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Joseph Lee.

The war book-of-facts : 3000 figures and facts about the conduct of war, the present crisis, and its causes; online

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THE



WAR



\ »



BOOK-OF-FACTS



3000 Figures and Facts About the

Conduct of War, the Present

Crisis, and its Causes






J % J 1 J ,J



THE EVENTS AND MEN THAT MADE THE WAR

MILITARY ORGANIZATION AND METHODS

FACTS AND FIGURES ABOUT THE WAR

NEW BUSINESS PROBLEMS RAISED BY WAR

MARTIAL LAW AND THE RULES OF WARFARE



SECOND EDITION



A. W. SHAW COMPANY, LTD.

34 NORFOLK STREET. W.C.

LONDON

1914



CONTENTS



PART I

THE EVENTS AND MEN THAT MADE

THE WAR

Chapter Page

I EVENTS LEADING TO THE WAR 9

Europe during the last century ; the development of
the various countries ; the policies of Great Britain,
France, Russia, Germany and Austria ; the alliances
of the two groups, the Triple Alliance, Triple Entente ;
the clashes during the last few years ; what German
ambitions have been ; Great Britain's effort to keep
peace ; the events which brought on the present crisis.



II THE MEN IN THE PUBLIC EYE
DURING THE PRESENT CRISIS -

Short biographies of the Kings and Emperors of the
countries involved ; of the Prime Ministers, and War
and Naval Ministers ; of the heads of the armies and
fleets, and of the famous soldiers who will take part ;
including King George, Earl Kitchener, Kt. Hon.
H. H. Asquith, Rt. Hon Winston Churchill, Sir John
Jellicoe, Sir John French, etc., etc.



21



PART II

MILITARY ORGANIZATION AND

METHODS



III MODERN MILITARY STRATEGY

Development of army strategy in recent times ;
different principles of German and French strategy ;
Napoleon's and von Moltke's methods ; bases, lines of
communication, and transport ; concentration, battle
plans, and field tactics ; function of artillery-, infantry,
and cavalry ; communication, signalling and wireless ;
part played by heavy guns ; training and discipline ;
medical science and sanitation in war.



37



6 THE WAR BOOK

Chapter Page

IV NAVAL STRATEGY AND THE USE

OF AIR-CRAFT AND SUBMARINES 48

Untried factors in naval strateg}'^ ; function of various
classes of ships ; organization and control of fleets ;
formations and battle tactics ; mosquito fleets ; sub-
marines, torpedoes, mines ; food and fuel supply for
ships ; strategic and tactical use of air-craft in war-
fare ; aeroplanes, seaplanes, dirigibles and Zeppelins ;
armaments and methods of attack.

V MODERN MILITARY EQUIPMENT 54

The soldier's equipment and its cost ; the British rifle ;
artillery equipment and organization ; quick-fire and
high-power projectiles ; " high " explosives ; mines ;
modern fortifications and their equipment ; aeroplane
equipment, the fittings of air-craft.

VI MILITARY REQUIREMENTS OF

THE NATIONS 62

Method of recruiting the armies of Great Britain ;
military service and conscription regulations of the
European countries ; standing army, reserves, terri-
torials, mihtia, and volunteers ; training and service
of various classes of soldiers and sailors.



PART III
FACTS AND FIGURES ABOUT THE WAR

VII THE WORLD'S FOOD SUPPLY AND
NATURAL RESOURCES OF EACH
COUNTRY 66

Food, agricultural and mineral products of every
country ; total natural resources of the United King-
dom ; imports of goods into the United Kingdom ;
British consumption of food supplies and their sources ;
statistics of the world's cotton supply and industry.

VIII MILITARY STRENGTH AND

WEALTH OF THE NATIONS - 76

The armies of the nations, the various classes of
soldiers, and total fighting strength ; war craft of the
powers ; population, area, and total wealth of the
belligerents ; itemized wealth of the United Kingdom ;
the annual revenues and expenditures of nations atwar;
gold supplies of the world.



CONTENTS 7

Chapter Page

IX THE COST OF WAR - - . 83

Annual military and naval expenditure of nations ;
probable total invested in fortresses, ships, and other
armaments ; cost of other great wars ; cost of present
war per day, maintenance, ammunition, and supplies ;
what it costs to fire a big gun ; probable total expense
of four months' fighting.



X THE BRITISH ARMY ... 86

Official list of the British Army ; cavalry, yeomanry,
infantry, with regimental numbers and details of
full-dress uniform ; list of the Indian Army ; Royal
Flying Corps.



XI THE BRITISH NAVY ... 96

The chief classifications of the British naval vessels.
Dreadnoughts, battle-cruisers, armoured and protected
cruisers ; torpedo-boats ; with complete list and the
dimensions, horse-power and speed ; naval air-craft.



XII THE GERMAN ARMY ... 99

The normal organization of the German Army ; com-
position of an army corps ; the districts and head-
quarters of the army corps ; airship stations.



XIII THE GERMAN NAVY ... 101

The ships and stations of the German fleet ; types of
battle-ships and cruisers ; with list and dimensions,
speed, armament and crews.



XIV THE FRENCH, RUSSIAN, AND

AUSTRIAN ARMIES .... 104

The French army corps and their headquarters ; the
distribution of the Russian Army ; the districts and
headquarters of the Austrian Army ; air-craft.



XV THE FORTIFICATIONS OF THE

NATIONS 107

List and description of the strongholds of the countries
at war — United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Germany,
Austria, Russia, Servia ; frontier and interior fortresses,
fortified harbours, naval bases, dockyards.



8



THE WAR BOOK



PART IV

NEW BUSINESS PROBLEMS RAISED

THE WAR



Chapter

XVI



BY



Pagb



117



XVII



126



STIMULATING EFFECT OF WAR
ON BRITAIN'S FOREIGN TRADE

Readjustment which war necessitates in British in-
dustry ; commerce which the war will divert to
England ; how to capture Germany's foreign markets ;
British trade with allies and neutral countries ; new
opportunities in the home market to replace foreign
goods ; statistics of foreign trade of all nations.

THE ADJUSTMENT OF BUSINESS
TO MEET THE NEW CONDITIONS

Changes in trading resulting from the war ; what
must be done to keep the wheels of business revolving ;
methods adopted to meet the crisis ; how sales may
be maintained and new markets opened ; how the
problem of unemployment is being met ; instances of
new methods which are being used and can be used to
meet the situation.



PART V

MARTIAL LAW AND THE CUSTOMS

OF WARFARE



XVIII CIVIL ORGANIZATION IN WAR
TIMES

Modified martial law ; changes in government ;
moratorium ; suspension of Bank Act ; Royal Pro-
clamations and Orders in Council; changes in currency;
control of postal and telegraphs ; censorship, news
bureau ; rehef organizations.

XIX MILITARY LAW AND THE RULES
OF WARFARE

Restrictions as to projectiles ; cruel weapons and
bombardments; medical and Red Cross members, and
hospitals ; position of non-combatants, belligerents,
reservists, spies ; treatment of prisoners of war, sick
and wounded ; laws of neutrality, status of merchant-
men.

XX GLOSSARY OF WAR TERMS, AND
CUSTOMS

A complete dictionary and glossary of military and
naval terms, and explanation of the rules of warfare ;
an ABC of the technicalities of the army and navy
and warfare generally.



131



134



137



CHAPTER I

Events Leading to the War

AFTER the exhausting struggles of the French
Revolution, France fell fainting into the arms
of Napoleon. Under his guidance she entered
upon a new career of glory and conquest that came
to a tragic end on the field of Waterloo. What France
had gained in territory during the first period of the
Napoleonic Wars she was destined to lose during the
Hundred Days. After Waterloo, the German Powers
demanded her dismemberment on the ground that
it was essential to their safety. It was due to the
counsel of Alexander I. of Russia, supported by the
commonsense of Castlereagh and Wellington, that a
" just equilibrium " was maintained, and France
was spared the humiliation of coercive measures which
would have left her smarting under a sense of injury.

The Peace of Paris in 1815 restored to France
her traditional boundaries. The history of inter-
national politics in the years immediately following
the Treaty of Paris is the history of an attempt to
establish a system that would hold France in check
and preserve the peace of Europe. Out of this real
or fancied need arose that vague association of Powers,
the invention of Alexander I. of Russia, known as
the " Holy Alliance." By the terms of this alliance
the high contracting parties bound themselves to
co-operate in any movement deemed necessary in
the interests of any or all concerned. England refused
to take part in what Castlereagh described as " a
sublime piece of mysticism and nonsense," on the
ground that the contemplated *' universal guarantee "
would imperil the independence of small States.

England adopted her traditional attitude with
reference to international engagements of a general



10 THE WAR BOOK

character ; she refused to bind herself in such a way
as to restrict her Hberty of action under circumstances
which could not be foreseen. Owing to the opposition
of England — an opposition which later became a de-
finite breach — the Holy Alliance never developed
beyond the nebulous state which characterized it from
its birth.

But the concert of the Powers which the Holy
Alliance brought into being served the useful purpose
of preserving peace in Europe and prepared the way
for a marvellous economic development. The middle
classes, especially in France, becoming more powerful
through increase in wealth, established the bourgeois
monarchy. The establishment of the independent
kingdom of Belgium, the result of a successful revolt
against Dutch domination, marked the first breach
in the territorial settlement of 1815. In England,
the passage of the Reform Bill in 1832 ended the
agitation of the disenfranchised middle classes and
averted a threatened revolution.

International politics between 1831 and 1841
were concerned mainly with questions arising out
of the antagonism between the western constitutional
Pov/ers, France and England, and the autocratic
eastern Powers, Prussia, Austria, and Russia. From this
grouping of the Powers, based on political principles,
arose the first entente between France and England,
which lasted until 1840.

In the meantime the Holy Alliance had been
reconstituted with Russia, Austria and Prussia as
the high contracting Powers, and with Alexander I.
in undisputed leadership. It proclaimed the principle
of " divine right," as opposed to the liberal views
advocated by France and England.

Louis Napoleon was really made President of
France and then Emperor to carry on the work of his
distinguished predecessor. Coming to power under
such circumstances, it soon became evident that
Napoleon III. was a menace to the peace of Europe.
He represented the antithesis of everything for which
the other great European Powers stood.



EVENTS LEADING TO THE WAR 11

From the first lie was committed to the principle
of nationality; to the restoration of the "natural
boundaries" of France. But, during the lull before
the storm of war that was soon to break, there was
a period of great industrial activity, during which
inventive genius and engineering skill changed the
face of France and profoundly altered the conditions
of life. The Crimean War left France the most
powerful nation in continental Europe, and the Con-
gress of Paris, at which a higher conception of inter-
national law was proclaimed, shed additional glory
on the Emperor. The Italian War of 1859 secured
for France a part of the " natural boundary " to
which she had aspired since 1815. The question
now was whether she would be able to gain her other
natural frontier on the Rhine.

In Germany great events were preparing. William
I. had placed the supreme direction of Prussian
affairs in the hands of Otto von Bismarck, who
established the confederation of North German States,
and laid the foundations of German power in the
North Sea and of German rivalry with England in
the future.

The inevitable conflict betv/een Napoleon and
Bismarck Avas not long delayed. The sudden menace
of the new German power alarmed France, and negotia-
tions were opened in the form of the offer of " com-
pensations " for the restoration to France of the
Rhine frontier. But Napoleon's intrigues with the
South German States were exposed by the astute
Bismarck, and Napoleonic diplomacy was discredited
in the eyes of Europe.

The immediate cause of the rupture between
France and Prussia, aided by the famous Enis telegrams,
was the offer of the vacant Spanish throne to a prince
of the house of Hohenzollern. While Napoleon hesi-
tated, the war party in France fanned the flame of
popular enthusiasm ; and on the 18th of July, 1870,
a declaration of war was sent to Berlin.

The hopes Napoleon had founded on the dis-
sension of the South German States were behed, and



12 THE WAR BOOK

the object of Bismarck, the union of German States
into a coherent whole, was accompHshed. Crushing
defeats were suffered by the French at Worth and
at Sedan ; on the 19th of September, Paris was invested
and, after a heroic resistance, surrendered. The im-
posing structure of the Second Empire fell to the
earth, and was succeeded by a provisional republican
government set up in Paris on September 24th, while
William I. was proclaimed German Emperor, at
Versailles, in the following January.

By the terms of peace France ceded to the German
Empire Alsace (except Belfort) and Lorraine, with
Metz and Thionville, and agreed to pay an indemnity
of £200,000,000. Thus was estabhshed the powerful
German Empire which was destined to become the
first country in Europe, and whose ambitions were,
from the first, a menace to all who stood in her path.

Other changes accompanied or followed the altera-
tion in the balance of power which resulted from the
decline of France and the rise of Germany. The
Dual Monarchy (Austria-Hungary) had been established,
Francis-Joseph being crowned King of Hungary.
In Italy the unification of the kingdom had been
accomplished, while in Home the temporal power of
the popes had come to an end.

Another outcome of the collapse of France was
the denunciation by Eussia of the Black Sea clauses
of the Treaty of Paris of 1856, which was brought
about by an entente between Russia and Germany.
With these alterations in the boundaries and con-
stitutions of States and this new alignment of Powers
the history of Europe enters a new phase.

The dominating element in this new phase v/as
the cordial friendship established between Germany
and her powerful neighbour on the east, the Russian
Empire, a friendship which began under the most
favourable auspices. This friendship was part of
Bismarck's policy, and another part was the con-
ciliation of Austria. This latter task was not easy
to accomplish, for Austria was far from satisfied
with territorial settlements in Southern Europe which



EVENTS LEADING TO THE WAR 13

had robbed her of part of her territory. As com-
pensation for these losses Bismarck suggested the
acquisition of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bismarck's
overtures to Austria were accepted with good grace,
and at a conference between Bismarck and Andrassy,
in which Russia was invited to participate, the Three
Emperors' League was founded without any formal
treaty being signed. The object which Bismarck
had in view in forming this new alliance can only be
conjectured, but a competent Russian authority was
probably not far wrong in describing it thus : "To
make Austria accept definitely her deposition as a
Germanic Power, to put her in perpetual conflict
with Russia in the Balkan Peninsula, and to found
on that irreconcilable rivalry the hegemony of Ger-
many." From the point of view of Germany's require-
ments it served two useful purposes ; it preserved the
status quo and protected the new German Empire from
the only Powers in Europe she had occasion to fear.

But this friendship, based for the moment on
mutual interests, could not bear the strains to which
it was soon to be subjected. When Russia, by the
reluctant consent of the European Powers, was allowed
a free hand in the settlement of the Turkish question,
she became the object of suspicion because of the use
she made of her power in the treaty of San Stefano.
At this point she naturally counted on the debt of
gratitude which Bismarck had publicly acknowledged
as owing to Russia because of her benevolent neutrality
during the Franco-Prussian war. Now, instead of
active support, Bismarck offered her the services of
an " honest broker " — in Russia's eyes an inadequate
performance of Germany's plain duty. "Needless
to say," commented Prince Gorthakod, "in our eyes
the Three Emperors' Alliance is practically torn in
pieces by the conduct of our two allies. At present
it remains for us merely to terminate the liquidations
of the past and to seek henceforth support in our-
selves alone."

Economic forces also were at work against which
the diplomacy of Bismarck could not prevail. Russia



14 THE WAR BOOK

required financial assistance which France alone could
offer ; and Russian credit was fairly established on
the Paris Bourse before Bismarck could take effective
measures to prevent it. It was these measures,
obviously aimed at Russian credit, which helped to
alienate the Czar Alexander III. and bring to an end
the recently revived " Three Emperors' League."

Thereupon Bismarck concluded with Austria-
Hungary a formal defensive alliance which was
avowedly aimed at Russia, and had as its secondary
object the isolation of France. Italy, whose interests
were certainly not identical with Germany's, and even
opposed to those of Austria, was drawn into the Triple
Alliance with these two countries by her actual or
imagined need of protection from France, whose
Tunisian policy had deeply offended her.

At this stage the affairs of Europe became fairly
quiescent in regard to possible changes of boundaries
and acquisition of further territory. A long period
ensued in which all the countries of Europe, led
by Great Britain, set out to exploit the empty places
of the earth. Great Britain seized and developed
a large slice of Africa. France and Germany followed
suit. Italy also took a hand in the game. In the Orient
all the European nations acquired stations and ports,
Germany's " lease " or virtual seizure of Tsing-tao
being especially resented by Japan. Spain was not
strong enough to enter into this struggle, and in a
disastrous war with the United States lost practically
all her colonies. This led to an alteration of the
balance of power in the Pacific, and in the final ad-
justment, or rather maladjustment, after a fierce
war between Russia and Japan, Japan found her-
self in possession of Korea.

The rapprochement between Russia and France
developed in due course into a definite alliance, the
terms of which were known only to the two contracting
parties. At first Russia was the dominant partner, but
her position as a great power was so weakened by the
Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5 that France was under
the necessity of seeking elsewhere support that would



EVENTS LEADING TO THE WAR 15

preserve the balance of power in Europe. As a means
of escape from her partial isolation only two avenues
were open to France : a rapprochement with Germany
would mean a complete change in the orientation of
French policy and would involve the abandonment of
Alsace-Lorraine ; while a rapprochement with England
would mean the loss of French influence in Egypt. As
between France and England, there existed a bond of
sympathy in the similarity of their political and social
ideals which was entirely lacking as between France and
Germany. The Anglo-French Entente was a logical
result of the European situation, and it was but natural
that it should be based upon a free hand for France in
Morocco and a free hand for England in Egypt. The
balance of power thus lestored preserved the peace of
Europe and made possible the amicable settlement of
disputes which might otherwise have led to war.

Four times in the last decade the danger of a
general European war has become acute. The first
time in 1904 on account of agreements entered into by
Great Britain, France and Spain as to the control of
Morocco, w^hich, as a result, virtually became a French
Protectorate ; the German Kaiser objected strenuously,
but in January, 1906, an international congress was
held at Algeciras at which affairs in Morocco were
temporarily adjusted with the co-operation of Germany.
Again in 1911 Germany complained of the extent of
France's occupation of Morocco, and sent two warships
to Agadir ; England plainly stated that she would
stand by France, and Germany had to be satisfied with
receiving a slice of French Congo territory.

In 1908, the Balkans offered the chance of a general
war. Austria, which had since 1878 administered the
Provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina on her southern
frontier, although they were nominally Turkish pro-
vinces, formally annexed them. Kussia protested
and other Powers objected, but this time Germany
stood by her ally and Russia yielded.

The territorial changes resulting from the events
of 1908 were insignificant ; Bulgaria became really,
instead of nominally, independent ; Bosnia and Herze-^



16 THE WAR BOOK

govina became really, instead of nominally, dependent ;
Germany supported her ally Austria in urging the
recognition of the fait accompli ; and German repre-
sentations at St. Petersburg brought about a sudden
change of attitude on the part of Russia.

In the latter part of 1911 European peace was
endangered by the war which broke out between Italy
and Turkey concerning Tripoli. This had relatively
slight consequences, except that Italy acquired 400,000
square miles of territory in Tripoli. But a year later
war broke out in the Balkans, by which at first the
Balkan allies, consisting of Bulgaria, Servia, and Greece,
conquered Macedonia, Albania, and the greater part of
Thrace from Turkey. But when after peace the Balkan
League dissolved, war broke out between Servia, Greece
and Montenegro against Bulgaria, Rumania and Turkey
later intervening.

The Balkan Wars of 1912-1913, by Hmiting the
territory and influence of Turkey in Europe, disturbed
the existing balance of power and erected between
Turkey and Europe a new and greatly strengthened
Slavic barrier against Austrian ambitions.

In the meantime Germany resolved upon substan-
tial increases in both military and naval expenditure.
Concurrently with these preparations a press campaign
of more than usual violence was directed alternately
against Russia and France, England for the moment
being treated with respect or invited to join in nego-
tiations of a friendly character.

On June 28th, 1914, the Archduke Francis
Ferdinand, Heir-Apparent to the Austrian Throne,
together with his morganatic wife, the Duchess of
Hohenberg, were murdered by a Servian in the streets
of Serajevo, the capital of Bosnia.

This tragic event, occurring at a time when national
antipathies had hardly recovered from the excitement
of the Balkan War, naturally aroused in Austria the
deepest feelings of resentment and horror. The un-
fortunate circumstance that the assassin was a Servian
gave colour to the charge that the crime was instigated
by the Servian Government ; that it was in fact the



EVENTS LEADING TO THE WAR 17

culminating outrage that had followed the policy of
" pin pricks " which had so long disturbed Austro-
Servian relations. That under the circumstances
Austria was justified in demanding redress from Servia
no one denied. What form Austria's demands would
take was not, however, a matter of interest to Austria
and Servia only. That it should not take the form of
acquisition of Servian territory was the sole concern
of the European powers with the exception of Germany.

It was nearly three weeks before Austria took her
first step, the presentation of an ultimatum, couched
in terms so offensive and peremptory as to preclude
the possibility of a favourable reply. To the surprise
of everyone Servia, after listening to the advice of
Russia, accepted every demand except two, and these
she requested should be referred to The Hague Tribunal
on the grounds that they threatened her existence as a
sovereign state. Austria's reply took the form of
immediate withdrawal of the Austrian Minister from
Belgrade ; and this step was at once followed by an
attack on the Servian frontier.

Germany's position at this time was one of nominal
detachment accompanied by proffers of service in
communicating advice. While the situation was one
of extreme tension it was generally believed that, as


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Online LibraryJoseph LeeThe war book-of-facts : 3000 figures and facts about the conduct of war, the present crisis, and its causes; → online text (page 1 of 15)