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a rough computation. Now, in the space allotted to geogra-
phy, they might have introduced many more, or, if that were
not necessary, might have spared almost a hundred pages of
matter, valuable in its place, but out of place in a Classical
Dictionary.

The editors, in the extract from the Preface already given,
claim to have put to the test of a strict comparison with the
ancient authorities, the passages from Mr. Cramer, of which
they have availed themselves. Now those who are at all
versed in the laborious employment of comparing a writer
with his authorities, know that it would be impossible in the
evenings of three months, which was the time spent in pre-
paring this edition, to verify one tenth part of Mr. Cramer's
citations, if nothing were done besides. But let us see from
two or three examples how much strictness of comparison
has been used.

Baisa^ the editors inform us, was a village of Arcadia, near
Mount Cotylius. Mr. Cramer calls it a spot, translating the
word used by Pausanias (;[uqIop) with, great propriety, as
does Sir William Gell also in describing the place (Itin. of Mo-
rea, p. 83.) Cotylius ought to be Cotylium, for though Cra-
mer, Siebelis, and Mannert, following the Latin translation,
eive this ending to the word, Mr. Dodwell in his travels, and
Sfr. Miiller in Die Dorer^ give the right ending, Cotylium,
according to the Greek text. For a third blunder in the
same article Setinui instead of Ictinus^ we suppose tlie press
must be chargeable, as Mr. Cramer, from whom the informa-
tion given (excepting the first mistake), is derived, has that
name right. This article with its three mistakes, if admitted,
should have been incorporated with Phigalea ; for if a person
who had heard of the Phigalean marbles in the British mu-
seum should wish to know what they were^ be must seek



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1832.] Lemprier^'s CloMticdl IHcHanHry. 481

this insignificant word Boisa for an account of the temple
from which they were taken, and yet there is no iDtiroatioa
given that these are the marbles so called, Mr. Cramer hav-
ing accidentally omitted to mention that circumstance in his
work.

Abaj the first name in the work. Here the editors have
departed from Mr. Cramer, and looked into Pausanias to
misquote him. *^ Pausanias asserts, that it [the temple of
Apollo at Abae] was but half destroyed at first, and like
many other Grecian temples was suffered to remain in that
condition as a monument of Persian hostility." Now Pau-*
sanias says only, that he thinks it must have been half burnt
in the Persian war : he would not assert it positively, for
there had been several changes in the condition of the build-
ing before he wrote.

Callium, There are two mistakes of printing here. Cal -
li4Br should be CaUuBy and lAv. iii. 3, Lit. xxxvi. 30, as Mr.
Cramer has it. We have found the same incorrectness else-
where. Sometimes one writer is turned into two, thus :
' Ammian — Marcelliny Heyl — Cosm. Sometimes the cita-
tions are wrong, sometimes the press is wrong.

We will refer to but two more articles as specimens of the
wofk, which, ti^ether with those already named and one or
two more for which we have no room, were the first which
we consulted.

Chersanesus. After mentioning two peninsulas, Pel^on-
nesus and that of Thrace, the editors say, ^^ Next to the relo-
ponnesus, and scarcely less noted, was the Chersonesus Cim-
brica, now Holstein and Jutland" — Why next to the Pelo-
ponnesus, if another peninsula had been mentioned between ?
And how could so strange an assertion be put down upon pa-
per as that the Cimbrian^Chersonesus was scarcely less noted
than the core of Greece ; when, down to the time of Alex-
ander, but one Greek had been known to penetrate into the
north of Germany, and he was considered of no authority,
and when the knowledge possessed by the Romans concern-
ing that quarter was extremely imperfect ? We know not,
indeed, where it could have been noted, unless among its
own savage inhabitants ; like ^^ the town in western climes,
to those that dwell therein well known."

Cakdonia. '^ Eumenius, the first that mentions the Cale-
danians." There seem to be two mistakes here. First,



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482 Jakv?s BihUcal Areh€Bology. [Jane,

Tacitus mentions, if not the Caledonii, at least the '' Caledo-
niam incolentes populi " and the ** rutils Caledonian) habitan-
tium corns," (Agric. ^11,^25, ed. Oberlin.) Secondly,
Eumenius according to so good a scholar as Valesius, (on
Amm. Marcel, xxvii. 8, 5, ed. Wagner.), has Dicaledones,
and not Dico Cakdanesy as it stands in some editions ; so that
he does not mention them at all.

Our readers will think by this time that there was no great
need of having it told that this edition ** was the result of three
months* labor bestowed on it by the editors in the evenings of
days devoted to professional avocations." And still more will
they be at a loss to conjecture what need there was of such
a hasty, crude edition, when it was known that an industrious
and learned scholar was making a complete revision of the
work, and had already, we believe, put part of his new edi-
tion in the press. And they will, we are persuaded, be of
our opioion, that, if he prosecutes his task with faithfulness
and judgment, without being led astray by theories and mis-
placed learning, the present edition will be as speedily for-
gotten, as it seems to have been entirely uncalled for.



Art. VIII. — Jahn's Biblical Archaology. Translated from
the Latin, with Additions and Corrections. By Thomas
C. Upham, Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy
and of the Hebrew Language in Bowdoin College. Third
Edition. Andover. Mark Newman. 1832. 8vo. pp.
viii. and 573.

The Hebrew nation is perhaps the oldest nation now upon
earth, — certainly the oldest of the origin and early character
of which we have authentic records. This consideration, if
there were no other, might recommend these records, and
whatever may aid in their illustration, to the attention of the
antiquary. And so far as antiquaries exercise an influence
upon the public taste and morals, it might be well if they would
sometimes desert the seats of classic fame for Palestine, and
would transfer to the tents of the patriarchs, to the heroes in
the conquest of Canaan, to the period of Samuel's paternal
supremacy or of David's infant monarchy, a part of the ab-
sorbing interest which they feel in whatever can claim kin-
dred with Athens, Thebes, or Troy. In the Hebrew corn-



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1882.] John's Biblical Archaohgy. 483

monwealtb we behold a state of society rude, indeed, and
barbarous, but yet characterized by honesty, sincerity, rev-
erence for truth, and admiration of virtue. And the frequent
contemplation of the early character and habits of the He-
brew worthies might do much towards restoring domestic
manners and social intercourse to that simplicity, which, as
it is the necessary concomitant of the lowest, is the demand
of the highest intellectual refinement.

The study of Hebrew antiquities, interesting on account
of the early origin of the nation to which they relate, is ren-
dered doubly so by its present condition and character. It
has been well said that the English nation has no present
existence, — that it exists only in precedent and on the stat-
ute-book. Much less can a present existence be predi-
cated of the Jews. They lead in some respects the lives of
the patriarchs, their fathers. Like them they are strangers
and sojourners ; like them they refuse to provide themselves
with a permanent abode ; like them they look for a bright
and fertile land of promise ; like them they are destined to
bequeath to their posterity the hope alone of such a land*
Chancing fashions affect them not. Public opinion they
regard not. The revolutions of empires leave their condi-
tion unaltered. They still derive their domestic habits,
their modes of social intercourse, their hopes of honor and
prosperity, from the records of gray antiquity, and the mys-
tic vision of the seer. Thus their national archeology is in
many particulars the portraiture of their present character.

To the religious man the early history and condition of
the Israelites acquire a new interest from their having been
selected as the subjects of a divine code of laws, which ex-
tended its precepts to every department of life and manners.
Their police, their modes of agriculture, their domestic rela-
tions, and all things, are divinely sanctioned. Their food is
of God's appointment. Their festivals and fasts are sacred
to him. Their very clothing is adorned with his precepts.
Every thing about them is ritually holy to the Lord.

The internal condition of the Hebrews proffers a yet
higher claim to our regard, when we consider the interesting
relation which they bore to the surrounding nations. They
were, indeed, superstitious, ungrateful, and rebellious ; but
yet in their prosperity they stood forth alone as the wor-
shippers of one invisible God, and in the depth of advei-



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464 Jalm*8 BMical Archaohgy. [Juoe,

sily they bQre tacit testimony to the unseen agency of Ihb
justice. They were unskilful in the arts, and strangers to
science ; but at the same time they [produced a literature,
which surpasses in sublimity, beaut}", and moral purity the
noblest productions of the most enlightened nations. They
were often lame in counsel and weak in battle ; but yet they
retained their separate existence, scarcely ever lost a Hying
citizen, and were constantly receiving proselytes from the
neighbouring tribes. And when they were on the brink of
ruin, the Messiah came forth from the lineage of David, was
initiated into their religion, and by his observance of their
customs, his attendance upon their ritual worship, and bis
choice of apostles from among them, associated himself with
them in the minds of all who should ever after reverence
him as the Son of God, as a Prince and a Saviour.

Indeed when we take him and his revelation into view,
Jewish antiquities become a subject not merely of curiosity
and intense interest, but of immense practical importance.
He and his apostles allude constantly to the soil, climate,
and pioduetions of Palestine, and the circumstances, man*
neis, and prejudices of its inhabitants. Without a knowledge
of these, it is impossible, in reading the New Testament, to
separate the figurative from the literal, — the local from the
general, — what is of temporary learning from what is of per-
petual obligation. In fact, one destitute' of this knowledge
would be in most cases obliged either to acq|^iesce in a crude
mass of truth, superstition, and absurdity ; or to reject the
Christian system, because its records were unintelligible and
therefore incredible. But even if such a man could escape
gnoss error and gather from the Gospel all essential truth, be
would be unable to discern the peculiar appropriateness and
beauty of our Saviour's discourses. Not only are these
adapted to the occasions on which they were delivered ; but
they are full of delicate allusions to the scene, the season,
and the situation and feelings of the hearers. We may illus-
trate these remarks by an example drawn from John vii. 37,
" In the last day, that great dav of the feast, Jesus stood
and cried, If any man thirst j let him come unto me and
drink" That this figure is not of itself unapt, every one
must at first sight adroit ; but " Is it not very unnatural,"
one might reasonably ask, " to introduce a discourse with so
bold and rhapsodical an exclamation '' ? The student of Jew-



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iflb antiqnkin wiH give a prompt answer. Jesov wis then
atceBding the joyous feast of tabernacles, each day of whidi
and especially the last, was consecrated to the full enthnsi**
asm of religious mirth. Each morning the priests diew wa-
ter in a golden vessel from the fountain of Siloam, carried it
to the temple and made a libation of it southwest of the
altar, while amid the gladdening strains of cymbal, psaltery,
and harp, the people sung with transport, *' With joy shall
ye draw water from the wells of salvation/' The echo of
that triumphant song had not died away, when the Heaven*
bom Teadier called the attention of his countrymen to Hinn
self, — the well of salvaiian, — the perennial fomitaia of
life to the thirsty soul. How ineffiibly sublime this spirituals
isation of a rite, till then pompous indeed, but senseless !

It is pleasing to find that each of the prominent sects of
Christians has furnished, in the biblical researches of its meM*
bers, permanent and precious monuments of its yeverenoe for
the Scriptures. A union, which takes place no where dae^
is effectcKl on the table of the theologian, wh» in the aamn
critical inquiry consults perhaps an Archeology compiled bjr
a Catholic, a Calvinistic Commentary, a Lexieoo by a Laf
theran divine, a Gospel Harmony, — the result of Upitatiaa
research, and a volume of critical disquisitions by a.v]aiDaarari
yet deeply learned Neologist. We are indebted to a Catb-
olic priest for the valuable work now before us.

" The author «f the original work is Dr. John ^hn, who
was formerly Professor of Oriental Languages in the UniversMiy
of Vienna. It was at first written in the German latigaage,
and extended through fire octavo volumes. Being oC sifeb nt^
tent and accompanied with nnmeroas plates, it waai finmdt toe
•zpenaive for common use, and after numerous aoli«italiloqiiip
that effea, was abridged by the author himself, tranalatnd .Inin
Latin, and printed in a single octavo volume. The tranrialion
into English, which is now presented to the public, ia madb
from the second edition of the Latin Abridgment, planted »i
Vienna in 1814." p. iii.

This work is accurate, concise, and full. Without ike
parade of learning (unless the introduction of words iu the
Oriental tongues, which however are not left untranslatecj,
be so considered), it gives the result of the most profoi|i^i
and laborious research^ It is divided into Three Fm^, - ^
the Jir$t treating of dprn^tic, the Muand of poli4i^»itbip

VOL. I. NO. VI. 62



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4m Jd^'i Bibliad ArduMogy. [June;

iUird of saered antiquities. Each of tliese diTisions emlnaces
an historical sketch f from the days of Abraham to those of
Christ.

Mr. Upham's translation is well executed, the additions
which he has made to the original work are valaable, and
the only ground of regret is, that he has not incorporated
with it more of the fruits of his own research. It was first
published in 1823. The second edition appeared in 1827,
enriched by a full Index of all the passages of Scripture
illustrated or even referred to in the work, with the section
or sections in which reference is made to each. This Index
is of course retained in the present edition. We hope that
whenever a new edition is called for, the translator will see
fit to append to it an alphabetical index of subjects, which is
all that IS needed to make it as convenient and usefiil a refer-
ence-book as can be any where found of the same size.

Ever since the publication of the first edition, this transla-
tion has been advantageously known and much used by the
members of the clerical profession. It is one of our princi-
pal objects in penning this article to recommend it to laymen*
It is admiraUy fitted to enlighten and assist any intelligent
and inquiring reader of the Bible. We close this brief notice

S' extracting a section firom this work on the importance of
iblieal Archaology to the theologian^ premising that the
service which this science is said to do for the theologian,
the compend of it now before us may pnofitably discharge
for the private Christian.

** I. It enables him to throw himself back more fully into the
age, the country, and the situation of the sacred writers and
their eotemporaries, and to understand and estimate the nature
mA the tendencies of the objects, which are there presented
to him. II. It puts him in a better situation to detect allasions
to ceremonies, customs, laws, peculiarities in the face of the
country, d&c, and to make himself sure of the precise import
of the passages where such allusions occur. III. It proffers
him new ability in answering the objections of the opposers of
Revelation, the greater part of which originate in ignorance of
antiquity. IV. It presents to his view distinctly and impres-
sively the adaptation of the different dispensations, the object
of which was to preserve and transmit religion, to the charac-
ter and situation of the age. Y . It shows him where to separ-
ate moral precept and religious truth from the drapery of ngo-
ratife language, in which they are dothedr since language^



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1889] SparJcii Life of MhrrU. 487

<M»i8Ueied M a medhim of thooght, takes its einraeler in a
•leasure from that of the times. YI. It enables him to enter
into the natore and spirit of the arguments in favor of the
authenticity of the sacred books. VII. That an acquaintance
with Biblical Archsoloffy is of great importance is evident from
this also, that all who nave undertaken to explain the Scrip-
tures, while ignorant of it, have committed very great and verj
numerous mistakes." pp. 1, 2.



Art. IX. — 7%e Life ofGauvemeur Morriiy untk Selectume
from his Correspondence and Miscellaneous Pmers ;
detailing Events tn the American JRevoluiionj the Irenck
RevohUtonf and in the Political History of Ae United
States, By Ja&ed ^pabks. Boston. Gray b Bowen*
1832. 3 vols* 8vo.

GonTBnNEi7& Monnis was bom at Morrisaniay near the
city of New York, January 31 , 1752. He was descended
from ancestors who had for several generations been distin-
guished in the political and judicial history of the Provinces
of New York and New Jersey. He was graduated at the
College in the city of New York, in May, 1768, at the early
age of sixteen. While in that institution be was distinguish-
ed for his ready talents, for vivid imagination, and lor his
ardent love of Latin and the Mathematics. The orations
which he delivered on taking his first and second degrees;,
though fiEiulty in style and crowded with metaphor, exhibit a
full share of intellectual vigor and an under current of sober
thought, and in this respect greater maturity and power than
we should expect from one so young. There was not, in-
deed, any such precocious display as we sometimes see,
gratifying the cherished hopes of fond parents, only to pros-
trate them afterwards by the destruction of the blossom ; but
young Morris gave good promise and reasonable expectation
of future worth and distinction.

On leaving college be commenced the study of the law
with William Smith, the historian of New York, a very dis-
tinguished jurist, and at a subsequent period Chief Justice of
the Province. Under the guidance of this excellent master,
the pupil made rapid prc^ess in the elementary studies irf
the profession, neither alarmed by its technical terrors tbnt



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:4t8 Sf^^$ LiA •/ MBftis. [lime.



^tturda M tnisy m iMne, Mr diawn mde b^ the fMoauttioos
of Ikemtnfe dot b? those pleasuf es that so often prove fatal 4e
youAg men of aroem lemperameDt. Even at that early age
he displayed more sober and vigorous thought, more ripe
-discretion of judgment than belonged to many of the think-
liig men of that dav. A project had been brought forward
in the Assembly ol the Province in 1769, to raise money by
bsuing bills of credit to be put out on loan, and from the ac-
cruing interest to pay the debts of the Province, be. This
was the old practice which had prevailed in Massachusetts
M eoriv as 1690, and in other Provinces at different periods,
and whose direct and certain tendency always was towards
Individual and general bankruptcy ; for these bills of credit
In feet; had no substantial funds to meet them, and rep-
fesested no real value. Morris saw the subject in the true
light; and, though scarcely eighteen years old, he wrote
with ability against the measure, and gave unerrmg manifes-
tations of his fiituie disUnctioa in the intricate science of



In OotobeTy 1771, before he was twenty years of age,
MotriB was called to the bar.

*' His financial discussions," says his biographer, ** and some
other proofs of his abilities, had made him known to the prin-
cipal men of the ProTince ; and a volunteer address to a jury
aboat the lime of his being licensed, on some occasion in which
the eotemunity took a deep interest, Was represented by the
hearers as an extraordinary display of eloqnence and skilfti!
teaaoning in so yoong a man. With the advantages of his fam-
ily aane, a fine person, an agreeable elocution, active and in-
dustrious habits, talents, and ambition, no young man in the
province was thought to exhibit a fairer promise of rapid ad-
vancement, and ultimate eminence in his profession.'' pp. 15,
16.

Doubtless had he continued at the bar, his professional
•uccass would have been distinguished ; and at that period
be decidedly preferred the forum to the hazardous paths of
politics. But a time was rapidly approachin(|^ when the
country would demand the public exertions, either in the
icabinet or in the field, of her worthiest and bravest sons.
Mettiwhile he was assiduous in his laborsi and tradition pre*
serves the aocoimt of his rapid progress to eounenoe in a
profession that tasks to the utmost tbe inlelloct, ilidqsoy,
and patience of its disciples.



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188S.] ' JS^rk$'$Lifeof3brru. 489

Before the hreakiBg out of the revolutioniy war, asd
indeed for some months after, be, with most others looked
forward, though with daily^ diminishing confidence, to a re-
union with Great Britain ; and easily iell into the prevailing
doctrine of the patriots of the day, in relation to an accom-
modation of differences, by yieldidg to the parent country
the regulation of trade^ and reserving to the colonies the
entire power of taxation, and the regulation of their internal
police. The progress of events soon cured his dislike of
politics, and we find him taking an early and decided stand
m favor of bis country. To estimate the importance of this
step, and the sacrifice it compelled him to make, we must
recollect that at the beginning of the war the Province of
New York was full of those who adhered to the royal gov-
emment. Parties, perhaps, were nearly balanced in num-
bers ; but in wealth and probably also in talents and educa-
tion, the tory interest was by far the more powerful. His
distinguished firiends, his nearest relatives were of that party ;
but he disregarded their wishes, and what is always more
difficult to resist, the earnest entreaties of a beloved mother,
and came out without a moment's hesitation, heartily and
boldly, on the side of his country ; ^' and to the end .of the
contest stood in the front ranks of those most distinguished
for their patriotism, fortitude, and constancy.''

In the spring of 1775, Morris was elected delegate to the
first Provincial Congress in New York, and continued a
member of that body by successive elections, with one ex-
ception, for more than two years. In all questions of finance,
and indeed on almost every question, his was the leading
mind, influencing and controlling the opinions of older men
around him, at a period in his own life which is genelrally
that of preparation for its busy scenes. In the very first
Pxovincial Congress it became necessary to provide for rais-
ing money to defray the heavy expense of the new order of
thmgs, and to put the Province in a state of defence ; and
Morris was placed upon the committee appointed to take the
subject into consideration. But trade in every department
was stagnant, and whence then was money to be obtained ?
It could not be raised by taxation, for the great body of the
people had nothing to pay with but the produce of their
farms, which could not be changed into cash or any equiva-
lent. The only resort, therefore, was to paper-money, not as



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490 Spark9^s lAft ofMorru. [June,

to a scheme excellent in itself, but because, poor as it was,
it was the onfy scheme that could be adopted, the only
" money Hnew^' of the war. The report upon the subject,
drafted by Morris, was adopted without amendment or
change.

*' "When it was read and received, a day was fixed for its
being resumed ; and on motion of Mr. Morris it was agreed,
that the doors should be open on that day, and the merchants
and others of the city and colony invited to attend and hear the



Online LibraryJoseph Lyon MillerAmerican monthly review → online text (page 50 of 54)