Joseph Grinnell.

A distributional list of the birds of California, By Joseph Grinnell online

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humid coast belt, chiefly to mountainous portions of Upper and Lower Sonoran
zones. Occurs on the Santa Barbara Islands and north along the coast to Santa
Cruz County. Numerous interiorly throughout the San Diegan and desert re-
gions; north less commonly along the Sierra Nevada as far as Mount Shasta (C.
H. Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna no. 16, 1899, p. 117), and along the inner coast
ranges to Mount Diablo, Contra Costa County (Cohen, Condor, v, 1903, p. 119).
While nesting chiefly or altogether below Transition, the birds forage far and
wide even over the highest peaks. Remains in varying numbers through the
winter in the San Diegan district, where recorded at that season as far north
as Ojai Valley, Ventura County (A. K. Fisher, N. Amer. Fauna no. 7, 1893, p.
55) ; also Paicines, San Benito County, in January (J. and J. W. Mailliard, MS)
and in the vicinity of Salton Sea, January (Van Rossem, Condor, xra, 1911, p.
132).

260 (429) Arohiloohus alexandri (Bourcier and Mulsant)

BliACK-CHINNED HUMMINGBIRD

Synonym — Trochilus alexandri,

• Status — Common summer visitant to Lower and Upper Sonoran zones both
east and west of the Sierran divide. Recorded as breeding west of the Sierras
as far north as lower !McCloud River, Shasta County (Townsend, Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus., X, 1887, p. 207). Apparently most abimdant in the San Diegan district.
East of the Sierran divide, breeds along the Mohave River (Coues, Proc. Acad.
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, p. 56), along the Colorado River (J. Grinnell, Univ. Calif.
Publ. Zool., xn, 1914, p. 143), and in Owens Valley (Bendire, Life Hist., n,
1895, p. 198), and recorded, perhaps casually, north to Honey Lake and Camp
Bidwell, in the extreme northeastern comer of the state (Henshaw, Rep. Wheeler
Surv., 1879, p. 312). Noted in the coast region of west-central California casu-
ally north to the San Francisco Bay region : Haywards, Alameda County (J. G.
Cooper, Amer. Nat., x, 1876, p. 90) ; San Geronimo, Marin County (J. Mail-
liard, Condor, xv, 1913, p. 43). Winters sparingly on the Colorado Desert:
Palm Springs, December (J. Grinnell, Condor, vi, 1904, p. 42).

261 (430) Oalypte costae (Bourcier)

Costa Hummingbird

Synonyms — Atthis costae; Trochilus costae; Selasphorus costae.

Status — Common summer visitant to the Lower Sonoran zone, in the San
Diegan district northwest to Santa Barbara (J. Mailliard, MS), on the Colorado
and Mohave deserts, and, northeast of the Sierras, through the Panamint Moun-
tains and Owens Valley (A. K. Fisher, N. Amer. Fauna no. 7, 1893, p. 56).
Bare north of the 35th parallel west of the Sierras: recorded casually from



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1915 BIRDS OF CALIFORNIA 87

Haywards (J. G. Cooper, Amer. Nat., x, 1876, p. 90), and Oakland (McGregor,
Auk, XIV, 1897, p. 91). Noted in migration on San Clemente Island (J. Grin-
nell, Eep. Bds. Santa Barbara Ids., 1897, p. 15), and, perhaps breeding, on
Santa Barbara Island (Willett, Pac. Coast Avif. no. 7, 1912, p. 60). Has been
found in winter on the Colorado Desert: Palm Springs (J. Grinnell, Condor, vi,
1904, p. 42; ibid,, xiv, 1912, p. 154).

262 (431) Oalypte anna (Lesson)

Anna Hummingbird

Synonyms — Trochilus anna; Atthis anna; Selasphorus annn; CalUphlox
anna; Omismya anna; MeUisuga anna; Trochilus icterocepkalus.

Status — Common resident of the Upper Sonoran zone west of the Sierran
Divide : San Diegan district and central coast district north to include the San
Francisco Bay region ; western foothills of Sierras and innermost northern coast
ranges to head of Sacramento Valley. Northernmost records: Ferndale and
Eureka, Humboldt County, in winter (C. M. Wilder, Condor, xv, 1913, p. 129;
Clay, Condor, xv, 1913, p. 184), Cahto, Mendocino County (McGregor, Nidolo-
gist, in, 1896, p. 130), Mount Sanhedrin (Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.,
1904, p. 582), Mount Shasta (C. H. Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna no. 16, 1899, p.
117), and Yreka (Feilner, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst., 1865, p. 429). All these
stations are doubtless beyond the regular breeding area of this species. As with
all our hummingbirds there is a post-breeding upward invasion, so that mid-
summer finds many individuals temporarily in Transition and even Boreal of
nearby mountain ranges. The species has also been recorded from Santa Cata-
lina, Santa Cruz and the Farallon islands ; casually in winter from the Colorado
Desert: Palm Springs (J. Grinnell, Condor, vi, 1904, p. 42), Mecca and Braw-
ley (Van Bossem, Condor, xiii, 1911, p. 132). In its breeding range and through-
out the year as well, save for the temporary partial exodus noted above, the Anna
Hummingbird adheres with remarkable closeness to the Upper Sonoran life zone.

263 (433) Selasphorus mfns (Gmelin)

Rufous Hummingbird

Synonyms — TrochUiis rufus, part; Selasphortbs ruber, part; Selasphorus
henshaufi; CalUphlox rufa; Bed-backed Hummingbird.

Status — Common migrant the whole length of the state west of the deserts ;
in spring through the valley and foothill regions of the Pacific slope, in summer
and fall chiefly along the mountain ranges. In spring, the species arrives early
(March and even February), and some individuals are still about till early
May. The return migration begins the last week of June (old males, followed
in two or three weeks by females and young-of-the-year) . The result of this
state of affairs is that many unqualified records of breeding encumber even our
most authoritative literature, which records were in all probability based either
on the occurrence of rufus in a locality during its supposed breeding season, or
upon misidentification of the eggs and nests of other species of hummingbirds.
It is quite possible that rufus breeds in the Boreal zone along the central Sierra
Nevada (though I have failed to establish even one undoubted instance of the



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88 PACIFIC COAST AVIFAUNA No. 11

several on record) ; but it is very improbable that it breeds in Transition or
below. (See J. Grinnell, Condor, iii, 1901, p. 128.)

264 (434) Selasphoros alleni Henshaw

Allen Hummingbird

Synonyms— Trochiltis alleni; Trochilus rufus, part; Selasphorus rufus,
part ; Selasphorus ruber, part.

Status — Common summer visitant to the humid coast belt (Transition and
high Upper Sonoran zones). Breeds south through the San Francisco Bay re-
gion and Santa Cruz district at least to middle Monterey County ; also at Santa
Barbara (Jeffries, Auk, vi, 1889, p. 221; Bowles, Condor, xiv, 1912, p. 77), and
at Santa Paula, Ventura County (Willett, Pac. Coast Avif. no. 7, 1912, p. 61) ;
also on San Clemente, Santa Catalina and Santa Cruz islands where resident
throughout the year, these being the only localities in the state where the species
winters regularly. Occurs commonly as a spring migrant through the lower
parts of the San Diegan district, where it arrives early: January 26 at San
Diego (Torrey, Condor, xi, 1909, p. 173). In its southward movement, it appears
in midsummer along the higher mountain ranges, at least from Mount Pinos
southeastward. The easternmost record in northern California is INIount San-
hedrin (Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila, 1904, p. 582). The Allen Hum-
mingbird is thus confined both as a migrant and breeding bird to a relatively
narrow coastal area the full length of the state.

266 (436) Stellula caUiope (Gould)

Calliope Hummingbird

Synonyms — Trochilus calliope; Selasphorus calliope; Callothorax calliope;
Atthis calliope.

Status — Common summer visitant to upper Transition and Canadian zones
along the entire Sierra Nevada, north through the Shasta region ; thence east to
Warner Mountains, Modoc County (Mus. Vert. Zool.) and west to Wildcat Peak,
Siskiyou County (Mus. Vert. Zool.) ; south through the Mount Whitney region,
and in southern California from Mount Pinos to the San Bernardino Moun-
tains (J. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., v, 1908, p. 72). Recorded in adja-
cent country during migration, casually west to San Francisco Bay: Oakland
(Mus. Vert. Zool.), Haywards (Emerson, Zoe, rv, 1893, p. 179), and Berkeley
^Belding, Land Bds. Pac. Dist., 1890, p. 89). The breeding records from the
coast region are very probably erroneous. As before stated, the facts that when
one or two species of hummingbird are nesting, other species may be passing
through the region, and that females of the different species are similar to one
another in general appearance, have undoubtedly led to misidentification in a
regrettably large part of the literature relative to the hummingbirds of Califor-
nia; for instance in Bendire's Life Histories. The Calliope hummingbird seems
to be adherent to semi-arid Transition and Boreal (hence interiorly), and its
range is thus in a way complementary to that of the Allen hummingbird of the
coastal region.



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1915 BIRDS OP CALIFORNIA 89

266 (444) Tyrannns tyraBnns (Linnaeus)

Eastern Kingbird

Status — ^Rare transient visitant ; two records : one individual seen by A. K.
Fisher at Olancha, near southern end of Owens Lake, June 29, 1891 (A. K.
Fisher, N. Amer. Fauna no. 7, 1893, p. 59) ; immature male secured by W. B.
Judson at Santa Monica, August 31, 1895 (J. Grinnell, Bds. Los Angeles Co.,
1898, p. 29) ; the latter specimen is now no. 10253, Mus. Vert. Zool. The species
probably occurs not infrequently as a summer visitant along the extreme north-
oastem borders of the state.

267 (447) Tyrannutf vertlcalis Say

Western Kingbird

Synonyms — Muscicapa verticdlis; Arkansas Kingbird ; Arkansas Flycatcher.

Status — Common summer visitant to Upper and Lower Sonoran zones both
east and west of the Sierras and almost everywhere these zones occur; breeds
also locally in Transition. Of wider distribution during migration. Most abund-
ant in the interior semi-arid valleys. Bare or absent on the deserts, save in mi-
gration, and in the humid coast belt north of Sonoma County and west of Shasta
Valley, Siskiyou County.

268 (448) Tyrannns vociferaas Swainson

Cassin Kingbird

Synonym — Cassin Flycatcher.

Status — Fairly common resident locally in the Lower Sonoran zone in the
San Diegan district northwest to Santa Barbara. More in evidence in winter,
when T, verticdlis is absent, for in summer T. vodferans is far outnumbered by
verticdlis. Winters also irregularly north to Santa Cruz (J. Q. Cooper, Om.
Calif., 1, 1870, p. 314). Occurs commonly as a summer visitant, and breeding, at
Paicines, San Benito County (J. and J. W. Mailliard, Condor, m, 1901, p. 123;
also eggs in Mailliard coll.). Recorded, further, from Santa Cruz Island, No-
vember (Linton, Condor, x, 1908, p. 127), the Providence Mountains, eastern
San Bernardino County (F. Stephens, Condor, v, 1903, p. 102), and, in winter.
Imperial Valley (Van Rossem, Condor, xm, 1911, p. 132).

269 (454) Myiarohns cinerascens cinerasoens (Lawrence)

Ash-throated P^ycatcher

Synonyms — Myiobius crinitus; Tyrannns crinitus; Myinrchu^ mexicamis;
Myiarchus crinittis cinerascens; Tyrannula cinerascens.

Status — Common summer visitant to Lower and Upper Sonoran zones both
on the desert and the Pacific drainage. Northernmost record east of the Sierra
Nevada: Honey Lake, Lassen County (Henshaw, Rep. Wheeler Surv., 1879, p.
309) ; northernmost west of the Sierras: Baird, Shasta County (Townsend, Proc.
TJ. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, p. 209). Most northwestern records: TTkiah, Mendocino
County (McGregor, Nidologist, iii, 1896, p. 129), and Covelo. Mendocino County
(Mus. Vert. Zool.). Casual visitant to the Farallon Islands (Dawson, Condor,



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90 PACIFIC COAST AVIFAUNA No. 11

XIII, 1911, p. 180). More widespread at low levels in spring; in late summer
visits higher altitudes, even well through Transition, at least in southern Cali-
fornia. Winters casually in Imperial Valley (Van Rossem, Condor, xm, 1911,
p. 132).

270 (456) Sayomis phoebe (Latham)

Eastern Phoebe

Status — Casual visitant; but two records: male specimen, now no. 1849 in
the Swarth collection, on deposit in Mus. Vert. Zool., obtained at San Fernando,
Los Angeles County, February 14, 1901 (see Swarth, Condor, iii, 1901, p. 66) ;
specimen, now no. 23461 Mus. Vert. Zool., taken at Moss Beach, near Pacific
Grove, Monterey Coimty, March 7, 1913 (Brooks, Condor, xv, 1913, p. 182).

271 (457) Sayomis sayus (Bonaparte) '

Say Phoebe

Synonyms — Myiobius saya; Tyrannula saya; Sayomis pallida; Say Fly-
catcher.

Status — Breeds commonly in arid Upper and Lower Sonoran zones widely
east of the Sierran divide, but only locally on the Pacific slope. Resident on the
southeastern deserts north through the Inyo region to Mono Lake (W. K. Fisher,
Condor, iv, 1902, p. 11). Breeds in portions of the San Diegan district (Escon-
dido, Elsinore, Whittier, San Bernardino, Sespe, etc.), in the southern part of
the San Joaquin basin, and northwest as far as Paicines, San Benito County (J.
and J. W. Mailliard, Condor, m, 1901, p. 123) ; also in the upper Sacramento
Valley (Townsend, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, p. 209). Common winter vis-
itant widely to the San Diegan district, even on the Santa Barbara Islands, and
north, west of the Sierran divide and chiefly east of the humid coast belt, to the
head of the Sacramento Valley. Recorded also, as a transient, from Shasta Val-
ley (C. H. Merriam, N. Amer. Fauna no. 16, 1899, p. 117), Sisson (H. C. Bryant,
Condor, xiii, 1911, p. 205), and Siskiyou Mountains (M. P. Anderson and J.
flrinnell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1903, p. 9). Not reported at any season
from the humid coast belt north of Sebastopol, Sonoma County.

272 (458) Sayomis nigricans (Swainson)

Black Phoebe

Synonyms — Muscicapa semiatra; Myiobius nigricans; Tyrannula nigricans;
Tyrannus nigricans; Muscicapa nigricans; Sayomis nigricans semiatra; Black
Flycatcher.

Status — Common resident of Upper and Lower Sonoran zones west of the
Sierran divide, south through the San Diegan district, and north through the
San Francisco Bay region and Sacramento Valley; less common farther north
through the humid coast belt, even to Crescent City (Ferry, Condor, x, 1908, p.
41). Northernmost recorded breeding station: Baird, Shasta County (Town-
send, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, p. 209). Occurs in winter on portions of
the southeastern deserts, as along the Colorado River; also on the Santa Bar-



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1916 BIRDS OF CALIFORNIA 91

bara Islands. Occurs sparingly east of the Sierra Nevada in the Death Valley
region and north through Owens Valley to Bishop Creek, Inyo County (A. K.
Fisher, N. Amer. Fauna no. 7, 1893, p. 63).

273 (459) Nnttallomis borealis (Swainson)

OuvB-siDBD Flycatcher

Synonyms — Coniopus borealis; Tyrannus borealis; Tyrannus cooperi.

Status — Common summer visitant to the Transition and Canadian zones in
the Sierras and Coast Ranges, the whole length of the state. Southeastemmost
breeding record, Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego County (Bendire, Life Hist.,
II, 1895, p. 282) ; northeastemmost, Warner Mountains, Modoc County (Mus.
Vert. Zool.), though otherwise not recorded east of the Sierrras except as a
migrant. Breeds west to the coast from Monterey County northward. Ordina-
rily confined in summer to areas well above the lower edge of Transition ; but
noted locally during that season in country that is dominantly high Upper Sono-
ran, at Stanford University (W. K. Fisher, Condor, vi, 1904, p. 108), and at
Berkeley (J. Qrinnell, Condor, xvi, 1914, p. 32), where planted coniferous trees
form extensive groves, thus introducing Transition zone conditions. The species
occurs rather widely in migration, through the valleys both east and west of the
Sierran divide, casually to the Farallon Islands (Dawson, Condor, xni, 1911, p.
180).

274 (462) Myiochanes riohardsoni riohardsoni (Swainson)

Western Wood Pewee

Synonyms — Coniopus riohardsoni; Horizoptcs rickardsoni; Tyrannvla
virens; Coniopus virens var. richardsoni; Coniopus rickardsoni saiuraius;
Short-legged Pewee.

Status — Common summer visitant to Upper Sonoran, Transition and Cana-
dian almost wherever these zones occur. Most abundant in Transition along the
main mountain ranges; fewer in the more arid regions east of the Sierras, and
in the northern humid coast belt. Widely distributed during migration over the
low country both east and west of the Sierras, even to the Santa Barbara and
Farallon islands.

275 (464) Empidonaz diffidlis diffidlis Baird

Western Flycatcher

Synonyms — Empidonax flaviveniris; Empidonax flaviveniris diffidlis;
Empidonax cineriiius; Empidonax diffidlis dneriiitis; Empidonax insulicola;
Island Flycatcher; San Lucas Flycatcher; Western Yellow-bellied Flycatcher.

Status — Common summer visitant to portions of the Upper Sonoran and
Transition zones the whole length of the state west of the Sierran divide ; also in
the Warner Mountains, Modoc County (Mus. Vert. Zool.). Occurs almost uni-
versally throughout the state during migration. Breeds most abundantly in cer-
tain foothill localities in the San Diegan district and in the southern humid
coast belt including the San Francisco Bay region, but more sparingly along



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92 PACIFIC COAST AVIFAUNA No. 11

the Sierra Nevada. Breeding birds from Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, San Clemente
«nd Santa Catalina islands have been referred to a separate species, insulicola
(Oberholser, Auk, xiv, 1897, p. 300), but apparently without adequate reason
(see J. Grinnell, Condor, viii, 1906, p. 74). Summer birds from the Cuyamaca
Mountains, San Diego County have been called by the same name, cineritiits, as
the form from southern Lower California. This does not seem to express the
facts, for several breeding birds at hand from the Cuyamaca region show no
characters outside the range of variation among more northern examples of
(JifficUis.

276 (466) Empidonaz trailU traUU (Audubon)

Traill Flycatcher

Synonyms — Tyrannula trailli; Myiobitcs ptisUla; Empidonax p\isiU%Ls; Em-
pidonax trailli var. pusillus; Little Flycatcher.

Status — Summer visitant to suitable portions of Lower and Upper Sonoran
/ones and rarely low Transition, both east and west of the Sierran divide. Most
numerous in the willow tracts in the beds of large valleys. Breeds along
streams well into the foot-hill regions, but apparently seldom above the limits of
Upper Sonoran. Northernmost hummer record east of the Sierras : Goose Lake,
Modoc County (Mus. Vert. Zool.) ; breeds sparingly in the Inyo region (A. K.
Fisher, N. Amer. Fauna no. 7, 1893, p. 65). Northernmost record west of the
Sierra Nevada: Scott River, Siskiyou County (Mus. Vert. Zool.). Breeds south
to base of Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego County (Anthony, Auk, xii, 1895, p.
390). Widely spread over the lowlands of the state generally, during spring
migration; in the return migration which begins in midsummer this flycatcher
like many other insectivorous birds invades the higher mountans, even to the
Canadian zone, which fact has probably led to the erroneous recording of the
species as a breeding bird above its real breeding range.

277 (468) Empidonaz hammondi (Xantus)

Hammond Flycatcher

Synonym — Tyrannula hammondi.

Status — Common spring transient through the valleys of southern and cen-
tral California; less common in the fall, occurring in the mountains as well as
the lowlands. Passes in migration both east and west of the Sierras, but not
through the coast belt north of Monterey County; in fact the only tinquestioned
record for the northwestern section of the state, north of Monterey and west of
Ifount Shasta, is Cotati, Sonoma Coimty, April 21 (Mailliard coll.). Of the
many records of the breeding of this species along the Sierras, not one has been
authenticated, though a few remain untested. At any rate, I am confident that
all breeding records from southern California, and central California west of
the Sierras, are erroneous — most emphatically those from the San Jacinto and
San Bernardino mountains. In these and doubtless most other cases E. griseus
or E, wrighti was mistaken for it. Breeding of hammondi in the high central
and northern Sierras is not improbable, but the records to this effect need veri-
fication.



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1916 BIRDS OP CALIFORNIA 93

278 (469) Empidonax wrlghti Baird

Wright Flycatcher

Synonyms — Empidonax obscunis, partj Empidonax griseus, part; Empi-
donax canescens, part; Qray Flycatcher, part.

Status — Common summer visitant to high Transition and Canadian zones
along both slopes of the Sierras, from Mount Shasta south to the Mount Whitney
region ; also to the innermost northern coast ranges : South YoUa BoUy and Mt.
Sanhedrin (Mus. Vert. Zool), to the Warner Mountains, Modoc County (Mus.
Vert. Zool.), and to the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto and Santa
Rosa mountains of southern California (Mus. Vert. Zool.). There are authentic
breeding records from all the above indicated areas. Occurs sparingly in migra-
tion through the valleys both east and west of the Sierras, but not at all in the
coast region of central and northern California.

279 (469.1) Empidonax grisQ.ii8 Brewster

Gray Flycatcher

Synonyms — Empidonax obscurus, part; Empidonax wrightiy part; Empido-
nax canescens^ part ; Wright Flycatcher, part.

Status — ^Fairly common transient and winter visitant in the valleys of the
San Diegan district, where recorded from a number of localities northwest to
Saticoy (J. G. Cooper, Auk, iv, 1887, pp. 85, 92), and Ventura (Baird, Brewer,
and Ridgway, Hist. N. Amer. Bds., ui, 1874, p. 520) ; also on the southeastern
deserts, as along the Colorado River (J. Grinnell, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., xii,
1914, p. 153), north to Goffs, eastern San Bernardino County (Hollister, Auk,
XXV, 1908, p. 459). I am much puzzled by the occurrence of this species in so
consistently typical form in migration, and then apparently disappearing. For
T now doubt that the breeding flycatchers from the high San Gabfiel, San Ber-
nardino and San Jacinto mountains can be properly referred to griseus, but
believe they are wrighti (see Grinnell and Swarth, TJniv. Calif. Publ. Zool., x,
1913, pp. 257-259). Typical griseus does not seem to have been authentically
reported in summer north of the Mexican boundary, and the possibility presents
itself that the species is like Fyrocephalus and Passercultts rostraius which breed
south and come north for the winter!

280 (471) Pyrocephalns rubinns mexioanus Sclater

Vermiuon Flycatcher

Synonyms — Pyrocephalns rubinens; Fyrocephalus mexicanus; Red Fly-
catcher.

Status — Common resident in the mesquite belt of the Colorado desert;
northwest through the Imperial valley at least to Torres, Riverside County (Mus.
Vert. Zool.), and north along the Colorado River to Needles (J. Grinnell, Univ.
Calif. Publ. Zool., xn, 1914, p. 153). Winters regularly but in small numbers,
to the westward in the lowlands of the San Diegan district, from which there
are many records, from San Diego (J. G. Cooper, Auk, iv, 1887, p. 92) northwest



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94 PACIFIC COAST AVIFAUNA ' No. 11

to Santa Barbara (Torrey, Condor, ix, 1907, p. 109). This species is thus nota-
ble for its partial shifting during the winter season west and north from its
breeding area, though it is so far impossible to designate the exact geographic
source of the individuals participating in this movement.

281 (474e) Otocoris alpestris actia Oberholser

California Horned Lark

Synonyms — Otocoris alpestris, part; Eremophila cornuta; EremophUa
alpestris chrysolaema, part; Otocorys chrysolaema; Otocoris rufa; Otocoris
alpestris chrysolaema; Otocoris alpestris rubea, part; PhUeremos comutuSy part;
Alauda alpestris; Otocoris alpestris arenicola, part; Otocorys strigata, part;
Mexican Homed Lark; Sky Lark.

Status — Common resident of the vaUeys and plains west of the Sierran di-
vide from the vicinity of Stockton and San Francisco Bay in central California,
south throughout the San Joaquin Valley and coastal area, and all through the
San Diegan district to the Mexican line. This form also occurs limitedly on the
desert drainage in Tehachapi Pass, in extreme northwestern Los Angeles County
(Antelope Valley), and in San Qorgonio Pass. These birds exhibit intermedi-
ateness towards 0. a. ammophila. The northernmost breeding record is Cotati,
Sonoma County (Mailliard coll.). Oberholser (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxiv, 1902,
p. 849) found that the birds from Milton, etc., San Joaquin County, are interme-
diate towards 0. a. rubea.

282 (474f ) Otocoris alpestris rubea Henshaw

Buddy Horned Lark


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