Joseph Priestley.

A general history of the Christian church, from the fall of the western empire to the present time (Volume 2) online

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or THE





By JOSEPH PRIESTLEY, ll. d. t^. r. s. &c*


V O L. II.

Nactus sum prceteritos dies non solum graves^ veruni
etiam tanto atrocius miseros, quanta longiiis a rc-
medio verce rellglonis alienos ; ut merito hac scriita-
tione clariierity regnas^e mortem avidam sanguinis
dum ignoratur religio quae prohibuerit a sanguine ;
ista illucessce?ite, illam constupuisse ; illam condudi,
cumzstajam prcEvaiet; illam penitus nullamfuturamf

cum hcec sola rcgnabit.


^NORTHUMBERLAND i-^ Fainted for the Author,
By ANDREW •■ " X" e' N N E D Y.

1 8 0'2*; ;

■* . ' J




^^-v ^ a Jc A /

• • • •






ROM the taking of Jerufalem by the
Crufaders a. d. 1099 to the taking of Con-
ftantinople by the Latins a. d. 1204. i

SeQ;ion I. The Hijlory of the Crufades con-
tinued, - - '10,

Se6lion IL Of the Power of the Popes in this
Period, - - - 21

Sccl. in. of the Schif ins in this Period, and
the Tranfaclions between the Popes and the

Eraptrors of Germany, - 36

Se£i. IV. Of the State f the Clergy in this
Period, - - - 5?

Sea. V. The Hiftory cf Thomas Beckei,

A rch')i/Iiop of Canterbury, - 63

Szci. VI. Of the Monks in this Period, 81

)( 2 Sea.

> 5.

iv The CO NT E NTS.

Se&. VII. Of SeB dries that horcfome Rela-
tion to the Manicheans. OJ the Albi^enjes,
and V/aidcvfes, - - lOO

S. a. VIII. 0/ Arnold cf Brefcia. and ^be^

lard. - . 120

Si£l. IX. Gf the various Opinion!: advanced

in this Period^ - - 129

Std X. Of the State -/ the Jews Jn this

Ptri'd, - • - 138

Sett. XL, Mifcellaneous Articles^ - 143


From the taking of Conftantinople by the La-
tins in A. D. 1204, to the Termination of
the Crufacle^^ in a. d. 1291. - 159

Seft. I. The Hijlory cf the Crufades conti-
nued, - - ^^'

Sea. II. Of the papal Power, and the Oppo-
fition that was ^ viade to ?t in this Pe-
riod, - - -^79

Sea. III. Of the TranfaBions of the Popes

■with the Empe'ors oJ Germany in this Pe.

riod, . - - ^95

Sea. IV. Tranjaciicns of the Popes with




Peter King of Arragoiiy and John King

of England, - . 211

Seft. V. Of the State of the Clergy in this
Period, - - 121

Se6t. VI. Of the Monks in this Period, and
the Rfe if the Francijcans, and Doriii-
means, - - 230

Scft VII. SoJ7ie Particulars relating to both
the Orders oj Mendicants, and ethers fa
mfcellaneous Nature, concerning them and
the Monks, ■ - - 247

StQ.. VII [. The Hijlory of the Alhigenfes, 255

&f|t. IX. Of the Progrefs of the Inqiafition,
and the Scale oj Htrefy in other Countries
le fides Prance, - - 071

Secl. X. Of the Inicrcourfe bctzoeeri the Greek
and Latin Churches, - 279

StSt. XI. Of the State of Infdelity, and va-
rious Here/les in this Period, - ^ 292

SeQ. XII. Some Particulars concerning the
Superjiiticn, and fabulous Hiflories of
thi:> Period, - - 004.

Sccl* XIII. Of the Jews in this Period, 316

Sc6t. XIV. MrfccUanecus Articles, ' 321.




From the Termination of the Crufades a. d,
1291 to the Conclufion of the Council
of Conflance a. d. 1418. - 331

StO:. I. Of Lhe Potocr of the Pcpes, and the

Oppcfdion that was made to it, - ib,

Sc6l. II. Cf the Difference bet-ween Pope Bo-
niface VIII, with Philip le Bel King of
France, and, with the Family of Colon-
na, - - 352

Sc6l. III. Of the Contcfls between the Popes

and Lewis of Bavaria, - ^SS

Sccl. IV. The Hijlory of the great Schifmin

the Wefl, - - 372

ScS. V. Of the State of the Clergy in this

Period, - - 402

Scft. VI. Of the military Orders in this Pe-
riod, - - 429

S-j£t. VII. Of the FratrkcUi, or Spiritual
■ rrancijcans, - - 437

Sccl. VIII. Mifcellaneoiis Articles rclacing

to the Monks and the Mendicants, - 44S

ctt. IX. Of the Reforrr.ers m this Period
prior to V/ickliffe, - 455




Seft. X. OfWickliffe and his Followers, 464

Se6t. XI. of John Uus and Jerome of
Prague, - - 472

Se£t. XII. of various Opinions, theological
and moral, that were the Snbjeci of Dif-
cujfion in this Period, - 488

Se£l, XIII. Mifcellaneoiis Articles, - 503








it rom the taking of jerusalem ey the
Crusaders ^. d. 1099 to the taking
OF Constantinople ey the Latins

A. D. 1204.


The Hijiory cf the Crufaders continued.


■ONSIDERING the flrange irre*
giilar manner in which the firft crufade was con-
duced, it terminated much better than could
have been expe6led. Godfrey himfelf, however,
did not long furvive his fuccefs. He died in a. d.
1101, and was fucceeded by Baldwin count of
Vol. IV. A 'The


The fuccefs of this firft expedition encouraged
others to undertake a fecond. In a. d. 1102 fifty
thoufand men fet out from Lombardy, conduced
by Anfelm archbifhop of Milan, Albert count of
Bladras, Guibert count of Parma, and many other
perfons of diflinflion ; who, followed by a great
number of Germans, traverfed Hungary, Bulga-
ria, and Thrace, and at Eafter arrived at Nico-

About the fame time there fet out from France
William duke of Aquitain, Hugh furnamed the
Great, count of Vermandois, brother of Philip
king of France, who had left the former crufaderff
at the fiege of Antioch, and alfo Stephen count
of Chartres and Blois, who had done the fame.
They were joined by Stephen count of Burgundy,
and many others ; who, with about thirty thou-
fand men, taking the fame road thro' Hungary, &c.
arrived at Conftantinople, where they found Rai-
mond count of Thouloufe ; and taking him for
their leader, came to Nice. But the emperor
Alexis informing the Turks of their motions, and
the crufaders being divided, one party of them
perifhed in the mountains, but fome of them ar-
rived at Tarfus, where Hugh the Great died.

They alTembled again at Antioch, whence
they proceeded, fome by fea, and fome by land,
for Jerufalem, where they celebrated Eafter in a.


D. 1103. Prefently after this, joining Baldwin
in a battle with the Mahometans, the greater part
of them were cut oflF, and among them both
Stephen count of Chartres and Blois, and Stephen
count of Burgundy ; fo that this fecond crufade
proved very unfuccefsful.

This enthufiafm, however, was far from being
jated in the Weft. Boemond prince of Antiocb
going to France in a. d. 1106, and being married
at Chartres, harangued the principal nobility of
France, who were affembled on the occafion, in
fuch a manner as that great numbers of them took
the crofs. At the fame time the crufade was
preached with more folemnity by the pope's legate
Brunon de Signi, at a council in Poitiers, where
fioemond was prefent. He did not, however,
live to fee the event of this expedition ; ior he died
in Apulia on his return to the Eaft in a. d. 1112,
and thus the emperor Alexis was delivered from a
formidable enemy. For tho' both were Chriftians^
and equally oppofcd by the Mahometan powers^
they were far from aQing in concert, or at all
friends to each other.

In the mean time the affairs of the king of Je-
lufalera wore but an indifferent afped. Baldwin
was fo poor, that to mend his fortune he conceal i?d
his mairiage with a wite that he had at Edcffa, aad
married Adelaide the widow of Roger count of

A 2 Sicily,


Sicily, a princefs of great wealth and power; and
this he did by the advice of Arnoul the Latin pa-
triarch of Jcrufalem, a man of a mofl profligate
charafter. Being at the point of death, in a. d.
1117, he difmi (Ted Adelaide, and dying the year
following, he was fucceeded by Baldwin du Bourg.
The arms of the Chriflians had, however, fome
fuccefs in the conqueft of Tyre in a. d. 1127;
and undertaking the liege of Damafcus, they fent
fix perfons to procure fuccours from E'irope.
Thefe were prefent at the council of Troyes in a.
D. 1128, when the order of iht knights templars
was confirmed, and returned the year following,
attended by a great number of the noblelTe of

Baldwin II dying in a. d. 1131, was fiic-
ceeded by his fon in law Fulk count of Angers,
and he by his fon Baldwin III in a. d. 1142.

In A. D. 1145 the bilhop of G aba] a came to
Rome to implore fuccour for the crufaders, who
were in confternation for the lofs of EdefTa, which
was taken from them by Zcngui in a. d. 1144,
after a fiege of two years, with a prodigious maf-
facre of the inhabitants. On this occafion pope
Eugenius wrote to Lewis the king of France, ex-
horting him to take arms for the defence of the
Chriftians in the Eaft, granting the fiime indul-
gence to thofe who engaged in this expedition that


seo.1. the christian church. S

Urban had done before ; and giving leave to en-
gage the fiefs of the church, if the lords would not
advance the money that would be wanted. Lewis
had before this determined upon the expedition;
and holding a parliament at Vezelai in Burgundv,
at Eafler in a. d. 1146, where he was attended by
the principal bifliops and lords of France, Bernard
a celebrated abbot of Ciairvaux, from a fcaffold
€re6led for the purpofe in the open air, harangued
the audience in favour of the crufade, with fuch
€fFe£t, that after the king had taken the crofs at this
time, the croflfes they had prepared were not fuf-
ficient to fupply the demand for them. Bernard,
therefore, cut his garment into crolTjs for the pur-
pofe. After the king, queen Alienor took the
crofs, and of the lords the principal were AUonfo
count of St. Gilles and Thouloufe, Henry fon of
Thibaut count of Bloi,s, Gui count of Nevers, and
his brother Renaud count of Tonnere, Robert
count of Dreux the king's brother, and Ives count
of Soiflbns. Of the prelates were Simon bifliop
of Noyon, Gcoffroi of Langres, and Arnoul of

At another affembly, held at Chartres, every
thing was fettled refpefting the expedition, and
Bernard was urged to accept the command. This
he declined; but he not only wrote to the pope,
exhorting him lo employ both the fwords of St.

A 3 Pe^gr,


Peter, the fpiritual and temporal, on this occafion ;
t>ut he fent circular letters to all the countries of
Europe to promote the crufadt. ** Is not this,"
faid he, " a precious opportunity of (alvation, an
" invention worthy of the depth of divine goodnefs ;
" when the Almighty defigns to call to his fervice
^' murderers, thieves, adulterers, perjured perfons,
" and men loaded with all forts of crimes, as if
" they v/ere righteous ? He is willing to be your
*' debtor, and to give you as a recompence for this
" fei vice the pardon of your fins, and eternal glo-
*' ry." * He exhorted them, however, not to
moled the Jevvs. This was in confequence ot a
monk named Rodolf preaching the crufade at Co-
logn, and along the Rhine, and urging them to
murder the Jews, as the enemies of the Chriftian
religion ; and on this the Jews had aftually been
murdered in many cities of Gaul and Germany.


* In his addrefs to the knights templars, he faid,
*' What is moft wonderful is that the greater pai-t of
*' thofe who enroll themfelvcs in thisfacred nuilitia were
" wicked wretches, impious ravifhers, facrilegious
" murderers, perjured perfoHs, and adulterers; lb that
" their convcrfion has two good effc6ls, to relieve their
" country, and fuccour the holy land. It is thus that
*' Jefus Chrifl revenges himfelf on his enemies, triumph-
" ing over them, and making ufc of them to triumph
"'over others."


Bernard himfelf made a progrefs th:o' Germa-
ny on purpofe to preach the crufade ; and maeting
with Rodoif, he perfuaded him to return to his
anonaftery. At Spire Bernard preached before the
jemperor Conrad; and tho' this prince had hefi-
tated betore, Bernard fpokein fo moving a manner,
that, with many tears, he expreffed his readinefs to
undertake the expedition. In this all the people
expreffed the greateft fatisfaQion, and to add to th?
folemnity, Bernard took from the altar, and de-
livered to the emperor, a ftandard to carry in his
Jiand in this war. At this time alfo Frederic,
nephew of the duke of Suabia, and many other
perfons of diftinflion, took the crofs. Bernard
having gone over a great part of Germany, and,
according to the account of his hiftorian, having
performed innumerable miracles wherever he went,
returned to France, and arrived at Clairvaux in
February a. d. 1147.

Prefently after Conrad held his court in Bava-
ria, when many bilhops took the crofs, as Henry
of Ratifbon, Otho of Frifing, and Reinbert of
Paffau, together with Henry duke of Suabia, the
brother of Conrad, and many other lords. But
what the hiftorian fays was more extraordinary,
was the great number of robbers and thieves who
came thither for the fame purpofe. But after the
invitation given them by Bernard, this was a veiy

A ^ naturjl


natural thing. Not long after this, Labeflas, duke
of Bohemia, and Bernard count of Carinthia,
took the crofs. The Saxons did the fame, not,
hoivever, to go to the Eafl:, but to make war upon
the neighbouring idolatrous nations, which took
place the year following.

Conrad fet out May 29, a. d. 1147, followed
by his nephew Frederic duke of Suabia, and he
arrived at Conflantinople September 8th, while
other Germans who had taken the crofs, went to
ferve agaiiul the Saracens in Spain, and took Lif-
bon the 2.11 of Odober. Lewis took his road
thro' Germany the 14.^}} of June, while Conrad
had priled into Afia. with guides furnifhed him
by the empL^ror Manuel. Thefe betrayed him ;
and being furronnded by the armies of the fultan
of Iconium, where they were almoft famifhed,
fcarce a tenth part of them efcaped. Conrad him-
fe'f made jrood his retreat to Nice, where he was
met by Lewis. Thence he went to Conflantinople, '
to pafs the winter, while Lewis advanced as far
as Antioch. In the fpring Conrad went by fea to
Acre, where the crufaders met to concert their
meafures with the king of Jerufalem. It was agreed
to beficge Damafcus ; but not being able to take
it, Conrad returned to Germany. Lewi;., how-
ever, proceeded as far as Lfrulalem, where he was
9it Eafter in a. d. 1149 ; but afcer this he returned



to Fiance, without having efFeuled any thing.
From thivS time the Mahometan princes held the
Latins in great contempt, and the affairs of the
latter went continually backward.

The Saxon cruladers formed an army of fixty
thoufand men. There was alfo another of forty
thoufand, and the king of Denmark marched at
the head of an hundred thoufand. Thefe made
an expedition again ft the Sclavi, deftroyed part of
their country, and burned feveral cities, efpecially
one called Malchon, near to which was a famous
idol temple. But after the war had continued three
months, they made a peace with them, on con-
dition of their receiving Chriftian baptifm, and
refloring the captives they had taken from th®
Danes. Accordingly, many of them were baptized ;
but, as the hiRorian fays, without being con-
verted. Alfo they only reftored fuch of the Haves
as were old and ufelefs, keeping all that were fer-
viceablc. It foon appeared that thefe pretended
Chriltians were worfe than they had been before,
paying no regard to the promifes they had made at
their baptifm, and making incuriions into the terri-
tories ot the Danes, as much as ever.

The ill fuccefs of this crufade was, as miaht
have been expefted, a great mortification to Ber-
nard ; and he was reproached as having contributed
to miflead thofe who went on that expedition. Buc

A 5 he


■he alleged in his excufe the cafe of Mofes, who,
tho' ofting by the immediate order of God, did not
bring the Ifraelites to the promifed land, on ac-
count of the incredulity and rebellion of the people;
and thefe crufaders, he faid, were not lefs incre-
dulous, or rebellious. He likewife alleged the
war of the eleven tribes againft the Benjamites,
when, tho* dirc6!ed by God, they were defeated
twice, and yet conquered the third time. When
iie was afkcd whether he was authorized by mi-
racles as Mofes was, he faid modefty would not
fuffer him to fpeak on that fubjeft, but he left it
to others ; which looks as if he really thought that
he had wrought fome miracles.

The moR formidable enemy the crufaders had
was Saladin, a prince of great ability, courage, and
magnanimity , After he had made himfelf mailer
of Egypt, the aflFairs of the crufaders wore every
day a worfe afpeCl. Their manners were extreme-
ly corrupt, and military difcipline was negle6i;ed.
Pope Alexander HI, on hearing this, was much
affected ; and ordering his legates to preach a new
crufadc, the kings of France and England both
promifed to fend fpeedy fuccours. The alarm
was increafed by the arrival of Heraclius the pa-
triarch oi Jerufalem, and others from the Eafl, at
Verona, where the pope and the emperor were
hoi dii>g a council in a. n. 1184, '^"^ whofe af-

fi fiance


fiftance they implored. Nothing was done at that
time ; but they were fent with letters of recom-
mendation to Philip Augullus king of France,
and Henry II of England. The former would
have undertaken the expedition himfelt; but hav-
ing no children, he fent feveral brave knights at
his expence, and a great number of foot foldiers.
Henry alfo did not go himfelf, but he gave leave
to all who chofe it ; and many pcrfons took the
crofs, among v/hom were feveral bifhops, and
great lords. Of the former were Ba dwin arch-
bifiiop of Canterbury, and Gautier of Rouen.
Henrv had before this, viz. in a. d. 1166, cauftd
a colleftion to be made thro' all England for the
fervice of the holy land, which was continued five


As none of the kings of Jerufalem diflinguilhed
themfelves, it is barely worth while to note their
fucceffion. Baldwin III dying in a. d. 1160,
vras fucceeded by his brother Amauri, and he by
his fon Baldwin IV in a. d. 1172. This Bald-
win was a leper, incapable of bufinefs, and
dying in a. d. 1 185, was fucceeded by his nephew
Baldwin V, then nine years old ; and he dying
the next year, a. d. 1187, Guy de Lufignan was
made king ; and he was the laft who reigned at



The Templars having broken the truce that
had been made with Saladin, he was refolved oa
it^/en^e ; and coming with an army of fifty thou-
fand men, he defeated the Chriftians in a pitched
battle near Tiberias, and took the king himfelf,
and all the chiefs prifoners. The king he fpared,
but he put to death Arnold de ChafliUon, mafter
of the TempIarS; who had been the caufe of break-
ing the truce, and alfo all the knights bofh of the
temple and thofe of the order of John of Jcrufa-
lem, who had never given any quarter to the Ma-
hometans in peace or war. It was a great af-
fii3;ion to the Chriftians to Icfe in this battle what
they took to be the true cro fs of Chrift, which
they had with them as a pledge of vi£iory. After
this Saladin took almoll all the places on the fea
coafl, and then betook Jerufalem itfelf by capitu-
lation the 2d of Oclftber a. d. 1187, after it had
been in the poGTellion of the ChriPtians eighty-
eif^ht years. The only places that were then Idffc
to them were Antioch, Tyre, and Tripoli.

The nc'vs of the lofs of Jerufalem threw the
who'e Chriflian world into the greateft confterna-
tiott, and efpecially pope Clement III. Being
then at Pifa, he earnellly exhorted the people af-
fcmbled in the cathedral church to labour for the
recovery of the holy land; and he gave the flan-
i^ard of St. Peter to Ubaldi the archbifhop ot that



fee, v/ith the title of legate. Accordingly he fet
out in the middle of September the fame year a.
D. 1188, with a fleet of fifty velTtls, and after
wintering at Medina, arrived at Tyre the i6lh of
April the year {ollowing.

The kings of France and of England, having a
conference at Gifors to fettle their differences, at
the exhortation of William archbifhop of Tyre,
who reprefented to them the deplorable flate of
things in the Eafl, agreed to com prom ife every
thing in difpute between them, and both of them
took the crofs, together with feveral great lords
and bifhops. The king of England, moreover,
ordered every perfon in his dominions to pay a
tenth of his revenues towards the expence of the
expedition, and forbad all expenfive luxuries*
The king of France followed his example, and
this tax was called Saladin's tythe.

The crofs was alfo taken on this occafion hy
Frederic the emperor of Germany, and his fun
Frederic duke of Suabia, together with no lefs
than fixty- eight great lords of Germ.any, both ec-
clefiaftic and fecular ; and their departure was
fixed for the 23d of April the year following. A
difference arifing between the emperor of Germa-
ny and Ifaac Angelus the emperor of Conftan-
tinople, the former took Philippopoli the 25th of
April A. D. 1189, and paffed the winter at Adria-


34 THE HISTORY OF Per. X v xxl^

nople. The next year, at Eafter, he paffed the
Helefpont, and on the i8th of May took Cogni
the capital of the Seljukian Turks ; but he was un-
fortunately drowned as he was bathing in a river of
Cilicia, the loth of June. His fon Frederic
duke of Suabia took the command of the army,
but died fix months after before Acre.

King Richard fet out from England the loth
of December a. d. 1189, and the king of France
joined him the 4th of July, a. d. iigo. Separat-
ing at Lyons, Lewis embarked at Genoa, and
Richard at Marfeilles ; and rejoining at Meffina,
they paiTed the winter there. At the end of
March the king of France left Meffina, and on the
20th of April arrived at Acre, which the Chriftians
had been befieging two years. Richard failed
from Meffina tl^e 10th ot April, and being ffiip-
wrecked on the ille of Cyprus, he conquered it
from Ifaac Comnenus, who had revolted from
Ifaac Angelus, and arrived at Acre, which fur-
rendered the 13th of July a. d. 1191, and be-
came a place of great importance to the Latins in

Soon after this event the king of France re-
turned to his country, but Richard flayed, and
defeated Saladin on the 27th of September, Being
obliged, however, to return to England foon after,
and the other lords not being able to continue the



war, he wrote the moft prefling letters to the pope
to engage him to come in perfon to their afliftance,
but without efFeft. Richard having made a truce
with Saladin for three years, left Paleftine the 8th
of 06lober A. d. 1192, and returning thro' the
dominions of the duke of Auftria, whom he had
ofFended at the fiege of Acre, he was taken and
imprifoned the 20th of December, and in this fi-
tuation he continued all the year following.

On the death of Saladin in a. d. 1196, the
Chriftians thought it furnifhed a favourable op-
portunity to renew the war ; and in Germany three
great armies were formed in a, d. 1197* The
firfl, commanded by Conrad archbifhop of Mayence,
went by land to Conftantinople, and thence by
lea to Tyre. The fecond went by fea, and coafl-
ing Spain took Silves in Portugal, and demolifhecl
it, and thence proceeded by the ftraits to Acre,
The third army, which was the ftrongeft, the em-
peror Henry took with him to Italy, in order to
complete the redu6lion of that country, and of
Sicily, atter which it was conduced by Conrad
bifhop of Virfburg his chancellor, and arrived at
Acre the 2 2d of September. But the chan-
cellor himfelf flopped at the ifle of Cyprus,

Online LibraryJoseph PriestleyA general history of the Christian church, from the fall of the western empire to the present time (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 30)