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merely its result or concomitant, it cannot be an essential con-
stituent of happiness: it is but one of its necessary attributes
that adheres to it as beauty does to youth." 5

This capital flaw of hedonism might have been, however, more
strongly insisted upon.

On the whole, Fr. Ming's work is one of the best productions
of neo-Scholastic literature in the field of ethics, and deserves
the careful study of all interested in moral philosophy.

In the field of Natural Theology, an important contribution
has been made by Maurice Ronayne (1828-1003). His work,
God knowable and known, published in 1888, has been deserv-
edly honored by several editions. Departing from the usual
form in which philosophical treatises are cast, Fr. Ronayne has
made use of the dialogue with the greatest skill. The interlocu-
tors meet, now in Fifth Avenue Hotel, now in Central Park
amid the scenes of nature, and discuss, in the most attractive
language, all questions connected with natural theology.

Other fields of philosophy are incidentally touched upon.
The second chapter of the work, entitled: The Data of Natural
Knowledge, contains a fair exposition of the Scholastic theory
of knowledge, as well as an able refutation of idealism.

Fr. Ronayne also studies the Scholastic doctrines of causation
and substance. He unmistakably regards substance as an un-
known something lying behind the accidents. Speaking of the

'■ Ming. Data of Modern Ethics, p. 89.


phenomenalists, lie Bays: " They do not take gold for silver, nor
silver for copper, because these metals differ in the phenomenon
of color, but because of something beneath that color and par-
tially manifested by it." 6

Mention must also be made of yEmilius de Augustinis, for
his work, De Deo Uno secundum naturam (1884), and James
Conway (1849-1905), professor in St. Louis University, and
author of a small volume entitled, The Fundamental Principles
of Christian Ethics, which belongs to the series, Catholic Sum-
mer and Winter School Library.

Thomism has also found distinguished representatives in
other religious orders. A name that readily comes to one's
mind at the consideration of Scholasticism outside of the Society
of Jesus is that of Brother Azarias, of the Christian Schools.

Brother Azarias, born Patrick Francis Mullany (1847-1893),
is one of the most distinguished — the most distinguished per-
haps — of our Catholic writers. Although known chiefly as a
literary critic, he is the author of several philosophical works
well worthy of attention. Whether he is a great philosopher
or not, I will not here decide. About his originality as a
thinker, no doubt can be entertained. In his Essays philosoph-
ifil. he gives the following principle as the first principle of
philosophy: "God actualizes Cosmos by the Word, and com-
pletes its end in the Word." Which he unriddles in the follow-
ing manner:

"In the term God, we have the subject of Theodicy and Nat-
ural Theology.

" In the term Cosmos, we have the idea that gives us the ideas
of space and time, with all their concomitant ideas of number,
extension, mathematics, natural history and physics.

" In the term the Word is contained the type of creation —
the basis of history — the ideal of literature and art.

" In the term completes its destiny in the Word, we have the
whole supernatural order — a Church, the means of sanetificalion.

" In the term actualizes, we have the idea of pure and supreme

*Ronayne, God Bjuowable and Known, p. 32.


cause expressed, and the real relations of the Creator to his

creation."* 7

Brother Azarias thus regards philosophy as embracing all
human knowledge, natural and supernatural. This view un-
equivocally separates him from the neo-Scholastics, to whose
school, it is true, he does not profess to belong:

" To belong exclusively to any school of thought," says he, " is
to shut out from one's soul all truth but that which presents
itself under a given aspect. It is to be continually asking the
question, Can any good come out of Nazareth? And yet good
can come out of Nazareth; every Nazareth of thought has its
own lesson to teach us if we willingly learn it and put it to
profit." 8

Although Brother Azarias is not, strictly speaking, a Scho-
lastic, he has done good service to the cause of neo-Scholasticism
in this country by his learned treatises on Mediaeval philosophy.
The essay, Aristotle and the Christian Church, contains excel-
lent pages dealing with the spirit of the schoolmen. Albert
the Great, St. Thomas and Boger Bacon are chiefly dealt with.
The author clearly shows that the Mediaeval writers were not ser-
vile followers of Aristotle, but that they thought and wrote in
the spirit of real philosophers. How Brother Azarias regards
the Scholastic revival is clearly indicated in the following
statement :

" Finally, there is the intellectual atmosphere of the day in
which thought lives and moves. It cannot exist without breath-
ing this air. If the past is revived, it lives only in proportion
as it is brought to bear upon the present." 9

Brother Chrysostom, born Joseph J. Conlan, in New Haven
(Connecticut), in 18G3, and actually professor of philosophy in
"Manhattan College (New York), is more strictly a Scholastic
than Brother Azarias. He is the author of two brief courses of

7 Brother Azarias, Essays Philosophical, pp. 158-159.
"Ibid., p. 85.
•Ibid., p. 85.


Scholastic philosophy. One of them, the Elementary Course of
Christian Philosophy, is an adaptation of a French work written
by Brother Louis of Poissy, and, in spite of its concise form, is
one of the most instructive manuals published in this country.
The other course, written in Latin, was published in 1897, under
the title, Elemenla Philosophic? Scholasti-cce. It deals with
logic, ontology or general metaphysics, and cosmology, and is
chiefly inspired by the works of Zigliara, Liberatore and Farges.

Brother Chrysostom has also defended the cause of Scholastic
philosophy in several review articles. The most important of
them appeared in the Philosophical Review in L894, and was
devoted to the study of the theistic argument of St. Thomas.

In the Dominican order, we find a single work worthy of
mention; but this work is one of the best studies written by
American neo-Scholastics. La Philosophic en Amerique depuM
les origines jusqu'a nos jours of Father Edward Gregory
Laurence Van Becelaere (born 1872), was published in 1904,
after having appeared in the form of articles in the Revue
Thomiste. As a study of the various currents of thought which
have dominated our country, Fr. Van Becelaere's work, despite
its brevity, is the best work we possess. Some aspects of Amer-
ican thought have been, however, entirely overlooked or too
briefly treated. A history of American philosophy ought cer-
tainly to contain a chapter on Pragmatism.

Fr. Van Becelaere's volume is completed by an appendix deal-
ing with Catholic philosophy in the United States. This part
of the work of the learned Dominican contains interesting de-
tails on the neo-Scholastic revival in this country.

Scholastic principles have also found able defenders in our
secular clergy.

Gennaro Luigi Vincenzo de Concilio, born at Naples (Italy),
in 1835, and for a short time professor of dogma lie theology,
logic and metaphysics in Seton Hall College, South Orange,
New Jersey, published, besides a text-book on Scholastic phi-
losophy (Elcmoils of 1 iiteUr,l wil 1 'li ilosoph //. 1878), a theo-


logico-philosophical work, entitled Catholicity and Pantheism
(1874), in which he regards Pantheism as the necessary result
of Protestantism, 10 as the universal error in time and space. 11
" Every particular error, says he, has either fallen into Panthe-
ism, or disappeared altogether." 12

John Gmeiner, born in Baernau (Bavaria), on December 5,
1847, and, for seven years, professor at St. Francis Seminary
(Milwaukee), and at St. Thomas Seminary (St. Paul), has
published several philosophical works, in which, in harmony
with Leo XIII's formula: vetera ?iovk augere, he endeavors to
harmonize the Scholastic teachings with modern science, and
mercilessly discards all tenets which cannot be easily harmon-
ized. In a remarkable little work, entitled Mediaeval and Mod-
ern Cosmology (1891), he denounces some theories, usually
defended in Catholic text-books, and which, in his opinion,
reflect but little credit upon Catholic thinking. Among the
doctrines thus stigmatized is the theory of Matter and Form.

John T. Driscoll, born in Albany (New York), after study-
ing in Manhattan College and Troy Theological Seminary, com-
pleted his studies in the Catholic University. He has taught
philosophy for several years in the Theological Seminary at
Brighton (Massachusetts) and has enriched American neo-
Scholastic literature with two excellent works: A Treatise on
the Human Soul, published in 1898, and God, which appeared
two years later.

The method followed in these two works may be characterized
as experimental and comparative. In the Treatise on the
Human Soul, the author starts from the facts of our conscious-
ness: sensations, sentiments, ideas, memories, judgments, rea-
sonings, etc., which are " as true and real as the circulation of
the blood, or the existence of physical or chemical forces."

10 Cf. Catholicity and Pantheism, p. 21.
" Ibid., p. 14.
"Ibid., p. 20.


From Buch facta of experience he derives, by a process of reason-
ing, his Bystem as to the nature of the soul.

In agreemenl with the Scholastic teaching, he proves the
principle of our bodily and mental energies to be one and sim-
ple, spiritual and immortal.

Scholastic psychology is studied in connection with all adverse
teachings. All ancient and modern systems concerning the
principle of life in man are discussed with a remarkable erudi-
tion and brought face to face with the Scholastic theories.

The inadequacy of Materialism and Positivism is very ably
pointed out. The work also contains valuable chapters on the
diverse forms of Pantheism and Monism. Some conclusions of
the author do not seem, however, perfectly justifiable. He re-
jects, for example, Kant's opinion that we know phenomena
only, and not the thing-in-itself, on the ground that such an
opinion is opposed to the data and methods of physical science:

" Science," says he, "deals with real things. The axioms and
rules of mathematical science must be verified in concrete ob-
jects in order that the calculations founded upon them may have
any validity. The same is true of chemistry and of physics." 13

This objection would be perfectly valid if Kant failed to rec-
ognize in the phenomena an objective element. But this is not
the case. The phenomenon is subjective in so far as the outside
reality, the object, is clothed with the conditions of our sensi-
bility and of our understanding; but it is also objective, inas-
much as it is caused by the thing-in-itself.

We are, with regard to the thing-in-itself, in the same posi-
tion as a person with a pair of colored glasses would be with
regard to the color of a landscape. Although such a person
would never know the color of the landscape as it is in itself.
he would nevertheless be able to possess a real science of color,
to formulate; laws, which would be conditioned by the object and
in harmony with its manifestations.

"Driscoll, The Soul, p. 40.


The aim of the treatise on God is thus set forth in the preface:

" The considerations adduced are the heritage of Christian
Philosophy handed down by the pens of St. Augustine and St.
Thomas. The marvelous advance in the sciences furnishes in-
creased data for argument and illustration. The question is
considered under all aspects. All sources of knowledge are in-
vestigated. History, Language, Psychology, Ethics, the Phys-
ical sciences, each comes with its special testimony. The aim is
simply to collect the data and show their bearing on the idea of
God; to answer the question: What is meant by God, and has
the idea of God an objective validity ? " 14

Like all modern Scholastics, Mr. Driscoll rejects the ontolog-
ical argument, in its original shape as well as in the form it has
assumed in the hands of the neo-Hegelian school. He also
rejects the theory of direct intuition of the Divine Being, advo-
cated by Harris, Wilson, Caird, and other non-Catholic writers
of the present day. He regards as valid the arguments from
universal consent, from the moral life, from the contingency of
living beings, from a first cause, from motion, from the order
of the universe. He also accepts the old argument drawn from
the nature of truth, first proposed by St. Augustine, and recently
revived by Josiah Royce. He clearly points out, however, that,
in the hands of Mr. Royce, the argument loses its value and
involves a petitio principii:

" What is (for Royce) the test of subjective truth? Not con-
formity with external reality. This he expressly rejects. But
conformity with a higher intelligence. Hence he is a disciple
of Berkeley. Hence he falls into a petitio principii. He sets
forth with the data of consciousness to reason God's existence as
absolute Truth. Yet he postulates the existence of the All-
Knower or All-Enfolder to justify the veracity of the data.
This was the mistake of Descartes." 16

Mr. Driscoll, as we have seen, has been a student in the Catho-
lic University. This university, the first stone of which was

14 Driscoll, Cod, |>. .'}.
"Ibid., p. 7!>.


laid on May 24, L888, in the presence of Cardinal Gibbons, four
archbishops, twenty-one bishops and numerous eminent men,
among whom President Cleveland, has contributed to neo-
Scholastic literature numerous articles in a periodical publica-
tion, the Catholic University Bulletin. The most eminent con-
tributors have been Edward A. Pace, Edmund T. Shanahan and
William Turner (cf. Bibliography).

Mr. Turner has also published valuable articles about the
Middle Ages in other reviews, such as the American Catholic
Quarterly, the Philosophical Review and the New York Review.
His greatest title to the gratitude of all students of philosophy
is, however, his History of Philosophy, published in 1903. This
work has been greatly praised, and with justice. It exposes with
a remarkable erudition the philosophical systems of ancient and
modern times. More perfectly than any other similar work, it
condenses, in a few pages, the spirit and the doctrines of each
philosopher it studies. Mr. Turner devotes a special attention
to the study of the Middle Ages. Of the 674 pages, which the
work contains, 185 are devoted to Scholastic philosophy.

Mention must be made also of two important works written
as dissertations for the Doctor's degree. The first of them is
Religion and Morality, written in 1899, at the Catholic Univer-
sity, by James J. Fox. The work, inspired by the purest Thom-
istic ethical principles, strives to base upon history and reason
the thesis that religion and morality are necessarily connected.
The other work, The Knoicahleness of God (190")). written at
Notre Dame University by Matthew Schumacher, is one of the
most important contributions of neo-Scholasticism to the field
of Natural Theology.

Section 2. — The Neo-Scholastio Revival in Canada

The philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas forms the basis of all
philosophical teaching in the Catholic institutions of Canada.

A long time before the promulgation of the encyclical /Eterni
Patris, Thomism was already taught in the College of St. Uya-


einth. One of the professors of this college, Mgr. Desaulniers,
wrote a complete course of Scholastic philosophy, inspired by
St. Thomas and Liberatore, which has never been published.

The University of Ottawa, directed by the Oblate Fathers,
likewise follows the teachings of the Angelic Doctor. It pos-
sesses an Academy of St. Thomas in which a thesis, in harmony
with the Scholastic principles, is defended ever}- week.

The most important center of Thomism in Canada is, how-
ever, the University Laval, in Quebec. As early as 1879, this
university adopted Zigliara's Sumnia Philosophica as a text-
book in philosophy. In 1884, the Faculty of Theology decided
to study St. Thomas in the Summa Theologica itself, which has
been, since that time, the manual of theology.

The Thomistic movement in Canada has also given rise to a
few interesting works. The first in date is the volume entitled,
Philosophy of the Bible Vindicated (1876), written by Corne-
lius O'Brien.

Cornelius O'Brien, born on May 4, 1843, in Xew Glasgow
(Prince Edward Island), educated at St. Dunstan's College
(Charlottetown), and at the Propaganda (Rome), ordained
priest in 1871, professor in St. Dunstan's College, orator, theo-
logian, novelist, poet, has occupied the archiepiscopal see of
Halifax from 1883 till his death, on March 9, 1906.

His " Philosophy of the Bible " consists of three parts. In
the first part, entitled Natural Theology, the author proves the
existence of a Supreme Being by the well-known Scholastic
arguments from a first cause, from the order of the world, and
from the universal consent of mankind. He demonstrates that
this Supreme Being, or God, existing by necessity of nature, is
infinitely perfect, the creator and ruler of the physical world.

In the second part, entitled Psychology, lie proves the soul
to be simple, spiritual, immortal, endowed with free will, and
created immediately by God when it is to be infused into the

O'Brien differs from most modern defenders of Thomism with


regard to the origin of our ideas. As he insists more than
Scholastics usually do, upon the activity essential to substance, 10
and maintains not only that substance acts, but that whatever
acts is a substance, 17 he is led to the assertion that the soul is
'" a force the very essence of which is that it should think, under-
stand, know, will," 18 that it must therefore necessarily know its
own existence and something about happiness, and possess, by
the same fact, two ideas which are, if not innate, at least coeval
with the soul.

The third part of the Philosophy of the Bible is devoted to
the study of certain questions which have an intimate connec-
tion with ontology and have not been studied in the two preced-
ing parts: space and time, certitude, religion, revelation, the
relation of faith and reason, etc.

O'Brien is an enthusiastic admirer of Mediaeval philosophy.
He is convinced that many " professors who are now extolled as
prodigies of learning would, had their lot been cast in the oft-
reviled middle ages, have been considered noisy school-boys." 19

In harmony with the Scholastic principle of the unity of
truth, he maintains that there can be but one true system of
philosophy, and goes even farther than most of the early neo-
Scholastics in his contemptuous disrespect for modern thinking.

" Let it be understood from the outset," says he, " that we deny
the title of Philosopher to the founders of schools of error. . . .
The man who, as a general rule, blunders in the art he professes
to follow, is not called a tradesman, but a botcher; why, then,
call meaningless scribblers Philosophers? They are literari
fungi." 20

And if we wish to know more definitely who those " meaning-
Less scribblers" are, we shall perhaps be astonished to find
among them:

"Philosophy of the Bible, pp. 56, 57, 162.
" Tbid., pp. 81, S3.
"Ibid., p. llo.
"Ibid., p. vi.
Ibid., p. ::.


" Philosophic quacks, such as Hegel, Kant, Darwin, and id
genus omne; 21

" Spinoza, who gave such a proof of mental aberration that
a school-boy who would be guilty of similar contradictions, would
most surely be doomed to lose Ms first holiday, and obliged to
write five hundred times: Idem non potest simul esse et non
esse; 22 t

" The disciples of the transcendental German school, who,
lulled into a semi-somniferous state, by lager beer and strong
cigars, talk misty things which they call transcendental." 23

Louis A. Paquet, actual president of the University Laval,
published, in 1888, in the review Canada francais, of Quebec,
an important article, entitled: Eosmini et son systeme, in which
he refutes the Rosminian doctrines by the principles of Scholas-
tic philosophy.

A few years later, Mgr. Paquet published the first volumes
of the work upon which his fame chiefly rests, his Dusputationes
theological, which form a learned commentary on St. Thomas's
Summa Theologica. The first edition of the work was pub-
lished in Quebec between the years 1893 and 1903. A second
edition is now being made at Borne.

Mention must also be made of Brother Symphorien-Louis, of
the Christian Schools, who published in Montreal, in 1905, a
text-book on Scholastic metaphysics (Precis de Mela-physique).

Among the recent defenders of Thomism in Canada, no one
perhaps has served the Scholastic cause with a greater distinc-
tion than Alexander MacDonald, actual Vicar General of Anti-
gonish and rector of St. Andrews (Nova Scotia).

Born in S. W. Mabou, Cape Breton, on February 18, 1858,
Mr. MacDonald studied at St. Francis Xavier College (Anti-
gonish) and at the Propaganda, in Borne, where he was the
disciple of the famous Cardinal Satolli. After being ordained,
in 1881, he taught philosophy for nineteen years in St. Francis

21 Ibid., p. 84.
-Ibid., p. 42.
23 Ibid., p. 19.


Xavier College. During this time he showed himself a valiant
champion of the Scholastic principles in numerous articles,
which appeared in the Casket, of Antigonish, or in other period-
ical publications (cf. Bibliography). Mr. MacDonald is also
the author of several important works in theology, such as The
Sacrifice of the Mass (New York, 1905), The Sacraments (New
York, 1906), with which this essay is not directly concerned.



1. Periodical Publications
Annates de Philosophic chretienne. Paris, since 1830.
Bolcseleti-Folydirat. Budapest, since 1886.
Divus Thomas. Placentiae, 1879-1905.
Jahrbuch fiir Philosophic und speculative Theologie. Paderborn, since

New York Review. New York, since 1905.
La Pense"e Contemporaine. Paris, since 1903.
Philosophisches Jahrbuch. Fulda, since 1888.
Revista Luliana. Barcelona, since 1901.
Revue N 60S cola stique. Louvain, since 1894.
Revue de Philosophic. Paris, since 1900.

Revue des sciences philosophiques et theologiques. Kain, since 1907.
Revue Thomiste. Paris, since 1893.
Saint-Thomasblatter. Regensburg, 1888 ff.

2. Separate Works
van der Aa, S.J., J. Praelectionum Philosophise Scholastics brevis

conspectus. Lovanii, Fonteyn, 1886, 2 ed., 1888.
Abelard. Edition Cousin. Paris, 1836; Paris, 1849-59; Migne, Patro-

logia latina, vol. 178; Sic et Non, Marburgi, 1851.
Abboell, Ludw. Anselm Cant: de mutuo fidei ac nationis consortio.

Wurzburg, 1864.
Adamson, Robert. Roger Bacon. An Address. Manchester, 1876.
Adeodatus, Aurelitjs. Die Philosophie und Cultur der Neuzeit und die

Philosophie des hi. Thomas von Aquino. Koeln, 1887.
Adlhocii, O.S.B., Beda Franz. Der Gottesbeweis des hi. Anselm.

Philos. Jahrb., 1895-97.
Prsfationes ad artis scholastics inter occidentales fata. Brume.

Zur wissenschaftlichen Erkliirung des Atlieismus. Philos. Jahrb.,

Roscelin und Sanct Anselm. Philos. Jahrb., L907.
Aherne, C. Physical Science versus Matter and Form. Dublin Rev.,

Aiinkr. Fredegis von Tours. Leipzig, 1878.
Alamannus, S.J., Cosm. Summa Philosophic ex variis libris D. Thomffi

Aq. in ordinem cursus philosophic] accommodata. Editio juxta

2dain. Parisiensem adornata ab A. Bringmann, S..T.; Paris.

Lethielleux, 1890 ff.
Ai.kxander, Abohtbalo. Thomas Aquinas ami tlic Encyclical Letter.

Princeton Rev., .March. 1880.


Ai.YAK.vno. O.P., FttAlTOISOO. Cartas del Filosofo Rancio. 2 vol., Madrid,

Alvarez, Enrique. Elementofl de Filosofia y Moral. Bogota, 1884.
Angelebi. Rosmini e panteista? Risposta del Sac. Prof. Angeleri
all'opusculo dcgli Universal] del P. M. Liberatore. Verona, 1882.
Un articolo della Civilta cattoliea contro un opuscolo, Rosmini e
panteista! eBaminato dall'autore dell'opuscolo medesimo. 1882.
Angelicus, P. A vegtelen. Boles. Foly., 1891.
Aniiai ni.. <;. Az aktus es a potenciardl. Holes. Foly., 1896.
Arbois y Tor. Ensayo de Flsica y Qulmica transcendental. Barcelona,


Arnaiz, Mabceleto. El Instituto superior de Filosoffa (Escuela de

Santo Tomas de Aquino) en la Universidad Catolica de Lovaina.

Madrid. 1901.

La Neo-Escolastica al comenzar el siglo XX. Ciudad de Dios, 1902.

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