-
ed to the carnal grovelling mind of an am-
bitious heathen king by a great and splen-
did image; but to the spiritual heavenly mind
of the prophet, they might be more fitly rep-
resented by the most ferocious, destructive
and terrible of devouring beasts." Of these
beasts the first was like a lion, v/ith wings,
representing, as we have reason to believe,
the Chaldean kingdom, like the head of gold;
the second was like a bciir, with three vil^s


150 Eleventh Horn, \

In its mouth, representing the Medo-Persia?8
empire; the third was like a leopard, with
four wings upon its back, representing the
Macedonian empire; the fourth beast was so
dreadful and terrible, and so exceedingly
strong, that it seems there was nothing in
nature, with which it could be fitly compar-
ed, manifestly representing the Roman em-
pire. Tho these four beasts symbolized the i
same kingdoms, as the image presented to
the imagination of Nebuchadnezzar, yet we
are not to consider the latter vision as a
mere repetition of the former. In the latter
the information conveyed seems to be more
particular and extensive, especially as it re-
spects the Roman empire. The three first
beasts seem to be presented principally fop
the sake of introducing the fourth in its prop-
er chronological order; and the fourth beast
seems to be introduced principally for the
sake of bringing to view a power intimately
connected with this beast, and indeed spring-
ing up out of him — a power, of which there
is not the least intimation in the former vis.
ion. This power (which I shall denominate
the eleventh horn to distinguish it from the
little horn of the he-goat, which may be
called the fifth horn*) seems to constitute the
grand characteristic feature, the most distin-
guishing peculiarity of this vision. I am
incliued to think, therefore, that the eleventh
horn^ or the power which it represents,

Eleventh Horn, 101

should be considered ai5 the grand subject
of this vision. To this dreadful power,
therefore, let us direct our chief attention.

The Roman beast had ten horns, corres-
ponding with the ten toes of the image.
Among these, the eleventh seemed to spring
up very graduaily,and almost imperceptibly.
The account runs thus. <«After this I saw
in the night visions, and behold a foiirth
beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong ex-
ceedingly; and it had great iron teeth; it de-
voured and brake in pieces, and stamped,
the residue with the feet of it; and it was
diverse from all the beasts that were before
it; and it had ten horns. I considered the horns,
and behold, there came up among them
another little horn, before w hom there were
three horns plucked up by the roots; and be-
hold in this horn were eyes, like the eyes of
a man, and a mouth speaking great things.^'

Tliis horn appears to be denominated little,
not because it was less than the rest, when
at its full growth; for it was ultimately the
greatest of all the horns; but because it came
up after the rest, and was very small,
when they were full grown. When the
prophet first saw the tremendous beast, it
had only ten horns, all of full growth. While
he considered, or while he was considering
the ten horns, behold, there came up among
them another little horn. It seems that this
horn gradually grew greater and greater;
till at length it eradicated three of tiie other

152 Eleventh Horn,

horns; or tliree horns were eradicated before
it, to give it room to expand itself. And it
became great, so that its "look was more
stout than its fellows."

The eleventh horn, then, represents a
power, that sprang up gradually after thej
ten kingdoms, into which the Roman empire]
was divided,had arrived at their full strength,]
We may be sure, then, that it was a power^
which was manifested after the fall of the oh
Roman empire. A. D. 410. It was also a!
power, ^vhich came up among the ten kingr|
doms, and existed with them for a time, dur-?
ing its infancy, till at length three of those
kingdoms were overturned, to give it room.
Whether it overturned these three kingdoms
by its own strength, or whether it was only
the occasion of their being overturned by
some other power, does not appear from the
vision; nor does it, 1 think, decidedly appear
from the explanation, tho it is expressly said,
*«lt shall subdue three kings." Persons are
sometimes said to do those things, of which
they are only the occasion. But other fear
tures of the eleventh horn are strikingly de-
lineated by the pencil of prophecy, by which
the likeness may be recognized by every can-
did and attentive observer, without the dan-
ger of mistake. Dan, 7:21—26* "I be-
held, and the same horn made war with the
saints, and prevailed against them, until the
Ancient of days came, and judgment was
given to the saints of the most Eigh^ 'mi\ th^

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