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National Literature of the Dalmatians, Ragusians (or Hascians), and
niyrians ; Literature of the Walachians in Hungary and Transylva-
nia ; Modem Greek Literature in the Austrian Monarchy ; Italian
Literature in the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, in Dalmatia, in lUyria,
and in the Tyrol ; Armenian Literature at Venice and Vienna ; He-
brew Literature in Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, Galicia, and Hungary ;
Oriental Literature.

The second volume will contain, 1. An Historical expos4 of German
Literature in the Austrian Empire ; 2. The Latin Literature of the
Hungarians ; the Milanese and Venetian Dialects ; the Language of
the Selt-communi ; that of the CleTnentins, &c. ; 3. An Austrian Bio-
graphical and Bibliographical BibliotJUque ; 4. A Catalogue raisonni of
all the Periodical Works of Austria which have appeared to the present
time ; 5. A View of the Universities, Lyceums, Gymnasiums, Poly-
technic and Primary Schools, and in general of all establishments of
instruction ; 6. A description of Libraries and Museums, and a sum-
mary account of the Learned Societies of the monarchy ; 7. An ac-
count of Scientific Voyages undertaken by the Austrians ; 8. An
examination of Dramatic Works ; 9. A Statement of the Austrian
Book-Trade; 10. Anexpoj^of T3rpography in the empire ; 11. Details
concerning the manufacture of Paper, and binding ; 12. Account of
plagiarisms and forging of books.

Such are the precious contents of a work, which in so many respects
may be considered as one of the greatest monuments erected to litera-
ture ; in the first volume of which the author has answered the high ex-
pectations that were conceived of his talents. — Revue Encyclop^dique.



Professor Francis Rossi, in a memoir communicated to the
Academy of Turin, has embodied a variety of anatomical and patho-
loffical observations concerning the or^an of sight and the defect
called squinting, and proposes a method of correcting that disagree-
able state of the eyes. One of the most remarkable of the observa-
tions is that which proves the presence of a great number of hydatids



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86 Foreign Literary Intelligence. [Jan. 1832.

of the size of a grain of millet in the choroid and retina, in the eyes of
some individual affected hy certain imperfections of vision, such as
that of seeing all objects deformed, or of perceiving them distinctly
onlj^ in a certain situation, at a determinate distance, with a degree of
light just sufficient to reach and not to pass by them.

M. Rossi has seen instances of squinting, which have taken place at
an advanced age, and which have resisted all attempts to remedy the
evil. According to his anatomical observations upon many individuals
affected with this infirmity from the time of their birth, the defect is
the necessary consequence of the inequality of the orbits of the eves,
which prevents the symmetrical arrangement of the organs, and of the
muscles which cause their motion. But several accidental causes may
disarrange the regular position of the optic axes ; epilepsy, a lethar-
gic fever, and sudden terror have sometimes produced tMs lamentable
effect. M. Rossi has restored to their ordinary state the eyes of a
man who became squint-eyed in consequence of asphyxy occasioned
by carbonic acid ; this cure was wrought by means of the galvanic
"lie. In regard to cases of squinting which are not decidedly incura-
le, M. Rossi has made successful trial of glasses, a description of
which must be sought in the memoir, which, it is presumed, tne jour-
nals of medicine wfll furnish for their readers. — IJnd.



SI



Harlem. — Monument in honor of Ripperda. Holland offers very
few monuments erected to the memory of her great men. Except the
statue of Erasmus, at Rotterdam, the mausoleum consecrated to the
founder of the Republic, William the First, at Delft, and the tombs of
some illustrious navigators, she has very few memorials of that kind.
She has not seen fit even to this day to procure statues of Vondel,
Hooffl, and Cats, those corypJicei of her literature. The great artists
of Holland may complain of the same injustice. Her learned men and
philosophers, such as Grotius, Huygens, and Boerhaave, call up the
same occasion for regret in this particular. In the mean time Harlem
has for some years been an honorable exception. The monuments she
has raised to her great citizens are very modest, it is true ; but they do
not, on this account, give less evidence of public gratitude. The festi-
val that she celebrated some years since in honor of Laurent Coster is
not forgotten ; Ripperda now has his turn. Wibold Ripperda was dis-
tinguished in the heroic but fruitless defence of Harlem against the
Spanish besiegers in 1572 and 1573. Ripperda, the faithful Command-
ant of the town, became the victim of Spanish cruelty, and died on the
gibbet. It is to this victim that the monument is now raised. There
18 at Harlem an ancient body of rhetoricians^ a kind of troubadours, who
already flourished at the organization of the language and national
poetry of the sixteenth century. The body of the Aetoricians at Har-
lem under the emblem of Ceps de Vi^e, and with the device. Love
before every thin^, is perpetuated to this day. It holds a public session
annually, m which its President, qualified as Emperor, pronounces an
harangue in prose or in verse. In the solemnity of which we are
speaking, which took place the 30th of April last, M. C. Koning per-
forxned that duty in modest prose, and M. V. Loosjes read some
stanzas. The inscription on the monument is — To the memory a/*
Ripperda and of the Citizens of Hadem, in 1572 and 1573. — /6trf.



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LIST OF BOOKS PUBLISHED AND IN PRESS,

FOR DECEMBER, 1831.



Carey 4" I^^O't Philadelphia.

Encyclopaedia Americana. Vol. 7.

AmericaD Quarterly Review. No. 20.

History of America. By Thomas Gordon. Vol. 1.

The Bravo. By the Author of the Spy, Sec.

The Atlantic Souvenir, for 1832.

RepMicatUms.

Biography of Eminent British Statesmen. 12mo.

Life of Belisarius. By Lord Mahon. 12mo.

Military Memoirs of the Duke of Wellington. By Captain Moyle Sherer.
l2mo.

Letters to a Young Naturalist on the Study of Nature and Natural Theology.
By J. L. Drummond, M. D. 12:no.

Memoirs of the Life of Sir Walter Raleigh. By Mrs. A. R. Thompson. 12mo.

Memoir of Sebastian Cabot ; with a Review of the History of Maritime Dis-
covery. 8vo.

Autobiography of Sir Walter Scott 12mo.

In Press.

Encyclopedia Americana. Vol. 8.

Bonaparte's American Ornithology. Vol. 4.

A Treatise on Mechanics. By James Renwiclr, Esq.

History of France from the Restoration of the Bourbons to the Tear 1830.
By T. B. Macauley.

Hydrostatics and Pneumatics. By Dr. Lardner.

A Treatise on Optics. By Dr. Brewster.

Life of Petrarch. By Thomas Moore.

Count Robert of Paris, a Tale of the Lower Empire. By Sir Walter Scott.
2 vols. 12ino.

A Practical Treatise on Railroads and Interior Communication in general. By
Nicholas Wood. 8vo.

Geological Manual. By H. T. De la Beche. 8vo.

History of Chronic Phlegmasia or Inflammations. F. I. V. Brouisais. Trans-
lated from the French, by Isaac Hays, M. D., and R. £. Griffith, M. D. 2 vols.
8vo.

A Treatise on Fever. By J. B. Boisseaa.

The Complete Works of Joanna Baillie. 8vo.

John Grigg, Philadelphia.

Condensed Reports of Cases decided in the High Court of Chancery in
England. Edited hy Richard Peters.

Petars's Reports. Vol. 6.

Reports of Cases argued and adjudged in the Supreme Court of the United
Stttes, Jaimary Term, 1881. By Richard Peters. 8vo.



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88 List of New Books, for December, [Jan.

/. 4" ^' Harper, New York.
Republications.
Diary of a Physician. Vol. 2d. 18mo.
Roxabel. By Mrs. Sherwood. 3 vols. 18mo.
The Club Room. 2 vols. 12mo.
The Dramatic Works of John Ford. 2 vols. l8mo.

In Press,
The Complete Works of Robert Hall.
Lives of the Architects.
Romance and Reality. l2mo.
Venetian History. 18mo.

G. Sr a ^ H. Carvill, New York.
The Animal Kingdom, arranged in conformity with its Organization. By the
Baron Cuvier. — The Crustacea, Arachnides, and Insecta. By P. A. Latreille.
Translated from the French ; with Notes and Additions, by^H. M'Murtrie, M. D.
&c. 4 vols. 8vo.

Republication.
An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany. By John Lindley, F. R. S.,
&c. First American edition, with an Appendix. By John Torrey, M. D.

Hilliard, Gray, 4* ^^'* Boston.
An Appeal to the People of the United States. 8vo.
Elements of Algebra, by Bourdon. Translated from die French. 8vo.
Interrogative Grammar. ]2mo.
Worcester's Sequel to the Spelling Book. 12mo.

In Press,
Cousin's Introduction to Philosophy. Translated from the French.
Lectures delivered before the American Institute. Vol. 2d.
Laws of Massachusetts. Vol. Sd.

Donnegan's Greek and English Lexicon. From the last English edition, with
numerous Additions and Corrections.

Carter JSp Hendee, Boston,

The Child's History of the United States.

Cobh on the Cultivation of the Mulberry Tree. 12roo.

Precedents of Indictments : to which is prefixed a Concise Treatise on the
Office and Duties of Grand Jurors. By Daniel Davis, Solicitor General of Mas-
sachusetts. 8vo.

Greenwood's Collection of Psalms and Hymns. 6th edition.

Liturgy for the Use of the Church at King's Chapel in Boston ; with Family
Prayers and Services, and a Collection of Hymns for Domestic and Private
Use. 12mo.

The Little Girl's Own Book. By Mrs. Child.

An Essay on Demonologia, &c. By James Thacher, M. D. &c.

The Child's Book of American Geography. 12mo.

Upham's Lectures on Witchcraft. 2d edition.

In Press.
The Coronal; a Collection of Pieces. By Mrs; Child.

RqmMicatums.
An Introduction to the Study of Human Anatomy, with Illustrations. By
James Pazton.
The Young Ladies' Book. A new edition.



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1838.] List of New Books, for December. 89

Richardson, Lord, 4* Holhrook, Boston,

A Classical FreDch Reader, selected from the best Writers in thst Lanp^uage,
both in Prose and Poetry. By N. M. Hentz, Professor in Cincinnati College.

In Press.

A System of Universal Geography, Popnliir and Scientific, comprising a Phy-
sical, Political, and Statistical Account of the WorKl. By S. G. Goodrich. 8vo.
900 pp. and 400 Engravings.

Elements of Natural Philosophy, for the Vsc of School.^. By Francis J. Grund.
12mo.

A System of Astronomy for Schools. By John Vose. 12mo.

Lectures to Female Teachers. By Samuel R. Hall.

Lectures delivered before the American institute of Instruction at Boston,
July, 1831. 8vo.

A Second Book of History, embracing the Western Hemisphere. By the
Author of Parley's Tales.

Peter Parley's History of Ancient and Modern Greece.

Peter Parley's History of Ancient and Modern Rome.

Elements of Mythology, with many Engravings, to be read with Parley's
Greece and Rome.

A Treatise on Rhetoric for Colleges and Higher Schools. 8vo.

Chray 4* Bowen, Boston.

The Token for 1832.

The American Annual Register. VoL 5, for 1829-80.

The American Almanac, for 1832.

The North American Review. No. 74.

The Christian Examiner. No. 48.

Economical Atlas for Families and Youth.
In Press.

The Life of Gouvemeur Morris, with Selections from his Public and Private
Correspondence and Miscellaneous Writings. By Jared Sparks. 3 vols. Svo.

A Dictionaiy of Medical Science and Literature. By Robley Duoglison, M. D.,
Professor of Medicine in the Univen«ity of Virginia, &c.
Republications.

A Natural History of the Globe, of Man, Beasts, Birds, &c., from BufTon,
CuTier, and Others. Edited by John Wright. A new edition, with numerous
Additions.

Le Ministre de Wakefield.

Proverbes Dramatiques — Le Bourgeois Gentilhorame.

Selections in French Poetry.

Lincoln 4" Edmands, Boston,
Guide for Emimnts, containing Sketches of Illinois, Missouri, and the adja-
cent Country. By John M. Peck, of Rock Spring, Illinois.

Sabbath School Class Book, containing Copious Exercises on the Sacred
Scriptures.
Roman Antiquities and Ancient Mythology. By Charles K. Dillaway.
Gems of Piety ; selected from Mason *8 Remains.
Christian Offering for 1882.

In Press.

Lectures on Systematic Theology and Pulpit Eloquence. By George Camp-
bell, O. lj,f F. R. S.

Munroe 4" Francis, Boston,
The American Giri's Book. By Miss Leslie.
Paul Pry*s Letters from London to his Brother in Boston.
VOL. I. NO. I. 12



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90 Last of New Books, for December, [Jan.

Paul Pry's Letters from England to bis Brother Edward, relating to his Travels
through the British Isles.

Hints for Infant School Teachers.

Cards of Boston, comprising a Variety of Facts, &c.
In Press.

A Manual of Surgery, founded on the Principles and Practice of Sir Astley
Cooper and Joseph Henry Greene, Esq. Edited by Thomas Castle, F. L. S.,
Oxford.

The Cook*s Own Book ; a complete Cuh'nary Encyclopedia. By an Ameri •
can Housekeeper.

Crocker S^ Brewster, Boston,
Journal of Voyages and Travels. By the Rev. Daniel Tyerman and George
Bennett, Esq. Compiled by James Montgomery. Republished from the Lon-
don Edition.

In Press.
Noehden's German and English Dictionary. From the SOth London Edition.
Edited by Professor Edward Robinson.

Bates's Harmony of the Divine Attributes. With an Introduction, by Dr.
Alexander.
The Polymicrian Edition of the New Testament.

Preparing for Pvblicatipn.
Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible, condensed by the late Rev. Charles Taylor,
with the Fragments incorporated. Corrected and Improved, by Professor Ed-
ward Robinson.

Stimpson 4* Clapp, Boston,

Memoirs of the Life of Daniel Webster. By Samuel L. Knapp. 12mo.
PP.2S4.

A Brief and Impartial History of the Life and Actions of Andrew Jackson,
Preaident of the United Sutes.

In Press.

Fourth Volume of the American Library of Useful Knowledge, being Hydro-
statics, from Lardner's Cabinet Library.

History of the American Revolution. 18mo. '• '-^ v i

William Hyde, Boston,
The American School Geography. By Bamum Field, A. M. 12mo. pp.282.
The United Sutcs Spelling Book. By N. P. Hawes. pp. 232.

In Press.
Sylva Americana, or Discourse on the Forest Trees of the United States.
By D. J. Browne.

American Biographical and Historical Dictionary. By William Allen, D. D.

Perkins ^T Marvin, Boston,
The Handel Harmony, a Selection of Sacred Music from the best Authors.
Adapted to Public and Private Devotion.
Fenelon on the Education of Daughters ; a new Translation.

In Press.
The Complete W^orks of Jane Taylor. In 5 vols. From the English Edition.
F. B. Callender, Boston.
In Press.
The Infant Speaker. By Mrs. E, C. Jones.
Anecdotes of Females of All Nations.
Victim of Indulgence. By a Lady.



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1832.] List of Hew Books, for December. 91

Lilly 4- Wait, Boston,
Republications.
Malte-Bnin's Geography. No. 17. This completes the work.
EdiDburgh Review. No. 108.
Modem Traveller. No. 10.

Library of Entertaining Knowledge. Nos. 16 and 19.
Knowledge for the People. Part 4.

In Press,
Cooper on Dislocation.^. A new and improved Edition.
Mauie and Selwyn'H Reports condensed.
General Laws of Massachusetts. An additional volume.

Hilliard 4* Brown, Cambridge.

NuttalPs Ornithology of the Uniti;d States and Canada. 1 vol. 12mo. 680 pp.
Comprising the Land Biids, with numerous fine Cuts.

Old English Prose Writers. Vol. 3. ConUining Works of Sir Thomas
Browne.

In Press,

A Treatise on the Law of Bailments. By Joseph Story, LL. D.

A Translation of Le Clerc on the Interpretation of Language. By C. A. Farley
and A. P. Peabody. 12rao.

A Grammar of the English Language. By S. Webber, M. D.

A Theological Common -Place Book, or General Index to Theological Sub-
jects. 4to.

Francis JenJcs, Boston,

In Press.

The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL. D. ; including a Journal of a Tour to the
Hebrides. By James Bo:9wc1l, Esq. A new Edition, with numerous Additions
and Notes, by John Wilson Croker, LL. D., F. R. S. "Also with Notes, &c., by
Walter Scott, Mackintosh, Sheridan, Malone, Beattie, Burney, &c.

Johnson's Works Complete. To be accurately printed from the latest and
fullest London edition.

Burder's Oriental Customs, applied to the Illustration of Scripture.

The Pilgrim's Progress. With a Life of John Bunyan, by Robert Southey,
LL. D., Poet J^aureate, &c. With numerous finely executed Wood Engravings.

Locke's Paraphrase and Notes upon St. Paul's Epistles.

Glazier, Masters, 4* Co,, Halloweli,
Steains on Real Actions. A new Edition, with Additions.



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NOTICE.

It is intendftd, in addition to the reviews of books, to give a complete monthly
List of New Publications, in eyery number of this Review, so far as they shall
come to the knowledge of the publishers. The agents of this work, and all
publishers of books, are therefore requested to give the earliest notice of all
works published by them, and of all that they may have in the press, to the
publishers of this Review, that they may be noticed as soon as they shall appear.

BILLIARD & BROWN.
Cambridge, January 1, 1832.



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AMERICAN MONTHLY REVIEW.



FEBRUARY, 1832.



Art. I. — A Camprehensive Pronouncing and Explanatory
Dictionary of the English Langua^e^ with Pronouncing
Vocabularies of Classical and Scripture Proper Names.
By J. E. Worcester. Boston. Hilliard^ Gray, Little^ &
Wilkins. 1830. 12mo. pp. 420.

Thirty years ago it would have been thought by most
Englishmen, great presumption, for an inhabitant of these
United States to ofier for general use a Dictionary of the
English Language. They would have expected to 6nd in it
all sorts of local provincial words, and a departure from Eng-
lish unde6led, as great as that of the Jewish Rabbinical vo-*
cabularies from the pure Hebrew of Moses. Nor would an
apprehension of serious corruptions, at that time, have been
wholly groundless. Unauthorized words and phrases were

Ointo use ; and we are indebted to the timely interven-
some of our prominent scholars, after that period, for
resisting any formidable encroachment on the purity of our
tongue. They contended strenuously against whatever threat-
ened to impair the character of our language, as the legiti-
mate o£&pring of the English stock, or to throw obstacles
in the way of our progress towards the literary elevation of
our mother country, and thus to cut us off from* the hope of
being regarded as a constituent part with her in the republic
of letters.

In 1806 appeared Webster's "Compendious Dictionary." It
contained some heresies in respect to the vocabulary, the or-
thography, and pronunciation ; but fewer than were to be ex-
Eected ; since, in the execution of the work, he fell much be-
ind his own theories on these subjects. Indeed be went so
far^ in his Preface to that work, as to say, in respect to or-
thography, where great innovations were apprehended, that

VOL. I. NO. II. 13



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94 English Lexicography in the United States. [Feb.

" no great changes should be made at once" ; but at the same
time he vindicated, too indefinitely for our heterogeneous
tongue, " such gradual changes, as shall accommodate the writ-
ten to the spoken language, when they do not violate estab-
lished principles, and especially when they purify words from
corruptions, improve the regular analogies of a language, and
illustrate etymology." It is easily perceived, in a language
like ours, what a revolution would be effected by the full op-
eration of this doctrine, modified though it be by cautions and
salvos. Mr. Webster's good sense, aided probably by the
admonitions of public criticism, so far altered his views, that,
instead of advancing in this work of reform in his after labors,
great and meritorious labors too, in English Lexicography,
he retraced his steps, and came forth with fewer singularities
in his orthography than before.

In 1813 appeared a "Dictionary of the English Language,"
of considerable pretensions and cumbrous size, a " Classical
Dictionary," so called, being united with it ; a Classical Dic-
tionary, somewhat peculiar and fanciful, in which Aaron and
Abraham are placed in company with Achilles and Agamem-
non, and Canaan and Rehoboth are in familiar juxtaposition
with Carthage and Rome, and in general all sorts of Scripture
names are intermingled with the philosophers, and poets, and
orators, the mythology, the countries, and cities of ancient
Greece and Rome. The title-page to the English Dictionary,
in the place of the author's name, has — "By an American
Gentleman." Stat nominis umbra. We believe the real
name has been kept as profound a secret as that of the author
of Junius's Letters. It was thought by the compiler of this
work that the more extensive introduction of the technical
terms and nomenclatures of the various arts and sciences add-
ed much to its value. The question at that time was fairly
open, how far technical words constituted a part of a partic-
ular language, and were entitled to admission into a standard
dictionary. Some of the greatest philosophical critics main-
tained that they did not belong, as such, to the vocabulary of
a language, and should be given up to dictionaries of the va-
rious arts and sciences. But though it is difficult to accom-
plish much of this kind in a eeneral dictionary, in a very satisfac-
tory manner, and a chaos of words is liable to be introduced, ill-
defined, and with little etymological explanation,yet we are sat-
isfied, that in the present condition and advancement of learning



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1832.] English Lexicography in the United States. 96

in England and in these United States, the introduction of tech-
nical words to some extent is imperatively demanded. It will
always he found difficult, however, to prescribe the limits in
such a way as to preserve any strict consistency. The same
remarks are applicahle to words and phrases of foreign lan-
guages, which are often found in English books, and, as we
think, often disfigure them. How greatly were Addison and
his coadjutors, those masters of true English style, though
sometimes negligent and feeble, scandalized by the appear-
ance of some such words, then just creeping into use, by
means of the existing war between their country and France ;
such as pontoons, marauder, cartel, coips, reconnoitre, ma-
noBUvre, ice, words now become as familiar as our own. But
when, apart from technical use, we come to words introduc-
ed by the caprice of fashion or taste, well may our Saxon
blood become heated, and spur us on to war for our native
speech.

The merits of this Dictionary " by an American Gentle-
man" having been fairly weighed, the work was found want-
ing. It was made evident that the compiler had pursued his
labors without a consistent preconceived plan, and that there
was much carelessness and haste in its execution.

In the year 1828 appeared an edition of " Johnson's Eng-
lish Dictionary, as improved by Todd, and abridged by Chal-
mers ; with Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary combined ;
to which is added Walker's Key to the Classical Pronun-
ciation of Greek, Latin, and Scripture Proper Names." This
was edited by Mr. J. E. Worcester, a gentleman then already
well known for accuracy of learning, diligent research, and
judicious application of his knowledge in regard to some other
subjects. iJhalmers, in a notice prefixed to his Abridgment,
says, that it contains every word in Todd's Johnson. It
was formed however from Todd's first edition. The second
edition, published in 1827, contains nearly a thousand addition-
al words, and was received in season to have those inserted in
Worcester's Appendix. These, says Mr. Worcester, togeth«
er with words added from other sources, make an excess
above the number of words in Johnson's Abridgment, of more
than fifteen thousand. Fearful as this additional host of words
may appear at first sieht, our fears and wonder will subside
when we advert to the sources of these recruits. In the
first place, Todd went far back, and gleaned after the old



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96 English Lexicography in the United States. [Feb.

English Lexicographers, in order to make a complete glossary
of the early English writers. Next comes the multitude of
words which have sprung up from improvements, discoveries,
and inventions in arts and sciences, the extension of com-
merce, and the increasing interchange and community of fash-
ion and learning between the nations of Europe. No trifling
addition is made also by the extensive introduction of com-



Online LibraryJoseph Lyon MillerAmerican monthly review → online text (page 11 of 54)