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ftfte Smaller Camtaigt 23tWe for



THE FIRST BOOK

OF THE

KINGS

WITH MAP INTRODUCTION AND NOTES



BY THE

REV. J. RAWSON 'LUMBY, D.D.

NORRISIAN PROFESSOR OF DIVINITY,
FELLOW OF ST CATHARINE'S COLLEGE.



EDITED FOR THE SYNDICS OF THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.



(£amimtrge :

AT THE UNIVEKSITY PRESS.



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1891

[All Riylits reserved.]



For fuller information on all matters of Introduction, as
well as for more copious explanation and illustration of the
Text, the reader is referred to the Cambridge Bible for Schools.



CONTENTS.



TAGE

Introduction 3

Chronological Table 5

Text and Notes 9 — 142

Map to face Title.



The Text adopted in this edition is that of Dr Scrivener's
Cambridge Paragraph Bible. A few variations from
the ordinary Text, chiefly in the spelling of certain
words, and in the use of italics, will be noticed.



ABBREVIATIONS.

A.V. The ' Authorised ' Version of 1611.

B.V. The Revised Version of 1885.

Heb. The original Hebrew.

Sept. or LXX. The Septuagint.

Targ. The Targum.

Vulg. The Vulgate.

I/it. Literally.



INTRODUCTION.



"What we name 1 and 2 Kings was anciently only one book, called by
the Jews ' the Book of Kings.' .

To the date of its compilation we are guided by the latest events that
are mentioned in it. The last chapter (2 Kings xxv.) concludes with
the 37th year of Jehoiachin's captivity, when Evil-Merodach released him
from prison. This happened B.C. 562, after which date the book was
written, and probablv before b.c. 536, the year of the decree by Cyrus for
the deliverance of the Jews from Babylon. "Who the compiler was we
have no means of deciding.

The Book of King's was clearlv meant to be a continuation of the Books
of Samuel. The writer alludes continually in the life of Solomon to the
promises which had been made by God to David and which are mentioned
in the second of those books. ,*•'.«

It is not however a history properly so called, but a selection trom
the historical documents of the nation made with a definite purpose.
That the Compiler makes his extracts most faithfully we have many
indications, notablv that frequently-occurring phrase, unto this day,
a phrase true enough when the original documents from which our
Compiler drew were written, but altogether inexact in b.c. 562, and
only preserved because of the entire faithfulness to his copy of him who
made the extracts.

The following is a summary of the Contents of the Book (1 ana
2 Kings).

A. Closing davs of the life of David, (i. 1— ii. 11.)

(1) Contest for the succession, i. 1—53. (2) David s dying charge,
ii. 1—11.

B. King Solomon in all his glory, (ii. 12— x. 20.)

(1) The removal of his adversaries, n. 12—46. (2) His piety and
wisdom, iii. 1— 2S. (3) Solomon's magnificence and fame, iv. 1— v. 18.
(4) Solomon's Temple, vi. 1-38. (5) His royal palace, vu. 1—12. (6)
Works of Hiram, the Tyrian founder, vn. 13-51. (7) The feast of the
Dedication, viii. 1— ix. 9. (8) Solomon's power, wealth and fame, ix.
10— x. 29.

C. Solomon is turned away from the Lord, and his prosperity is
broken. . xo

God's face is set against Solomon, xi. 1—43.

D. The divided kingdoms, Israel and Judah. (1 Kings xii. 1—2 Kings

SVm '(lf ' Prelude to the separation, xii. 1-24. (2) ISRAEL. The sou of
Nebat who made Israel to sin, xii. 25-xiv. 20. (3) JUDAH. The lamp
preserved for David's sake, xiv. 21-xv. 24. (4) ISRAEL. The way of
Jeroboam. The kings, xv. 25-xvi. 34. (5) Elijah. The prophet m Israel,
xvii 1— xix. 21. (6) Syrian invasion of Israel, xx. 1— 4o. (i ) Nahoth
is stoned and is dead, xxi. 1-29. (8) Judah and Israel in alliance, xxn.
1—2 Kino-s iii. 27. (9) Elisha. 'He did wonders m his life,' 2 Kings iv.
1— viii 15. (10) Fruits of the alliance between Judah and Israel, yin.
16-ix. 27. (11) ISRAEL. Jehu on the throne, x. 1-36. (12) JUDAH.
Athaliah and Joash, xi. 1-xii. 21. (13) ISRAEL. The house of Jehu,



4 INTRODUCTION.

xiii. 1—26. 11 JUDAH. Aniaziah meddling to hi* hurt, xiv. 1— 22.

16 ISRAEL Third and fourth generations of Jehu's house, xiv.

26— xv. 12. y l6> ISRAEL and JTDAH. The SjTO-Ephraimite war, xv.

13— xvi. 80. 1I 7 ; ISRAEL. Last days of the ten tribes, xvii. 1— xviii. 12.

E. The two tribes. 2 Kinsrs rviiL 13— xxv. 30.)

(1) Hezekiah, xviii. 13— xx. r 21. (2] Manasseh and Anion, xxi. 1—26.
3) Josiah. xxii. 1— xxiii. The falling away. ' The Lord could

not pardon,' xxxiii. 31 — xxv. 30.

The Compiler of the Books of Kings specifies three sources from
which his narrative is drawn.

(1) The Book of the Acts of Solomon (1 Kings xi. 41) as the autho-
rity for Solomon's reign.

(2) The Book of the Chronicles of the kings of Judah, which he
mentions fifteen times (.1 Kings xv. 29; xv. 7: xv. 23; xxii. 45; 2 Kings
viii. 23: xii. 19; xiv. IS; xv. 6: xv. 36 ; xvi. 19; xx. 20; xxi. 17; xxi. 26;
xxiii. 28; xxiv. 5).

(3) The Book of the Chronicles of the kings of Israel, which he
quotes seventeen times il Kings xiv. 19; xv. 31; xvi. 5; xvi. 14; xvi. 20;
xvi. 27; xxii. 39; 2 Kings i. 18; x. 34: xiii. 8; xiii. 12; xiv. 28; xv. 11;
xv. 16 : xv. 21; xv. 26; XV. 31).

Now in reference to the first of these sources, the Chronicler (who
adheres so closely to the language of Kings throughout the history of
Solomon that we are constrained to conclude that he drew his informa-
tion from the same source.) specifies (2 Chron. ix. 29) three works as his
authorities for that reisrn, viz. 'the Book (R. V. history) of Nathan the
prophet, the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and the visions of Iddo
the seer.'

TVe find here the key to the origin and character of the materials ac-
cessible to the Compiler of Kintrs. The authorities for Solomon's reign
were the writings of prophets contemporary with that king, and which
subsequently were sathered into one treatise as the Acts of Solomon.'
The prophetic spirit and religious drift of the whole history is thus ac-
counted for. The record was not meant as mere history. It bears on
the face of it the imprint of prophetic hands.

In like manner the Chronicler instead of ' the Book of the Chronicles
of the kings of Judah' mentions separate works for different reigns, but
all coming from the writings of the prophets who flourished at the
various periods. Thus (2 Chron. xii. 15) we have 'the Book (R.V. histo-
ries) of Shemaiah the prophet and Iddo the seer' quoted; in 2 Chron.
xiii. 22 'the story (R.V. commentary) of the prophet Iddo'; in 2 Chron.
xx. 34 'the book (R.V. history) of Jehu, the son of Hanani.' "We are
further told (2 Chron. xxvi. 22) that Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz
wrote the history of Azariah (Uzzialu, and i2 Chron. xxxii. 32) that
same prophet wrote of the acts and good deeds of Hezekiah.

Allusions like these shew that there were in existence manv separate
histories written by prophets contemporary with the various kings, and
that as they were completed they became incor]K>rated in the national
Chronicles of both kingdoms. The sources, then, from which these nar-
ratives are drawn must be regarded as contemporary with the events to
which they relate, the Compiler only choosing from them what best
suited his purpose, and being gathered in the main from prophetic his-
tories, there will naturally be a similarity of motive pervading them all.
To the Compiler we may ascribe those portions which compose the
framework of each particular reign, i.e. the accounts of the accession
and parentage, death and character of the several kinsrs, in which there
occurs very little variation of form. The data of all that is not of this
character must be judged of from internal evidence. The uniformity of
the framework of the book prove* that it was put into its present form
all by the same hands.



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.



Solomon king over the whole nation 1015—975,



2,


JUDAH E.c. ISRAEL 1 -.


~ ^


• -_


~ -


X -


17


Rehoboazn


975 Jeroboam 22
Jeroboam builds Penuel (1 K.






xii. 25)






Shishak plunders Jerusalem








(1 K. xiv. 25)






3


Abij am 1 5th v of Jeroboam)
IK xv. 1; 2" Chi. xiii. 1


S5 ;




41


Asa (20th v of Jeroboam)
1 K xv. 9 '


955




954 Nadab (2nd j* of Asa] IK. 2






953 Baasha (3rd vr of Asa) 1 24






K. xv. 23




War with Zerah the Ethiopian




(2 C'hr. xiv. 9)




War against Judah (2 Chr.




xvi. 1)




Asa's alliance with Bathadad




I. (1 K. xv. 18J










930 Elan (26th yr of Asa) 1 K.


2






xvi. "■>








I' Zimri (27th vr of Asa) 1 K.


( 7






xvi. 10






939 Omri


12






War between Omri ami Tibni








4 pear* 1 (1 K. xvi. 21)








925 Omri unopposed (31st j* of








Asa) 1 K. xri 23








Victories over the Moabite*








Omri builds Samaria (1 K.






xvi. 24)








Samaria invaded bjf tkt Sy-








rians (1 K. xx. 34)








91> Ahab (38th y* of Asa) IK. 22 .
xvi. 1










Ahab marries Jezebel, prin-






cess oJ'Zidun (1 K. xvi. 31)





1 The duration of this war. about 4 years, must be included in the 12 years of Oruri's reism
(1 K. xvi. 23). Otherwise Utah's accession could not be in the 38th year of Asa.



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.



— X



25



10



JUDAH



Jehoshaphat (4th v 1- of A-
hab) 1 K. \.\ii. 41



Philistines and Arabians tri-
butary la Jiuhth (2 Clir. xvii.
ID



Joram [5th v of Jehoram)

2 K. viii. 6

Revolt of Edotn and Libnah

(2 K. viii. 22)

Judah ravaged by Philistines
and Arabians (2" Chr. xxi. 17)

Ahaziah » (12th yr of Jeho-
ram) 2 K. viii. 25



Ahaziah slain by Jii Syria {2 R.

x. 32)
Jehoahaz (23rd y of Joash)

2 K. xiii. 1



Continued oppression of the
Syrians (2 K. xiii. - J-J)

Jehoash (87th yr of Joash)
2 K. xiii. 10



28



i;



16



3 This appears to be the time to which the conquests recorded on the MoaUte atone are to
be referred. The places had been won by Israel In the reign ofOmrL

:! There are 8 statements concerning the commencement of the reign of Jehoram king of
Israel, tie is said (2 K. i. 17J to have begun to reign In the second year of Joram, king of
Judah: then (2 K. \ m. 16) in the fifth year before Joram : and thirdly, as noted above in the
[able, in the i-th year of Jehoshaphat. on the attempts to bring these 3 dates into accord, Bee
the notes on the several verses.

4 In -j K ix. 29, the date is given as tliellth year of Jehoram. But such a variation ma) be
accounted for by the Jewish mode of reckoning regnal yean,

period embraced Ix tween the accession of Jeroboam and the death of Jehoram i-!>i
years 1975— 88*1. rhat the totals oi years ascribed to the kings amount to a larger number than

this is due to the counting of one and the same year as the final year oft reuni and tin- Initial

year or the next. These totals are 95 for Judah and 96 for Israel The total for Israel is greater
Mian that for Judah because oi the greater number oi the accessions and the consequently

greater number ol the double reckonings. But if tin- thn s reigns reck -i as 2 years each in

Israel, be counted, ai they really were, for onlj one year each, the totals on h,,ti, sides become

tin- same.

6 Fro... theSSrd year of Joash to the 87th year makes the reign of Jehoahai to he little more
than 1 1 wars, w bile the length of the reign of Jehoash, from the S7th year of Joash to bbe
ifltnol Vmazlab, would be somewhat more than 16 rears, If we take the exi ess in one ease to
supplement the defect ill the other the total time Will be QOi far from COl



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.



gj>3

'3 o

29'



52



JUDAH



Amaziah* (2nd yr of Je-
hoash) 2 K. xiv. 1



Edom smitten by Jtidah (2 K.

xiv. 7)
Defeat of Amaziah at Beth-

shemesh (2 K. xiv. 13)



Azariah 9 (27th [?J yr of Je-
roboam) 2 K. xv. 1—2



Azariah towards the close of
h is reign is a leper



Jotham (2nd yr of Pekah)

2 K. xv. 32, 33
Ahaz (17th yr of Pekah) 2

K. xvi. 1



Ahaz seeks help from Assyria
(2 K. xvi. 7)



841



826
811

773
772

77-J



761
759
758
742



730



ISRAEL






Death of Elisha (2 K. xiii.

14)
Some territory recoveredfrom

Syri a (2 K. xiii. 25)



Jeroboam XI. (15th yr of 4is
Amaziah) 2 K. xiv. 23



Jeroboam recovers Damascus
and Hamath (2 K. xiv. 25)

Zechariah (3Sth yr of Aza-
riah) 2 K. xv. 8

Shallum (39th yr of Azariah)
2 K. xv. 13

Menahem (39th yr of Aza-
riah) 2 K. xv. 27

Pal, king of Assyria, comes
against Israel

Menahem becomes vassal of
Assyria (2 K. xv. 19)



Pekahiah (50th yr of Aza-
riah) 2 K. xv. 23

Pekah (52nd yr of Azariah)
2 K. xv. 27



Pekah and Rezin king of Da-
mascus attack Jerusalem



Pekah' s kingdom attacked by
Tiglathpileser

Hoshea (12th yr of Ahaz) 2

K. xvii. 1
Shalmaneser attacks Israel
Hoshea treats with So king of

Egypt
Second attack of Shalmaneser



10



2oio



7 Amaziah lived 15 years after the death of Jehoash (2 K. xiv. 17).

8 Between the 15th year of Amaziah who reigned 29 years and the 38th of Azariah must he a
period of about 52 or 53 years. Either the 41 years of text is wrong, or there was some inter-
regnum of 11 or 12 years.

y There is some error in this date. For Amaziah began to reign in the 2nd year of Jehoash.
Jehoash reigned 16 years. So he lived about 14 years contemporary with Amaziah. The latter
lived 15 years after the death of Jehoash. Thus his whole reign was 29 years. Now in the 15th
year of Amaziah began Jeroboam II. to reign. Hence Amaziah must have died, and Azariah
succeeded in the 14th or 15th year of Jeroboam.

10 From the 52nd year of Azariah to the 12th year of Ahaz we have 28 years at least for the
reigns of Jotham and part of Ahaz. The reign of Pekah must therefore have been longer than
20 years if Hoshea immediately succeeded him. That there is some error in connexion with the
dates of Pekah and Jotham is apparent from 2 K, xv. 30—32.



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.



29



55



u



JUDAII



Hezekiab(3rdv>ofHoshea)

2 K. xviii. 1
Reformation of Hezekiah (2

K. xviii. 4)



Samaria taken in the. 6th pear

of king Hezekiah
Sennacherib Invadet Judah
Destruction of the Assyrian

army
Hezekiah's sickness
Babylonian embassy to Jeru-
salem
Manasseh (2 K. xxi. 1)
Manasseh carried captive to

Babylon (2 Chr. xxxiii. 11)
Amdn (2 K. xxi. 19)
Josiah (2 K. xxii. 1)
Restoration of Ike Temple
Finding of the book of the Law
Abolition of all idolatry
Great celebration of the Pass-
over
Pharaoh-necuh comes against

Assyria
Josiah slain at Megiddo
Jehoahaz (2 K. xxiii. 31)
Pharaoh-necoh carries Jeho-
ahaz captive (2 K. xxiii. 33)
Jehoiakim (2 K. xxiii. 86)
Jehoiakim tributary to Egypt

(2 K. xxiii. 35)
Afterwards tributary to As-

syria (2 K. xxiv. 1)
Judah attackedbyChaldceans,
Syrians, Moabites and Am-
monites
Jehoiachin (2 K. xxiv. 8)
Egyptians driven back by the

Babylonians (2 K. xxiv. 7)
Jehoiachin taken captive to

Babylon (2 K. xxiv. 12)
Zedekiah (2 K. xxiv. 18)
Jerusalem besieged by Neou-

chadnez tar (2 K. xxv. l)
Capture and destruction of

Jerusalem
Qedaliah appointed governor

(2 K. xxv. 22)

The residue of the Jews flee
unto Egypt (2 K. xxv. 26)

Jehoiachin kindly treated by
Evil-Merodach



726



m



721



697



:,:>»



r.t;2



ISRAEL



Sargon succeeds Shalmaneser
Samaria taken (6th V of Heze-
kiah) 2 K. xviii. 10



3&



11 The period from the accession "f Jehu to the captivity of the 10 trilies embraces \ec yearn
The total ni the regnal years i if the kings of Judah amounts to 16S, a difference easUy Introduced
ii> the counting the Mine year twice over at tin- end of a reign and the beginning of another.
But the regnal yean assigned to the kin-< of Israel are little more than MS, Thus it is clear

that ai t 20 yean must !»• added, and this accords « itli the neceralty nen above of giving ii

\. lit man hctween Jerohoam II. ami Zeihariah, and 3 years more between Pekah and ll.isliia.



THE FIRST BOOK OF THE KINGS,

COMMONLY CALLED,

THE THIKD BOOK OF THE KINGS.

NOW king David was old and stricken in years ; and they 1
covered him with clothes, but he gat no heat. Where- 2
fore his servants said unto him, Let there be sought for my
. lord the king a young virgin: and let her stand before the
king, and let her cherish him, and let her lie in thy bosom,
that my lord the king may get heat. So they sought for a fan* 3
damsel throughout all the coasts of Israel, and found Abishag
a Shunammite, and brought her to the king. And the damsel 4
was very fair, and cherished the king, and ministered to him :
but the king knew her not.

I. 1. Now] Better, And. This sentence is not to be regarded as
the commencement of a new history, but a continuation of what
has been told in 2 Sam. The two books fall naturally into three
sections. (1) The reign of Solomon, 1 Kings i. — xi. (2) The history
of two kingdoms after their separation, till the overthrow of the
northern kingdom, 1 Kings xii. — 2 Kings xvii. (3) The history
of the kingdom of Judah from the Assyrian to the Babylonish
Captivity, 2 Kings xviii. — xxv. Icing David was old] The cir-

cumstances recorded in this passage must have happened when the
feeble king had taken to his bed. stricken in years'] on the

margin 'entered into days.' they covered him with clothes] i.e.

With bed-clothes. 2. his servants] The word, though primarily

applied to those who were occupied jn servile work, had come by
this time to be used of those who were about a royal person.
Josephus (Ant. vn. 15. 3) says they were the king's physicians.
(Cf. Gen. 1. 2.) a young virgin] This device, whereby it was

thought to communicate vital heat from a young frame to an old
one, was adopted by the advice of physicians long after David's
time. and let her stand before the Icing] This phrase is used

of those who serve or minister to another. It seems clear from
the language of Solomon (1 Kings ii. 22) that Abishag was to be
counted as one of the wives of David. 3. a fair damsel]

Such as might be fitted to be one of the royal wives. all the

coasts] In the English of the Bible this word has no necessary
reference to sea-board land, but often signifies, as here, borders,
territories. Abishag a Shunammite] Shunem was a city belong-

ing to the tribe of Issachar and lying to the north of Jezreel and of
Mt Gilboa. 4. cherished the Tcing] Being always at hand to



10 I. KINGS, I. 5—8.

5 Then Adonijah the son of Haggith exalted himself, saying,

I will be king : and he prepared him chariots and horsemen,


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Online LibraryJoseph Rawson LumbyThe first book of the Kings : with map, introduction and notes → online text (page 1 of 18)