Joseph F. Edwards.

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The rising was general. After they
had taken their seats, a call was made
for those who did not pay their debts,
and one solitary individual arose and
explained that he was an editor and
could not pay because all the rest of
the congregation were owing him
their subscription to his paper.*'



WHO DISCOVERED THE
COMMA-BACILLUS ?



In the year 1854, just thirty-four
years ago this month, the City of
Lancaster, in this State, passed
through quite a severe epidemic of
cholera. In the year 1855, ^ report
on this epidemic was made to **The
Sanitary Committee of Lancaster
County," by the distinguished Dr.



John L. Atlee, late President of the
American Medical Association. This
report was composed partly by his .son,
Dr. Walter F. Atlee, now the eminent
physician of this city. This report
concludes as follows :

" Much has been written upon this
subject, both by contagionists and
those advocating the theory of atmos-
pheric or telltuic influences, as epi-
demic causes. It is not my object to
enter into this discussion. One fact,
however, may be mentioned, which I
would recommend to the attention *of
future observers. During the exist-
ence of cholera at the hospital, several
portions of the rice-water discharges,
both from the stomach and bowels, and
from different patients, were carefully
examined by a powerful microscope,
magnifyi?ig about seven hundred diam-
eters, and in all of them were discovered
extremely minute bodies, differing in
appearance from epithelial cells, arid
from the known physiological and pa-
thological, histogenic and phytogeni^:
elements. An accurate drawing of
them was made and exhibited to
Prof. Jackson, of the University of
Pennsylvania, and we regret that we
cannot at this time append a copy of
the drawing to this report."

It must be stated that after graduat-
ing in medicine at the University of
Pennsylvania, Dr. Walter F. Atlee
had pursued his studies in minute
anatomy for years, in Europe, under
Charles Robin, and also under Lacker-
bauer, the celebrated designer of mi-
croscopical drawings, so that he was
thoroughly competent to discover
what the microscope revealed, and
to accurately delineatej and describe
that which he saw. When, thirty
years later, Dr. Shakespeare, upon



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THE ANNALS OF HYGIENE.



his return from India, addressed the
College of Physicians of Philadel-
phia upon Koch*s discoveries, exhib-
iting the comma-bacillus under the
microscope. Dr. Atlee, after inspecting
it, remarked to Professor Da Costa,
who stood near by, that this was
identically the same organism that he
had seen in Lancaster in 1854. We
regret that we cannot reproduce the
drawings, that were treated so lightly
by Professor Jackson, but we have
ever>' reason to believe that ''the ex-
tremely minute body'' and the bacillus
of Koch are identical in appearance. It
would thus seem that the peculiar
minute body seen in cholera excre-.
tions, the discover}- of which, at a
time when rtain theory is in

vogue, has made the German famous
throughout the civilized world, had
been described and figured in this
country many years ago.

We would refer any of our readers,
who might wish to see the full report,
which is of very great interest ; and, so
far as it relates to the contagiousness of
cholera, of the highest importance,
to the transactions of the Medical
Society of the State of Pennsylvania
for the year 1855.

Dr. Jackson did not believe that
any schizomycete could be the cause of
cholera, nor did Dr. Atlee, nor does
he believe so now. He believes that
the specific disease, cholera, produces
a change in the tissues and humours,
and this change allows of the devel-
opment of these microscopical bodies
of a peculiar kind. Every living thing
requires certain conditions for the de-
velopment of its germ, but it is not
the cause of these conditions. So far,
no convincing proof of the germ
theory of disease, as applied to living
tissues and liviyig phenomena has been
produced, says Dr. Atlee.



NOTES AND COMMENTS.



THE CAMP CURE.



A few years ago public attention
was directed to this subject by an
article in the secular press, written by
one of Philadelphia's most eminent
physicians.

To this and similar publications is
to be attributed the multiplication of
** health resorts " which has occurred
during recent years.

SufiBcient time has elapsed (says the
Medical Times) since the camp c.ure
came into vogue to allow an opinion
as to its worth. As a means of treat-
ing incipient disorders of the nervous
system its value is very great ; as a
preventive it is still greater. In many
cases of confirmed nervous disorders,
we are convinced that better results
can be obtained from it than from any
other method of treatment. In all
the great groups of diseases which
have their true foundation in the over-
work necessitated by modem life,
there is no other remedy to compete
with this. A thoughtful man remarks
that consumption is but another name
for death — death prolonged over a
longer period than usual — but really a
gradual extinction of vitality. In
many other cases the same thing may
be said. The soil is exhausted.

But in many instances the camp
cure fails because it is not taken in
sufficient doses. The patient returns
after a week or two, refreshed, reUeved,
but in a short time his symptoms re-
turn. It is a remarkable fact that the
Mosaic institutions contain much that
to our eyes seems better fitted for
modem times than for those in which
these laws were promulgated. We



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THE ANNALS OF HYGIENE.



Non-Irritant Iodine.



W. H. HOSTELLEY &, CO.,

Would again ask the attention of the medical
.profession to

Hostelley's Syrup

Hydriodic Acid,

As an eligible and efficient means for the internal administra-
tion of Iodine, we believe the profession cannot find its equal. It
possesses the advantage over most forms of that drug of being
non-irritating', also pleasant to the taste, an important feat-
ure of modem medicine, not however possessed in such a marked
degree by any other form of Iodine.

Our product represents iodine in the form in which it is di-
rectly absorbed, thereby producing its effects more promptly and
in smaller relative doses, while it is not open to the objections
which are found with the alkaline salts, usually employed for ad-
ministering that drug.

We take pleasure from the fact that we are the means of plac-
ing in the hands of the profession, the valuable drug iodine, depriv-
ed of the objectionable qualities which have Ipng been obstacles to
its successful employment in many cases, where indicated, owing
to its irritating and nauseating effects, and the repugnance which
most patients have for it*.

To those physicians who are not acquainted with our product,
we will send a half-pound sample.

Placing our product at your service, we are

Friendly yours,

W. H. HOSTELLEY & CO..

Manufacturing: Cheinistn and Pharmacists,

p. O. BOX, 2IO. ZPHIXxA-DEXjI^^III^.



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THE ANNALS OF HYGIENE.



DR. JAEGER'S

Sanitary Woolen System Co.,

OF PHFLADELPHIA.



HOSIERY, UNDERWEAR,
OUTERCLOTHING,

of absolutely pure wool, in natural color and sanitarily dyed.

The Coolest and Safest Summer Wear.



WOOL, being a non-conductor of heat and permeable to moisture, preserves
the body in its normal temperature against the warmer outside, and, if the body
is perspiring, by evaporation of the moisture at the fabric's outer surface coun-
teracts the effect of heat, thus lowering the temperature. The latest import-
ations of "Gauze" underwear will more than satisfy even the most fastidious,
and most effectually break down the old superstition of wool being hot in
summer.

Our outer clothing in no way differs externally from ordinary clothing and
includes every description of Coat, Jacket, Trousers, Dressing Gown, &c.. and
also Dress Suits for evening wear.

All made of pure animal wool throughout, including lining and stiffening
material, no unsanitary dyes are used.

Our goods cannot be bought through any other house in Philadelphia.

iir BEWARE OF IMITATIONS. -»i

Catalogue with price list and samples free.



Read Dr. Jaeger's '* Health Culture,** cloth, 200 pages, price, 25 cents.

SCRIBNER & SULZER.
110^ CHESTNUT STREET, lioe

PHILADBLPHIA.



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THE ANNALS OF HYGIENE.



311



know that there is a good reason for
the avoidance of pork ; a reason which
could not have been known then.
We have found that the observance of
the Sabbath as a day of rest is neces-
sary to the health, and that more and
better work c^n be done in the remain-
ing six days if the Sabbath be kept,
not religiously, but physiologically.
But surely Moses must have had in his
mind, not the pastoral Hebrews of his
day, but the brain-workers of our
epoch, when he instituted the Sabbat-
ical Year, one year of rest in seven.
Here we have the wisest of remedies.
Instead of a week or two, which sim-
ply gives renewed streng^ for the time
being, we have here a means of coun-
teracting the effects of persistent over-
work. One could afford to throw his
whole energies into his work without
fear of injury, if every seventh year he
were to return to a state of nature, and
allow his mind to lie fallow. This
period would allow time for reparative
processes to be completed. Too often
the vacation is only sufficient to inter-
rupt the processes of disease, not allow-
ing time for full restoration to health.
The interruption to one's business
is the great obstacle to the adoption of
such a plan ; and herein also is shown
the wisdom of the Mosaic system, for,
being enforced by a general legislative
enactment, applicable to the entire
nation, business accomodated itself to
the interruption, as it does now to the
Sabbath. While it is not possible to
make such an arrangement now, still
there are many individual cases in
which the advice of the physician can
induce patients to take a period of rest
sufficient in kind and in extent to ac-
complish lasting curative results.



The Origin of Diphtheria from
Birds. —It has been known for some
years that birds and poultry^ are sub-
ject to a disease which corresponds to
what in the human being is known as
diphtheria. Several foreign observers
have gone a step further, and have
endeavored to show that the disease is
capable of transmission to human
beings. Last year Dr. Turner drew
up an interesting report for the Local
Government Board, bearing on this
alleged transmissibility, and he ad-
duced a large number of observations
which seemed to indicate a connection
between a diphtheritic aflfection, not
only in fowls, but in rabbits and cats,
and a similar affection in man. The
report comprised several instances in
which the '* strangles" in horses ap-
peared to g^ve rise to a like train of
symptoms. In a thesis by Dr. Men-
zies, the transmission of the disease
from animals to man is attributed to
the dejections of the former. Diph-
theritic affections among fowls are
very common in Italy, and he quotes
an instance in which four out of the
five children of a medical man were
attacked and died. In this case he
incriminates the thatched roof, which
was inhabited by colonies of fowls,
geese, pigeons, etc. The dejections of
these animals, washed off by the rain,
found their way into the cistern or
well from which the supply of drink-
ing-water was drawn. — Medical Press
and Circular,

AsPHALTE Pavements and the
Public Heath. — The vapor of tar
has been supposed to be beneficial in a
number of disorders, but Dr. Edmund
J. Mills, of the Glasgow Technical
College, has written a short note on



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THE ANNALS OF HYGIENE,



the injurious effects of tar vapors so
copiously discharged on our streets
while asphalte road-mending is going
on. It is said that the injurious
effects of these fumes is perfectly well
known at tar works, where the pitch
is always cooled down in a closed
chamber prior to casting in blocks.
Casual inquiries have convinced him
that the operations of road repair in
Glasgow have been, during the last
three weeks, the cause of a great deal
of totally unnecessary illness, the
leading symptoms of which are nausea
and giddiness. He himself has been
three times prostrated in this way,
and has been thereby debarred from
pursuing his ordinary professional
work until these repairs cease. In
view of the serious inconvenience
from which many more ^must have
suffered, it is to be hoped that the use
of pitch in the ftiture may be dis-
pensed with, as the operation of road-
mending can, if desired, be conducted
without any offense whatever to the
public health. — British Medical Jour-
nal, May, 12, 1888.

Dangerous Lemonade.— A style
of lemon squeezer has been recently
sold quite extensively which is made
of galvanized iron, or iron covered
with a coating of zinc. A word of
caution should be given against the
use of such articles, as the citric acid
of the lemon will readily dissolve the
zinc, forming unwholesome and poi-
sonous salts. Lemon squeezers should
be made either of iron or wood, or,
better, like some we have observed,
where the surfaces brought into con-
tact with the* fruit are of glass or por-
celain. Zinc is a metal which is read-
ily attacked by the weakest acids, and
no article of food or drink should ever
be allowed to come in contact with it.



A Town Depopulated by a
Fever. — Private information has been
received in this dty to the effect that
Plant City, South Florida, where
yellow fever is reported as existing,
has been entirely depopulated, with
the exception of two or three persons,
who are unable to be removed, and a
few attendants. The people who have
been sent away are stationed about in
the neighboring country. It is stated
also, on authentic authority, that the
buildings, ftimiture, bedding, etc.,
will all be entirely consumed by fire in
order to effectually destroy any germs
of disease that may remain in them.
A strict cordon is also kept up about
the city and vicinity night and day,
and is to be continued till frost comes
in order to prevent any persons from
going into other sections of the State.



Mary Anderson believes in Ex-
ercise. — Mary Anderson finds boating
on the Thames a great relaxation after
hard theatrical work. She will row
for miles at a stretch, and is asfi-esh at
the finish as at the start. She dresses
for this exercise in a blue flannel
dress intersected with knife-pleating of
white, with Hues of gold braid, sailcw:
blouse bodies and shirt, and white
straw sailor hat with wide ribbon
band and upright bunch of loops.
No corset, toumure or draggling
skirts interfere with work.



Lemon Whey. — Take a pint of
milk and water, the juice, of two
lemons, and let the mixture boil for
five minutes ; strain and add sugar to
to taste ; or

One pint of boiling milk, half a pint
of lemon juice, sugar to taste. Mix
and strain.



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313



General Sanitary Work in
Illinois. — From the report of the
Secretary of the State Board of Health
we learn that, with but slight excep-
tions, the general health of the State
has been satisfactory. A good amount
of sanitary work has been accom-
plished, a number of cities and towns
having completed their re-inspections
and others having begun this work for
the first time. Galesburg, Cairo and
Sparta are to be specially commended
for the thoroughness of their work in
this connection.

The circular of the Board addressed
to railway managers in April last has
met with a very gratifying reception.
Many roads have entirely reformed
the sanitary conditions with respect to
the accommodations for passengers at
stations; vaults have been emptied,
disinfected and the contents disposed
of so as to avoid future nuisance ; and
arrangements are now secured for
keeping these appurtenances in a
cleanly and ycomfortable condition.
Much attention has also been given to
the purity of the drinking water fur-
nished at the stations and on the
trains.

Work on the investigation of the
water supplies of the State has been
impeded to some extent by the high
stage of water in many of the streams,
and lately by the excessive rainfall
over large areas. Considerable progress,
however, has been made. Time tables
for the collection of water supplies
at various points — 23 in number —
between Chicago and Alton have been
constructed, so as to make it practica-
ble to follow the changes, by pollution
and purification, in a g^ven body of
water fi-om the time it leaves Lake
Michigan until it flows past the City



of Alton. Reports of the chemical
and biological examinations are re-
ceived in the Secretary's office.

Except with the interruptions noted,
samples of water are now collected
and examined once a week at Chicago
(lake water), Bridgeport, Lockport,
Joliet (above and below city), Morris,
La Salle, Henry, Peoria, Pekin, Cop-
peras Creek Dam, Havana, Beards-
town, Peasbn and Grafton, on the
main stream; and fi-om the Kankakee,
Du Page, Fox, Big Vermilion and
Little Vermilion, Sagamon and Spoon
tributaries. Samples will also be
taken from Alton and East St. Louis
(Mississippi river water), and fi-om
other points as found necessary in the
course of the w0rk, which will con-
tinue six months or more.

In each sample the following deter-
minations are made : Total solids,
suspended matter, nitrates and nitrites,
chlorine, hardness, firee ammonia, al-
buminoid ammonia, oxygen consump-
tion, and color and odor. By contin-
uing the work through so long a
period, and by making the analyses
as fully as outlined, it is hoped that
the effect of accidental variations will
be practically eliminated. The amount
of flow from some of the tributaries
is pretty well known, and before the
end of the summer it will be known
for all, so that we will then be in pos-
session of data complete enough to
enable us to give a fair answer to the
question, what is the rate of oxida-
tion in the Illinois river in a flow of
400 miles, with sources and amount of
contamination, and amount of dilution
from tributaries, practically known.

The results obtained thus far in this
investigation show the importance of
a study of tributaries. The waters of



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314



THE ANNALS OF HYGIENE.



some of these appear to contain a
great deal of decaying vegetable mat-
ter. The character of these waters
will be thoroughly studied, as an un-
derstanding of them is of the highest
importance to the sanitary welfare of
the communities supplied from such
sources. The public water supplies
of some of the cities and towns are
also being investigated.

The investigation of the under-
ground water supplies is making satis-
factory progress — ^records from some
60 different localities, in all parts of
the State, having been already se-
cured. '



House Plants as Sanitary
Agents. — In a popular lecture on
House Plants as Sanitary Agents,
before the students and friends of the
Medico-Chirurgical College, delivered
some time since, Dr. J. M. Anders
said : ** that notwithstanding the fact,
that many of our most valuable medi-
cinal remedies were long ago extracted
from vegetable life, yet growing plants,
more particularly when cultivated in-
doors, had not, prior to the last decade,
been regarded as possessing any sani-
tary advantages, and, when kept in
the sick chamber or sleeping rooms,
they became positively hurtful.

Our ancestors held the motion that
plants exercise injurious effects be-
cause they give to the air carbonic
acid at night and take from the air
oxygen during the same time, but it
has been shown conclusively by exper-
iment that the amount of these gase-
ous bodies either given to or taken
from the atmosphere is too small to
have any appreciable effect, even
when the plants are kept in living and
sleeping rooms. Hence there are no



valid objections to the practice of
keeping flowers right in the home cir-
cle. On the other hand, house-plants
have a decidedly beneficial influence
on the atmosphere of the home. The
lecturer pointed out the power of
growing plants and flowers to relax
tension of mind, as well as to give the
feeling of companionship.

But the most important sanitary
effects of which plants are capable are
due to two functions, viz.; transpira-
tion and their ozone-producing powers.

The first of these functions is im-
portant, owing to the fact that the
moist vapors which plants emit from
their leaves increase the degree of sat-
uration of the surrounding air, and
especially significant is this office on
the part of plants when we reflect that
the air of our dwellings is constantly
much too dry to be healthy.

The fact that the plants generate
ozone is also of the utmost importance
from a sanitary point of view, since
ozone is regarded by lading scientists
as the one great and natural purifier
of the atmosphere which constantly
surrounds us, and which we are ever
called upon to take into our lungs.

The lecturer gave an interesting
array of practical data tending to show
the efficacy of growing plants to pre-
vent consumption of the lungs. The
method advised was to stock the liv-
ing and sleeping apartments with
plants and flowers in winter and to
live among plants out-of-doors in sum-
mer. This he termed a '* Home Sani-
tarium," and pointed out its advan-
tages over the reputed mountain and
seaside resorts. Of course, the rooms
must be of good size, and should have
a southern exposure.



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THK ANNALS OF HYGIENE,



315



COMPENSATION OF HEALTH
OFFICERS IN MICHIGAN.

(The following interesting matter is
£rom the report of the Michigan State
Board of Health) : A postal card with
printed questions was sent by the
Michigan State Board of Health to
each of 1,055 health oflScers of town-
ships, 213 health oflScers of villages,
48 health oflScers of cities (in all, 1,316
localities) asking for information con-
cerning the compensation of health
oflScers, work performed by them. etc.
Replies have been received from 551
townships, 104 villages and 20 cities,
— in all 675 localities.

According to the reports, provision
is made for an annual salary in iii
townships. 54 villages and 18 cities.
The annual salaries provided for aver-
age $16.93 for each township, $128.33
for each city, and $26.21 for each vil-
lage.

In 13. townships compensation was
allowed by the day : in nine of them,
$2.00 ; in three, $1.00 ; in one, $1.50.
(A general law. Act 137 Laws of
1883, provides for not less than two
dollars per day). In one township it
is reported that the health oflScer is
paid 75 cents per visit.

Charges for services rendered, in-
cluding salaries, were made in 467 lo-
calities : an average of $11.60 for
eac'h of 389 townships; in 17 cities,
an average of $137.00 for each city ;
and in 61 villages, an average of
$22.00 for each village. In 196 local-
ities, no charges were made for ser-
vices ; and in 1 2 localities, where
charges were made, the amount was
either not allowed, or is in process of
settlement.

Compensation for health officers
was allowed and paid in 455 localities



as follows : In 376 townships an aver-
age for each township of $11.17 ; in 18
cities an average of $132.33 ; in 61
villages an average of $19. 19.

In response to the question ** How
much, in your judgment, should the
health officer in your jurisdiction re-
ceive for the full and thorough dis-
charge of his duties under the law ? "
replies were received from 344 town-
ships, stating an average of $37.29 for
each township ; from 19 cities, esti-
mated amounts, averaging $331.58 for
each city ; from' 76 villages, an average
of $81.12 for each village.

From the foregoing statement it will
be seen that the amount of compensa-
tion allowed to health officers for their
services during the year 1887, was for
health officers of townships, less than
one-third, for health officers of cities,
a little jnore than one-third, and for
health officers of villages not quite
one-fourth, the amount they consider
a proper compensation.

In reply to the same question, rela-
tive to mode of compensation, 72
health officers stated that proper com-
pensation should be a certain sum per
day for actual service, — the amounts
stated averaging $2.19 per day. One
said $3.00 per visit, and one, fifty
cents per hour. Forty-six health



Online LibraryJoseph F. EdwardsThe Annals of hygiene → online text (page 43 of 71)