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Joseph Lowe.

The present state of England in regard to agriculture, trade and finance; with a comparison of the prospects of England and France online

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own country, while in others less advanced, they can hardly
be accomplished in the lifetime of a generation.

Increase of Popidation in the jn'cscnt Age. — The recent
increase of our numbers, so greatly beyond that of any
former age, is ascribed by many persons to the excitement
attendant on the war, and to the encouragement it afforded
to early marriage in the case of so many classes, the agri-
cultural, the manufacturing, the mercantile. This, how-
ever, applied chiefly to the mechanical ; all, in short, except
the fixed annuitants, the middle classes : among the lower
the advantage in wages was balanced, or nearly balanced, by
the rise of provisions. We must also put in the opposite
scale the serious injury to population arising from war, as
well by the loss of lives in the field and in tropical cli-
mates, as by the removal from home of many who would
otherwise have become fathers of families. When to this
we add, that since the peace the 7-atio of increase is not less
great than during the war, we are led to attribute the aug-
mentation of our numbers to causes more permanent and
satisfactory; to the preservation of the lives of children by



A pp.] Ratio of its progressive Increase. [67]

vaccination; to the better lodging, the greater cleanhness
and sobriety of our lower classes. This result, already ex-
emplified in the return of deaths inserted in a subsequent
page, will, we believe, be found to rest on a broad biisis,
whenever our official documents shall become more ample.
Jiimilar causes prevail, though in a less degree, on the
Continent: in France the increase of population, ibrmerly
so slow as hardly to yield an addition of 30 per cent, in a
century, may now be computed at somewhat more than
twice that proportion. In that country sobriety was always
prevalent; but the abolition of monasteries, the improve-
ment of medical practice, the ameliorated condition of the
peasantry, are all peculiar to the present age. In Ger-
many the degree of increase is probably not very different
from that of France. Of Russia we have as yet no accu-
rate returns: Spain, Italy, and the south of Europe
generally, are also on the increase, but in a ratio, which,
when we consider the general indolence and povert}' of the
lower orders, is, doubtless, slower than that of France.
And in the countries subject to the Turks, the frequency
of the plague, and all the pernicious efi'ects of bad govern-
ment, are likely still to counteract the natural tendency of
population to increase.

Marriages. — The proportion of marriages to that of our
population does not appear to have increaseil during the
late wars :

From 1780 to 1789, marriages, compared to the whole
population, were as 1 in 117
1790 to 1799 - - - - 1 in 11 9i

1800 to 1809 - - - - 1 in U9i

{Barton on the iMboicring Classes.)

We shall be more succssful in searching for an expla-
nation of the rapid increase of our numbers in other causes:
none can be more gratifying than the decrease of mortality
in conse(]uence partly of the introduction of vaccination,
but partly too of the greater sobriety and comlbrt ol the
poor.

Progressive Decrease of Deaths in Great Britain.

From 1785 to 1789 - - - 1 in 4-86

1790 to 1794. - - - 1 in 1-47

1795 to 1799 - - - 1 in 465

liiOO to 1804 - - . 1 in 474

[Barton, ut sutpra.)
[E] 2



[68]



Pnpulalion.



[Ai'P.



To Mr. Hickman, Clerk-Assistant of tlie House of
Commons, who has prepared the successive Population
Abstracts of 1801, 1811, 1821,) I am indebted for much
useful information, in particular for

A Comparative Vie-jo of the Area arid Productive Power of
the several Counties of England and Wales.

COUNTIES ACCORDING TO THEIR AREA.





Square




Square


Counties.


Statute


Counties,


Statute




Miles.




Miles.


1. York


5,961


50. Surrey


758


2. Lincoln


2,748


51. Berks


756


5. Devon


2,579


32. Oxford


752


4. Norfolk


2,092


33. Bucks


740


5. Northumberland


1,871


34. Worcester -


729


C. Lancaster -


1,831


35. Hertford -


528


7. Somerset -


1,642


36. Monmouth


498


8. Hampshire -


1,628


37. Bedford


468


9. Kent -


1,537


38. Huntingdon


370


10. Essex


1,532


59. Middlesex -


282


11. Suffolk


1,512


40. Rutland


149


12. Cumberland


1,478








15. Sussex


1,463


England -


50,535


14. Wilts

15. Salop


1,379
1,341










16. Cornwall -


1,527


1. Carmarthen


974


17. Gloucester -


1,256


2. Montgomery


839


18. Stafford


1,148


3. Glamorgan -


792


19. Durham


1,061


4. Brecon


7S4


20. Chester


1,052


5. Cardigan -


675


21. Derby


1,026


6. Merioneth -


663


22. Northampton


1,017


7. Denbigh


633


23. Dorset


1,005


8. Pembroke -


610


24. Warwick -


902


9. Carnarvon -


544


25. Hereford -


860


10. Radnor


426


26. Cambridge -


858


11. Anglesey -


271


27. Nottingham


837


12. Flint -


244


28. Leicester -


804






29. Westmorland


763


Wales .
Total -


7,425


57,960



Scotland and Ireland are nearly equal to each other in area, and to-
gether are equal to or somewhat larger than England and Wales. Th«
Assessed Rental of Scotland in 1811 was ^£3,899,364.



App.]



Pojnilation.



[69]



COUNTIES ACCORDING TO THEIR PRODUCTIVE
POWER.

Re7i( and Tithe paid in each Coitritij in 1810, per square
Mile of (JtO Acres.



Merioneth


- ^'137


Cambridge


- £-^l\


Brecon


154. ,


Huntingdon -


574


Cardigan


173


Hereford


585


Carnarvon


192


Lincoln


594


Montgomery


198 !


Salop -


610


Radnor


229


Ik-rks -


611


Carmarthen


21-}.


Bedford


619


Ghimorgan -


284-


Derby


624


Pembroke


281.


Kent


651


Anglesey


288


Wilts -


652


Westmorland


299


Nottingham -


659


Durham


300


(iloucester


680


Cumberland -


327


Cheshire


684


Denbigli


331


Essex -


692


Hampshire -


435


Rutland


692


Monmouth -


436


Stafford


693


Sussex


44-5


Northampton


702


Cornwall


470


Oxford


709


Norfolk


509


Bucks


713


Devon


516


Lancaster


718


Northumberland


520


Hertford


734


Flint -


536


Warwick


744


Suffolk


537


Worcester


772


Dorset


538


Somerset


876


York -


541


Leicester


891


Surrey


550


Middlesex


- 1,325



The area of the counties vas measured on Arrowsniith's
last map (date 1815 — 1816), wliicli wasformed on the trigo-
nometrical survey. The process of s(|uarinir and computing
the miles, as well as of cbtimating the parts of miles on
the borders of each county, having been performed with
much care and labour, the inacccuracies are few and in-
considerable.

Anmud Value of Land hi the square mile of 640 .?/a-
tiite acres. — This is computed from the "rent and tithe
collectively," and the average of England and M'ales in
1811 was 17s. 2r/. per acre: the counties which take the
lead are Leicester and Somerset, and the chief cause of
superiority is the extent of good jjasture ground, which, of
course, yields a return at little expcncc.

[F.J :^



C70]



Population.



[A PP.



The Rental is taken from the Property-lax return for
the year ending April, 1811, (see p. 6'6. of the Property-
tax Accounts, printed 2G Feb. 1813.) The fall of rent on
the one hand, and extension of culture on the other, proba-
bly render this return, tiiough comparatively of old date,
a tolerably accurate representation of the present rental of
the kingdom.

One method of computing the productiveness of land
under tillage is to " take for each county the number of
families employed in husbandr}-, and to divide by it the
amount of rent and tithe." The result may be said to ex-
hibit the " average net produce of the labour and capital of
each family thus engaged," and indicates, we believe with
tolerable accuracy, the progress of the improved husbandry.
For England and Wales the average, in 1811, was 41/.
per family of agriculturists. The proportion was by no
means greatest in the counties adjacent to the metropolis ;
for while in Hertfordshire and Surrey it varied from SO/, to
40/. per family of agriculturists, in Lincoln and Durham it
exceeded 50/., and in Northumberland went considerably
beyond that amount. A return of this nature, made after
rents assume a settled form, would be a very interesting
document, particularly if combined with a similar return
from Scotland, where tithe and poor-rate happily form so
slight a deduction from the income of the landlord.

Jtank (^ our different Counties i?i j^oint of Density of
Popdation.

19 Berks

20 Norfolk

21 Oxford

22 Bedford

23 Flint



1 Middlesex

2 Lancaster

3 Surrey

4 York, W. Rid.

5 Kent

6 Warwick

7 Gloucester

8 Nottingham

9 Chester

10 Worcester

11 Durham

12 Somerset

13 Suffolk

14 Derby

15 Cornwall

16 Leicester

17 Northampton

18 Essex



24 Buckingham

25 Hertford

26 Wilts

27 Southampton

28 Cambridge

29 Anglesea

30 Huntingdon

31 Stafford

32 Salop

33 Devon

34 Sussex

35 Rudand

36 York, E. Rid.



137 Denbigh

38 Dorset

39 Glamorgan

140 Hereford

41 Pembroke

142 Caernarvon

43 Monmouth

144 Northumberl.

145 York, N. Rid.
i46 Lincoln

47 Cumberland

48 Caermarthen
i49 Montgomery
[50 Cardigan

J51 Westnivireland
152 Merioneth
'53 Radnor
54 Brecon



A pp.]



Population.



C71]



CENSUS OF ISf^l.

England, Scotla)id a?id Wales ; Licrease of the Population
since 1811, exhibited by Coimtics.





1
Increase




Increase;




Increase




per cent, i




percent.




percent.


Counties.


from j


Counties.


from


Counties.


from




1811 to I




1811 to




1811 to




1821. 1




1821. 1

1




18'.>1.


- 1
Peebles


i
1


York, E. Rid-




Durham - -


IT


Sutherland - ;


1 ;


ing -


14


Linlithgow -


17


Perth - -


5


Aberdeen


15


Somerset


17


Forfar -


6


Bute -


15


Banff -


18


Kincardine -


1
6 ;


Derby - -


15


Gloucester -


18


Salop


6 j


Devon -


15


Norfolk - -


IR


Kinross - -


7 iKssex -


15


Bedford - -


19


Berwick - -


8
9


Inverness


15


Chester - -


19


Nairn -


Kirkcudbright


15


Cornwall - -


19


Clackmannan


10


Montgomery -


15


Denbigh - -


19


Merioneth -


10


Northampton


15


Lincoln - -


19


Hereford


10


Nottingham -


15


Glamorgan -


20


Radnor - -


10


Orkney and




Middlesex -


JO


Roxburgh


10 1


Shetland -


15


Warwick


20


Elgin - -


11 i


Hampshire -


15


York, N. Rid-




Argyle - -


12


Wilts - -


15


ing - -


-20


13erks - -


1- \


Worcester -


15


Cambridge -


21


Stirling - -


12


Brecon - -


IC


Renfrew


21


Westmorland


12


Dorset - -


16


Anglcscu


22


Dumbarton -


13


Flint - -


16


Ayr


22


Dumfries


13


.Hertford

1 Huntingdon -


16


jPembroke


22


Fife -


15


16


Surrey -


83


Haddington -


15


Leicester


16


Sussex -


25


Ross and Cro-




i Monmouth -


16


lYork.W.Rid-




marty


15


Northumbcr-




1 ing - -


23


Oxford - -


15


i land -


16


jWigton - -


34


Rutland - -


13


Staflbrd - -


16


{Lanark - -


27


Selkirk - -


15


Suffolk - -


16


'Lancaster


1 -^


Buckingham -


14


jCumbcrland -


17


'Caithness


: 29


Cardigan - -


14


Cannarthcn -


J7


Edinburgh -


1 29


Kent" -


14


Carnarvon -
i


17







The ratio of most frequent occurrence is J. 5 per cent., or
an average between 13 and 17 per cent. In several conn-
ties the augmentation is to be ascribed tollu- incrcasf of the
principal towns; thus the increase of Middlesex is ilic
increase of London, Surrey of Southwark, Warwickshire
of Birmingham, Lanarkshire of Glasgow, and Lancashire
of Manchester, Liverpool, Preston, &c. In the remote
county of Caithness, the increase is owing to the extension
of the herring fishery; while the almost sl;tiionary condition
of the adjoining county of Sutherland is owing to the emi-



[72]



l^opidation.



[App.



frration ofcottagers, and the conversion of their petty occu-
pancies into pasture ground.
Englcmd and Wales: Progressive Increase of our Pojndation.

Its amount in 1801 - - - 9,343,578

Ditto 1811 - - - 10,791,115

Ditto 1821 - - - 11,977,665



Fy



ogressive Increase in the Ten Principal Towns of England.





Year 1801.


Year 1811.


Year 1821.


London - - -


900,000


1,050,000


1,225,964


Manchester


81,020


98,573


153,788


Liverpool


77,655


94,.»76


118,972


Birmingham


73,670


85,755


106,722


Bristol


63,645


76,433


87,779


Leeds _ _ .


53,062


62,534


83,796


Plymouth


45,454


56,060


61,212


Portsmouth


32,166


40,567


45,648


Norwich - - -


36,852


57,256


50,288


Newcastle-on-Tyne


28,365


37,587


46,948



Scotland. — Here the rafio of increase in the towns, par-
ticularly Edinburgh and Glasgow, has been equally great.

Irelaiid. — The returns previous to 1811 were too im-
perfect to afford the means of calculating the progressive
increase of population, nor have those of 1821 as yet been
given to the public in a satisfactory form : the general re-
sult is, that the population of all Ireland amounts in round



numbers to

That of the principal towns,
Dublin
Cork
Limerick - - -



• 7,000,000

186,276

100,535

66,042



Great Britai7i: Return o/'1821.



Distribution into Classes,


Families.


Proportions to
the whole popu-
lation in parts
of 100.


Employed chiefly in agriculture
Do. in trade, manufactures, me-
chanical employment, &c. -
In all other situations


978,656

1,350,293
612,488


53

46
21

100

1



App.]



Population.



[73]



Proportion of Agricitlfwnl Population. — This varies
greatly, according to tlie particular county. In a highly
manufacturing county, such as Lancashire, it is not halt' the
average of33 in 100; inYorkshire, which in the West Riding
is manufacturing, and in other parts agricultural, the return
approaches to the average, but is still somewhat below it;
while in Sussex, Essex, Suffolk, where there are so tew
manufactures, it greatly exceeds it, being above 50 in 100;
in Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, and Herefordshire, the
proportion is the largest of all, being above GO in 100.

Comparison of the Population Returns of 1S\ I and 1821.





England.


Wales.


Scotland.


Totals.


Increase
per
cent.


Families chiefly employed )
in agriculture, 1811 J


697,353


72,846


125,799


895,998




1821
Do. in trade, manufac- y


773,732 74,225


130,699


978,656


9V


tures, and mechanical >
employment - 1 8 1 1 j


923,588 36,044


169,417


1,129,049




1821
In all other situations, 1811
1821


1,118,295 41,680
391,450 20,866
454,690 30,801

i


190,264
106,852
126,997


1,350,239
519,168
612,488


19J

18



The most important reflection suggested by these returns,
is the great superiority of increase in our town population
over that of tiie agriculturists. This is remarkable on two
accounts; first, as indicating a rapid increase of" productive
power, and next as jieculiar to our island ; the augment-
ation in France and the Continent generally being no greater
in town than in the country.

Wales. — Here agricultural employiueiit predominates.
Among persons out of business there apjxars a remarkable
increase; the consequence, probably, of Wales being found a
comparatively cheap residence by half-pay oflicers and other
annuitants.



[7*]



PopuLalioii.



[A pp.



Indications of an Increase of National Wealthy taken from
Population J let urns. — These are,

1. An increase in the proportion of persons who are
independent of labour; we mean of those who derive their
income from property, whether land, houses, or money
lent.

2. A greater comparative increase of town population.

3. It follows that under such circumstances afrriculturists
will increase in a ratio inferior to that of tiie other classes :
still the augmentation of produce may, and probably will,
keep pace with the augmentation of the consumers, the
improvements in husbandry and the increased use of ma-
chinery (such as threshing mills) contributing greatly to
lessen the manual labour employed in raising corn.

Census of 1377- — As a matter of historical curiosity, we
subjoin the population of the principal towns of England in
the year 1377, Avhen an enumeration was made on account
of a poll-tax :



London


-


-


35,000


York - -


-


-


11,000


Bristol


■-


-


9,000


Plymouth -


-


-


7,000


Coventry -


-


-


7,000


Norwich -


-


-


6,000


Lincoln


-


-


5,000


Sarum, Wiltshii


'e


5,000


Lynn - -


-


-


5,000



Colchester - - -

Canterbury - - -

Beverley - - _
Newcastle-on-Tyne

Oxford - - -

Bury, Suffolk - -

Gloucester C Ea^h

Leicester < somewhat

Shrewsbury/ "'°'*'^*"



4,500

4,000
4,000
4,000
3,500
3,500

3,000



In that remote age the total population of England was
2,300,000 ; but the proportion of town population was far
smaller than at present, since the number of towns contain-
ing above 3000 inhabitants was only 18.



[75]



APPENDIX



TO



CHAPTER VIII.



National Revenue and Capital.

J S our animal Consumption cqtud to onr aivmal Production ? —
\xi advertincf to this subject, our limits prevent our enlarg-
ing on the distinction between productive and un|ir()ductive
consumption, as explained by M. Say and Mr. ^till, or
the much greater latitude given to the term jiroductive by
Mr. Gray. We have, in tact, room for little more than
answering the plain practical question, " What part of our
national income appears to be saved or invested, so as to
form a permanent addition to the national property ?"

The part of our income thus appropriated will be found
very small, if considered in the limited sense of investments
in money securities, such as the funds or mortgage, trans-
actions of that nature being confined in a great measure
to annuitants, or rather to tlic comparatively small portion
of them that are opulent. If to these we add the invest-
ments in the form of money in the part of all other classes,
including the saving banks of the lower orders, we shall
probably find for the kingdom at large, an annual appropri-
ation of 9 or 10,000,000/., the interest of which, at the pre-
sent reduced rate, affords an addition of only .3 or 400,000/.
to our national income.

But if we take in a more liberal sense the difference be-
tween the revenue and expenditure of the nation, if we
consider as saving or as increase of our stock, all that is
laid out on the improvement of land, the building or re-
pair of houses, the increase of furniture, and if to these we
add interest of money saved, we shall find on the whole, an



[76] National Revenue and CapiUil : C'o)Tes])ondcnctJ [A pp.

addition to our national capital of 50 or 60,000,000, mak-
ing an increase in otn- taxable income of nearly 3,000,000/.
a-ycar, and renderin*^ it probable tliat the 260,000,000/.
of this year will in 182i become 263,.000,000/.; in 1825
266,000,000/., &c. This result will be confirmed, if we
take as a criterion the increase of our population, confining
our estimate to those who annually attain the age of
twenty, the age of efficient labour, and whose number we
calculate as follows :

In 1802 the population of Great Britain and Ireland
was about 16,000,000, the annual increase by births over
deaths, Ih per cent, or 24-0,000. The individuals then
born, whether male or female, have now attained the age
of useful labour, and must be considered as bearing the
same share as the rest of the population, in augmenting the
national income. In what manner ought the result of their
exertions to be calculated? Our national income, taken in
the largest sense, is (see p. 256) 350,000,000/. a-year, and
the average contribution to it, reckoned per head of popu-
tation, is nearly 17/. Estimated in that proportion, the ad-
dition from our new cultivators of the field of national in-
dustry would be little short of 4,000,000/. a year ; but we
prefer the safer course, and reckon as a bo7id fide addition
to our resources only that income which is subject to taxes.
Now, on dividing the taxable income of the nation by the
number of our population, the result is about 12/. a head
as the product of each individual, and the quota of our new
contributors, reckoned by that scale, approaches to the
3,000,000/. mentioned above.

This will be found a fair and moderate estimate of the
annual addition to our national income. If it be objected,
that a deduction ought to be made from our assumed
number of 240,000, on account of the deaths occurring
ere our new contributors attain the age of labour, we
answer that that is amply balanced by the following con-
siderations :

1. The growing increase of our numbers, which, follow-
ing the scale of our population returns for 1803, 4, &c.
will be next year 244,000; the year after 250,000, and
seven years hence, 270,000.

2. The fact that our new labourers living chiefly in towns
where wages are higher than in the country, their contri-
butions might fairly be estimated at somewhat more than
12/. ahead.

3. Particularly as that sum forms the average contri-



App.] between Production and Cu7isumj)t ion. [77I

bution of our population including all a



Online LibraryJoseph LoweThe present state of England in regard to agriculture, trade and finance; with a comparison of the prospects of England and France → online text (page 37 of 40)