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Annual report of the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service of the ... online

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tine regulations, the following bureau circular was issued :

April 19, 1918.
Medical officers in charge national quarantine stations and others concerned.

Sir : 1. The provisions of paragraphs 111 and 112, United States quarantine
regulations, shall be construed as applying to vessels from the following ports :

A. All ports in Asia, including those of the Straits Settlements, Japan, Philip-
pine Islands, and the Malay Archipelago.



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PUBUO HBALTS SEBYIOBw 167

B. All ports in Africa, including the Azores, Canary Islands, Cape Verde

Islands, and Madeira.

C. All ports in South America, including the river ports thereof, except as
otherwise indicated below.

D. Ports enumerated in bureau circular letter dated December 19, 1917, and

any other port that may from time to time be specifically reported as
plague infected.

2. The provisions of paragraphs 111 and 112, as well as those of this circijlar,
shall apply not only to ships coming direct from but to any vessel that has been
to any of the above-enumerated ports within the preceding four months which
in the meantime has not been fumigated under the supervision of a service
representative.

EXEMPTIONS.

3. Vessels from South American ports that have not been alongside of wharf
and have loaded with bulk cargo (such as nitrates) at anchorage may be passed
without fumigation unless otherwise falling within the restrictions of paragraph
2 of this letter, i. e., have been alongside of wharf at some other plague-infected
port.

4. The provisions of this circular will supersede those of bureau circular dated
August 4, 1913, or any other that may be inconsistent herewith.

Respectfully,

RuPEBT Blue, Surgeon General,

AU told, there were fumigated 3,954 vessels, 11,970 rats being re-
covered as the result of such fumigation. In numerous cases it was
not practical to search the vessels after fumigation, so that the actual
number of those destroyed far exceeded the number given. In addi-
tion to the fumigation of vessels for the destruction of rodents, fumi-
gation was also performed for the destruction of mosquitoes, bed-
bugs, and other vermin.

The fumigating agents used were sulphur dioxide and hydrocyanic-
acid gas. One thousand one hundred and one vessels were fumigated
by sulphur dioxide, and 1,108 were fumigated by cyanide gas.

Violation of Quarantine Laws.

During the fiscal year the department passed on 68 cases involving
violation of the act of February 15, 1893, due to the failure of masters
to present American consular "bills of health. Of the total, 31 were
dismissed without penalty because of extenuating conditions, due, in
some cases, to the lack of an American consular representative at the
foreign port of departure, and, in other instances due to the diversion
of the vessel from the original port of destination by orders received
on the high seas after leaving the port of departure. In 37 cases miti-

fated penalties were imposed, the total amount of fines collected being
1,975.

Assistance Extended to Other Government Services.

Duringthe year part of the facilities at San Diego quarantine sta-
tion and Delaware Breakwater station continued to be utilized by the
naval forces as in the previous year.

The occupation of Fishermans Island by the War Department
continued in force, and in return the War Department granted to the
Treasury Department a revocable license for the use of Craney Island
as a quarantine reservation. A' bill has been introduced in Congress
for the transfer of CranCT Island to the Treasury Department and
Fishermans Island to the War Department.



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168



PUBLIC HEAtTH SEEVICE.



Housing facilities at Angel Island quarantine station were ex-
tended for a short period to the Department of Labor for quartering
interned aliens. Upon an outbreak of diphtheria in the naval forces
at Boston some two or three hundred sailors, including both patients
and carriers, were received and taken care of at Boston quarantine
station. Later on the station was again utilized for the care and
treatment of cases of influenza in the naval forces. Detention facili-
ties in the San Juan quarantine station were utilized for a short time
in the housing of a navy detachment. At various quarantine stations
of the service assistance was rendered to neighboring military forces
in sterilizing personal effects, bedding, etc. Part of the detention
quarters at Tampa Bay quarantine was loaned to the Navy for the
accommodation of the naval patrol forces in that neighborhood.
Assistance was also extended to the Immigration Service in detailing
officers for the medical supervision of aliens at internment camps.

Transactiong at national quarantine stations for the fiscal pear ended

June 30, 1918.



stations.



Alexandria ,

Baltimore

Beaufort

Bellingham, Wash

Biscayne Bay

Boca^ahde

Boston

Brownsville

Brunswick

Cape Charles

Cape Fear

Ceoar Keys

Charleston

Columbia Eiver

Coos Bay

Cumberland Sound

Darien

Delaware Breakwater . . .
Delaware "Civer (Philar

delphia)

Eagle Pass

Eastport

El Paso

Eiu-eka

Fort Bragg

Galveston

Georgetown

Gulf

Hidalgo, Tex ,

Hoquiam

Kev West ,

Ketchikan

Laredo ,

Mobile ,



Ves-
sels in-
spected.



I 111



127
9
465
(«)

28

1,705

25



130
22



(?)
42



458
3
63

9
1,085

192
(*)

353



Ves-
sels
fumi-
gated.



12



7
113
14



gersand
crews In-
spected.



5,134



2,561

178

27,925

M,607

1,091

80,833

631



4,631

368



823

6

801



2 5,321

25,917

2 24,339

27



15,562

20

1,900

2 3,151

98

60,694

10,345

3 22,280

7,194



Stations.



MonttH'ey

Morgan City (Atcha-
falaya)

New Orleans quarantine.

New Orleans city

Newport

Nome, Alaska

Pascagoula

Pensacola

Perth Amboy

Port Angeles

Port San Luis

Portland, Me

PortPoyal

Port Townsend

Providence

Provinr etown

reedy Island

^ io Grande city, Tex. . .

San Diego

San Francisco

Santa Barbara (Los An-
geles)

San Pedro (Los Angeles)

Savannah

South Bend

St. Andrews

St. George Sound. . , .

St. Johns Biver

St. Josephs

Tampa Bay

Washington, N.C...



Total.



Ves-
sels in-
spected.



3

5
73
187
75
4
24
109



335
26



884

555
776



137
126

1
39



170

21

272



10,756



Ves-
sels
fumi-
gated.



60
596



267
. 2



44



Passen-
gers and
crews in-
spected.



72,332



97



641

2,846

1,718

66

869
7,641



36,607
2,650



34,729
» 1,638
1 5,539

458 90,028



2,109



4,615

4,017

8

232



2,589

140

3,715



579,154



I Apr. 22 to June 30, inclusive.

* Border station. Statistics do not include "local" travelers who, however, were subjected to cursory
inspection. Through travelers were given close examination.

Composite table of detailed transactions at maritime-quarantine stations on the
mainland for the year ended June 30, 1918,

Total inspections; »

Vessels 10,755

Crew 392,181

Passengers : 126,611

Total personnel inspected 517,818

Vessels passed on certificate of ship's medical officer 197

'An inclusive figure regardless of treatment or report elsewhere.



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PUBLIC HEALTH SBKVICE,



169



Composite table of detailed transactions at maritime-quarantine stations on the
mainland for the year ended June 30j 1918 — Continued.

VESSELS DETAINED FOR OBSERVATION OR TREATMENT.
[Detention for purposes of inspection only not to be Included.]



Nature of Infection-


Yellow
fever.


Rodent
plague.


Human
plague.


Small-
pox.


Ty.

phus.


Chol-
era.


Lep.
rosy.


Total.


Vessels from infected ports »


114

1

1

2,903

776


1,961


2


1
6
6

97
3

78

29


2






2,080


Infecjked vessels *




1

1
1




Nnmh^^r nf r>a»Afi


*'**6i3'


2
71


3
55




13


Number of crew detained


3,740
779


Number of passengers detained

Personnel disinfected






3




1
1


82


Personnel examined bacteriologically
or vaccinated '


19
14
22


****994'
1,076


2


51








1,008


Vessels fumigated *<ao




3


1






1,101











^ Refers to vessels held for observation when from an infected or suspected port with no cases en route
or on arrival.
» Vessels with cases on board at arrival or reported en route,
s To also include microscopical examinations of blood, excreta, tissue, etc.
* To include vessels fumigated after passing quarantine in accordance wfth provisional pratique.

Rumber of rats destroyed on shps , 11, 970

Rats examined 7, 679

Reports FrOm National Quarantine Stations.

Following are the summaries of the operations at the various
quarantine stations :

Alexandria^ Va, — Acting Asst. Surg. Arthur Snowden in charge.
No transactions.

Baltimore^ Md. — Baltimore quarantine station is located at Lead-
ing Point on west side of the Patapsco River, 7 miles distant by
water from Baltimore and 9 miles oy overland road. Post-office,
express, and telegraphic address, Baltimore, Md.

Acting Asst. Surg. T. L. Richardson is in charge of the stsction,
Acting Asst. Surg. J. C. Travers being assistant.

The Federal Government assumed control and operation of the
Baltimore quarantine station on April 22, operating it under terms
of lease between the city of Baltimore and the National Government.

Circumstances developed the early part of April which prevented
the city authorities from effectively carrying out the quarantine re-
quirements, and request was made by the mayor of the city that this
service assume charge of the station.

The floating equipment of the station consists of one steam tug,
75 feet long, and a power launch, 40 feet long.

The buildings on the station include quarters for the medical
officers and for*the station force of attendants, a station hospital,
detention barracks, and disinfecting equipment.

This station is well located for the purpose of a quarantine station,
and after the completion of much-needed repairs to the station
buildings, wharves, and the addition to the detention facilities will
fill the purpose for which the station^ was intended.

In continuance of the policy followed by the city government the
station hospital was utilized tor the reception and care of smallpox
cases developing in the vicinity. Smallpox patients are received
from the city of Baltimore, from Anne Arundel County, and from



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170 PUBLIC HBALXH SBBVIOB.

neighboring industrial plants, the Government being reimbursed for
the care and treatment of these cases.

From April 22 to June 30 there were treated in the station hospital
44 cases of smallpox, all cases recovering.. There was one case of
leprosy confined at the station.

Summary of transactions,^

Vessels inspected and passed 111

Vessels fumigated « 10

Number of seamen inspected 5,044

Number of passengers inspected 90

Beaufort (S. C.) quarantine. — Post-office and telegraphic address,
Chisolm, S. C. Acting Asst. Surg. C. G. Hay. No transactions.

BelUngharn^ WasTu — ^Acting Asst. Surg. L. R. Markley in charge.
No transactions.

Biscayne Bay (Flo*) quarantine. — Post-office and telegraphic ad-
dress, Miami, Fla. Acting Asst. Surg. J. M. Jackson in charge.

During the year 127 vessels were inspected and 12 were fumigated
for the destruction of rodents. The total number of passengers and
crew inspected was 2,561.

There was a considerable decrease in travel entering at this port,
due to provisions of the new inmiigration law barring the illiterates.
During the year, however, several immigration restrictions were tem-
porarily removed so as to permit the entrance of laborers for agri-
cultural work. Otherwise vast crops of vegetables would have been
lost for lack of labor.

The new channel and docks have not yet been completed.

Boca Grande (Fla.) quarantine. — Post-office and telegraphic ad-
dress, Boca Grande, Fla. P. L. McAdow in charge.

This station is in charge of the custodian, P. L. McAdow, who
attends to the general admmistration of quarantine affairs other than
the inspection of incoming vessels or supervision of fumigation.
The professional duties are discharged by Acting Asst. Surg. W. M.
Mathews, who is notified by the custodian whenever his services are
required.

Durinff the year there were inspected nine vessels, with total per-
sonnel of 198, all of whom were crew. No quarantinable diseases
were noted throughout the year.

Boston (Mass.) quarantine. — Post-office and telegraphic address.
Gallops Island, Boston, Mass. Surg. Donald H. Currie in charge.

Surg. Donald H. Currie relieved Surg. S. B. Grubbs of the charge
of the station on August 7, 1917. No other change has been made
in the staff. The attendant force afloat has been increased by the
addition of one deck hand and one fireman. This 'increase was
authorized to allow the crew of the Vigilant hours more nearly
approaching those allowed on commercial boats. The attendant
force ashore has been increased by the addition of a station engi-
neer. Difficulty has been experienced by the station in obtaining
and holding competent employees, particularly in positions requir-*
ing skilled labor, and this appears to be due to the higher salaries
offered in private employment.

'Apr. 22 to Jnne 30, inclusive.



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PX7BLI0 HEAI/TH SEEYICB. 171

Eight additional buildings are now under construction at the
station and it is expected they will be ready for occupancy during
the coming winter. These buildings include one hospital, two bar-
racks, one double barracks with dining room and kitchen attached,
one bathing barracks, one detention building for cabin passengers,
and a set of officers' quarters. The completion and equipment of
these buildings will more than double the barrack capacity of the
station and will considerably increase hospital accommodations.
The new hospital will have space for 28 beds in wards and wiU be
provided with 12 private rooms.

Extensive repairs have been made to other station buildings by
the station force, including the complete interior painting of hos-
pital buildings Nos. 6 and 9. The north side of building No. 13
has been completely repaired, and the painting of the station build-
ings, started two years ago, has been completed.

A new motor launch has been provided for use as a supply boat
and emergency boarding boat. This boat is a 40-foot raised-deck
motor cruiser and will be operated only during the summer.^ It is
not suitable for boarding except in very calm weather, and its pur-
chase in no sense relieves the need of a new boarding steamer at
this station.

A considerable amount of minor equipment, including a new
chemical fire engine, office furniture, tools, and kitchen ware has
also been purchased during the year.

Quarantine operations: The quarantine transactions of the port
show a slight decrease as compared with the previous fiscal year,
and there has been a marked decrease in fumigations due to the
clearing up of Liverpool and London as plague ports.

The fumigation of vessels with hydrocyanic-acid gas has been
continued during the year, although sulphur has been used to a
great extent in the holds in instances where its use would not delay
the ship. Practically no changes have been made in the method of
fumigating with hydrocyanic-acid gas in use at the station, but the
use of a canvas funnel attached to the blower in clearing out holds
has been abandoned, since it appears that the holds clear more
quickly without this attachment.

During the past year the station has been breeding rats for the
testing of ships' holds after fumigation with hydrocyanic-acid gas,
and the results have been fairly satisfactory. The animals appear
to breed best when provided with a fairly large pen, given sufficient
food at proper intervals, and disturbed as little as possible.

Approximately 280 interned German sailors and officers were quar-
tered at the station at the beginning of the fiscal year, together with
a guard of one machine-gun company from the One hundred and first
United States Regiment. The sailors were quartered in barracks and
the officers in a hospital building. The guard were quartered in three
of the isolation buildings and in tents. These accommodations were
provided with bureau approval, at the request of the United States
Immigration Service. These alien enemies remained at the station
until October 5, 1917, although the military guard left somewhat
earlier and were replaced with Immigration Service guards.

At the rec(uest of the commandant of the First Naval District the
station provided subsistence and treatment for 148 enlisted men of



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172 PUBUO HEALTH SEBVIGE.

the Navy during February, March, and April. These men were
proven carriers of meningococcus and were isolated at the station
imtil their condition, as shown by cultures taken at five-day inter-
vals, cleared up. They were quartered in barracks, and oidy such
cases were admitted to hospital as required treatment for other
causes.

At the request of the commandant of the Boston Navy Yard the
station treated the mattresses, carpets, and bedding from all of the
interned German liners seized at this port, with hydrocyanic-acid
gas in vacuum, for the destruction of vermin. There were approxi-
mately 200 tons of this material and the work covered a period of
several months.

Overcoats, bedding, and other materials have been disinfected by
steam and treated with hydrocyanic-acid gas in vacuum for the de-
struction of vermin for the various Army posts in the harbor, at the
request of the post medical officers, and the station laboratory is
placed at the disposal of Army medical officers at harbor posts having
no laboratory facilities.

.Thirteen naval vessels were fumigated for the destruction of
vermin during the fiscal year 1918.

The station desires to acknowledge the receipt of important assist-
ance from the commander of the Boston naval section during the
past year. Through the courtesy of this officer the station has been
l^rovided with a boat and crew for boarding purposes at such times
as the Vigilant was out of commission through accident or for neces-
sary repairs. This action has saved the service a very considerable
expense for boat hire and has materially assisted the station in
emergencies which might otherwise have delayed shipping.

By arrangement with the service officers detailed for the medical
inspection of arriving aliens the station will receive and care for
cases of nonquarantinable contagious diseases for the Immigration
Service at this port.

By arrangement with the Boston health department the station
will receive any contagious cases they desire^treated here.

By arrangement with the United States marine hospital at Chel-
sea the station receives and cares for any acute contagious cases
from that hospital and will remove such cases from ships on arrival
at the port, provided they are entitled to treatment under the service
regulations.

Transactions: During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1918, a total
of 465 vessels entered quarantine, as follows :

Steamers 433

Motor ship T 1

Schooners 14

Barks - 10

Ships 7

Of this number 92 required fumigation and were treated as fol-
lows:

Fumigation with sulphur 45

Fumigation with hydrocyanic-acid gas 18

Fumigation with hydrocyanic-acid gas and sulphur 29

In addition to the above, 13 vessels were fumigated for the Navy
Department and 1 for the Shipping Board.



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PUBLIC HEALTH SEBVICE, ITS

The above vessels carried crews numbering 22,596 and 5,329 passen-
gei'S, making the total personnel inspected 27,925.

One naval patrol cruiser was detained seven days at the request of
the Navy Department following the removal of a case of scarlet
fever. The crew were provided with quarters ashore a portion of the
time. The vessel was fumigated with formaldehyde gas, all bedding
and clothing disinfected by steam, and the quarters and furniture
thoroughly scrubbed.

One case of leprosy was removed from a steamship arriving from a
British port. The diagnosis was confirmed by bacteriological exami-
nation, and the patient was detained at the station and later placed
aboard the same ship outward bound.

The following cases were treated in hospital :

Syphilis' 1

Pneumonia' 1

Typhoid . . 1

Observation for plague 2

Measles 3

Leprosy 1

Meningococcus carriers (in barracks) 141

Following diagnosis of a case of typhoid fever among the interned
Germans vaccination against typhoid fever was made compulsory.
It had previously been advised by the medical officer in charge, but
the Germans did not desire it and the Immigration Service did not
desire to enforce it. Typhoid and smallpox vaccination was also
furnished the machine gun company stationed on the island as well
as the Immigration Service guards.

Out-patient treatment was furnished the interned Germans and
their guard at the station, but hospital cases other than contagious
were transferred to the marine hospital when possible.

Brownsville^ Tex, — Acting Asst. Surg. G. F. Fairbanks in charge.
Quarantine measures against the introduction of contagious diseases
from Mexico have continued along same line as indicated in the last
annual report and have proved very effective in that this country has
not had a single case of smallpox during the year and has never had
a case of typhus fever. There has been no reported case of typhus on
the Mexican side of the river in this vicinity, but there have been a
considerable number of smallpox cases.

On May 1, 1917, the disinfecting plant was opened and has proven
to be of great value.

Transactions.

Vaccinations against smallpox performed 5,013

Pieces baggage inspected and fumigated- 4, 327

Persons bathed and cleaned , 588

Persons entered at the port (majority daily passengers back and forth)- 442, 830
New aliens entered 4,607

The officers of the Department of Agriculture have requested the
fumigation of all baggage possible in order to assist in keeping out
the pmk boll-worm moth which sometimes hides in personal baggage.

Assistance rendered to the United States Coast Guard Service in-
cluded the physical examination of two men and one pilot, 22 treat-
ments for sick and injured surfmen, instructing them in taking finger
prints on metal tags, and several examinations of urine and blood.

^Meningococcus carriers.



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174 PUBLIC HEALTH SEBYIOE.

Brunswick (Go.) qtutrwitine. — ^Acting Asst. Surg. R. E. L. Bur-
ford in charge.

During the year 4 vessels were spoken and passed, 14 steamers and
8 sailing vessels were inspected and passed; 8 steamers and 4 sailing
vessels were inspected, fumigated, and passed. There were 926
crew on steamers, 95 crew on sailing vessels, 70 shipwrecked seamen
as passengers on one steamer. No vessel was quarantined and n6
quarantinable disease was found aboard any vessel in port.

Cape Charles quarantine. — Post-office' and telegraphic address,
Fort Monroe, Va. Surg. H. McG. Robertson in charge.

In contrast ta the previous year, there has been a considerable de-
crease in the number of vessels subject to quarantine inspection en-
tering this port. This was chiefly due to war conditions, especially
the prolonged retention in port of vessels of certain neutral countries.

Transactions for the last two months of the fiscal year, however,
indicate an increase. There were fewer number of vessels fumi-
gated than in former years, chiefly due to the fact that a majority of
vessels arriving at Norfolk come from European ports, and European
ports that are considered to be plague free.

During the year the War Department continued to occupy Fish-
ermans Island. Only one attendant remains there to look after
service property. It has been definitely determined by the depart-
ment to turn over this reservation to the Army and to establish de-
tention facilities at Craney Island, in Norfolk Harbor. On account
of its inaccessibility, Fishermans Island for a number of years has
not served the purpose for which it was originalljr intended.

During the year Congress made an appropriation for the construc-
tion of a new station at Craney Island, and plans are under way for
the construction of the necessary buildings at that place.

The quarantine hulk Cha^e^ formerly anchored off Old Point, has
been permanently tied up to piles near the Chesapeake and Ohio
Railway, and arrangements are completed for the installation of
telephone and electric lights and a more modern water-distribution



Online LibraryJoseph McKeanAnnual report of the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service of the ... → online text (page 21 of 45)