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' at a venture ' is translated in other places, and on the margin of
A.V. and R.V. 'in his simplicity.' The idea appears to be that the
man taking aim at some one, was quite unaware at whom he was
shooting. between the joints of the harness] The margins

of R.V. 'between the lower armour and the breastplate' and of A.V.
'between the joints and the breastplate* help us to understand what
is meant. wherefore he said unto the driver of his chariot] He



I. KINGS, XXII. 35—39. 139

out of the host ; for I am wounded. And the battle increased 35
that day : and the king was stayed up in his chariot against
the Syrians, and died at even • and the blood ran out of the
wound into the midst of the chariot. And there went a procla- 36
mation throughout the host about the going down of the sun,
saying, Every man to his city, and every man to his own
country. So the king died, and was brought to Samaria ; and 37
they buried the king in Samaria. And one washed the chariot 38
in the pool of Samaria ; and the dogs licked up his blood ; and
they washed his armour ; according unto the word of the Lokd
which he spake. Now the rest of the acts of Ahab, and all 3!)
that he did, and the ivory house which he made, and all the
cities that he built, are they not written in the book of the

would not wish to spread alarm among his soldiers, and so made his
retreat without observation. J am icounded] R.V. sore

wounded. The literal rendering ' made sick ' which is given on the
margin of A.V. implies more than an ordinary wound. Perhaps
Ahab employed the word, which might have a certain vagueness,
that the charioteer should not spread an alarm. For the driver knew
of course who it was whom he was carrying. 35. the king

was stayed tip in his chariot] Some attempt was doubtless made
to stop the bleeding, and it was thought best that though not in
the fight, Ahab should not withdraw from the field. into the

midst [R.V. bottom] of the chariot] As will be seen from the
margin of A.V. the literal meaning is ' bosom.' The knowledge of
how to stop the bleeding of a wound was not great in those days,
and Ahab's wound must have been fatal whatever had been done.

36. And there went a proclamation] R.V. a cry. The word is
often rendered 'cry' and applied both to sorrowful and joyous
utterances. every man to his own country] The R.V. omits

'own', which has nothing to represent it in the original.

38. And one [R.V. they] washed the chariot in [R.V. by] the
pool of Samaria] The first charjge substitutes an English for a
Hebrew idiom; the second renders more exactly the preposition
of the original. It was necessary in the East to provide large
reservoirs outside each town that the supplies of water in the
rainy season might be kept for times of drought. To the side of
such a tank the royal equipage was brought to be washed. Thus
Abab's blood came to be licked up by the dogs in the same sort of
spot, outside the city walls, as that where Naboth's blood was
licked up near Jezreel. and they washed his armour] R.V.

Now the harlots washed themselves there. This change,
which is the rendering of the LXX., is no doubt correct. The
Hebrew word occurs often in the O. Test, and means nothing
else but 'harlots,' while the verb in the sentence is only applied
to bathing the body. This was the place to which they usually came
to bathe. It should be mentioned that Josephus, and among

the Fathers, Theodoret, support the rendering of R.V. 39. th e

ivory house that he made [R.V. built] The verb is the same as in the
next clause. The house was of course not of ivory, but largely



140 I. KINGS, XXII. 40—43.

40 chronicles of the kings of Israel ? So Ahab slept with his
fathers ; and Ahaziah his son reigned in his stead.

41 And Jehoshaphat the son of Asa began to reign over Judah

42 in the fourth year of Ahab king of Israel. Jehoshaphat teas
thirty and five years old when he began to reign ; and he
reigned twenty and five years in Jerusalem. And his mother's

43 name was Azubah the daughter of Shilhi. And he walked in
all the ways of Asa his father; he turned not aside from it,
doing that which was right in the eyes of the Lokd : never-
theless the high places were not taken away; for the people

adorned with it. That such adornment prevailed in Oriental lands,
see Amos iii. 15. 40. Ahaziah his sou] Ahaziah was the elder

son of Ahab, and died subsequently in consequence of a fall (2 Kings
i. 17) and was succeeded by his brother Jehoram (2 Kings iii. 1).

41. Jehoshaphat the son of Asa] For the events of the twenty-
five years of Jehoshaphat's reign the books of Kings give but a
scanty record. His alliance with Jehoram, Ahab's son, against the
king of Moab, is mentioned (2 Kings ii. 7, seqq.) and that Jehoram,
his son, was made king during his father's lifetime (2 Kings viii.
16). But this is all. Yet clearly Jehoshaphat was a king of much
influence. The Chronicler also tells much good concerning him.
The Lord was with bun (2 Chron. xvii.) and he prospered. He
sent out Levites with the princes to teach the people in the cities
of Judah. His enemies were dismayed by his greatness, for he
had famous commanders, and mighty armies. He made the
improper alliance with Ahab (2 Chron. xviii.), but after Ahab's
death he returned to Jerusalem and appointed and instructed
judges and priests and Levites (2 Chron, xix.) to act in the fear of
the Lord and with a perfect heart. He was attacked by Moab
(2 Chron. xx.) but seeking unto the Lord he gamed a great victory,
which he celebrated in such a way that the place of the celebration
was known afterwards as ' The valley of blessing.' 42. He

reigned twenty and fire years] His son and successor, Jehoram,
was made king in conjunction with his father, before Jehosha-
phat's death (2 Kings ix. 16). But this could only have been done
just at the close of Jehoshaphat's reign. For it was in the fourth
year of Ahab that Jehoshaphat began to reign. Ahab reigned 22
years (1 Kings xvi. 29). So that 18 years of Jehoshaphat's reign
were over when Ahab died. Ahaziah reigned two years ( see verse
51 below), and it was in the fifth year of Joram, the brother and
successor of Ahaziah, that Jehoshaphat joined his son with him in
the kingdom. So that, unless the years are not complete years, it
must have been in the closing years of his father's reign that Jeho-
ram began his joint reign. 43. nevertheless [R.Y. howbeit
the high places were not taken away ; for [om. for R.Y.] the people
offered [R.Y. still sacrificed] and burnt incense yet [om. yet
R.Y.] in the high //laces. 'To sacrifice' is the constant translation
of the verb changed in B.V. The statement here made is no
contradiction, as might at first sight appear, to 2 Chron. xvii. 6,
'he took away the high places and groves [R.Y. the Asherim



I. KINGS, XXII. 44—50. 141

offered and burnt incense yet in the high places. And Je- 44
hoshaphat made peace with the king of Israel. Now the rest 45
of the acts of Jehoshaphat, and his might that he shewed, and
how he warred, are they not written in the book of the chroni-
cles of the kings of Judah ? And the remnant of the sodom- 46
ites, which remained in the days of his father Asa, he took out
of the land. There teas then no king in Edom: a deputy ivas 47
king. Jehoshaphat made ships of Tharshish to go to Ophir 48
for gold : but they went not ; for the ships were broken at
Ezion-geber. Then said Ahaziah the son of Ahab unto Je- 49
hoshaphat, Let my servants go with thy servants in the ships.
But Jehoshaphat would not. And Jehoshaphat slept with his. 50



out of Judah.' The addition of 'the Asherim' in the latter
passage shews that the writer is speaking of the high places
which were devoted to the worship of Baal and Ashtoreth. The
high places which had been from early times set apart for the
worship of Jehovah, and which were meant to be put down when
the temple was built, Jehoshaphat had not power to abolish.

44. Jehoshaphat made peace with the Icing of Israel} This is
mentioned because up to his time the two kingdoms had been always
at war. 45. and how he warred] On the wars of Jehoshaphat,

see above on verse 41, and the chapters in 2 Chronicles there
referred to. in the booh of the chronicles of the kings of Judah]

The Chronicler gives, as the authority for Jehoshaphat's history,
the book of Jehu, the son of Hanani, who is mentioned in the
book of the kings of Israel. 46. which remained in the

days of his father] Asa had striven to put them down. See xv.
12 above. " he took, [R.V. put away] out of the land] 'To

put away ' is by far the most frequent rendering of the verb.

47. There was then [R.V. And there was] no king in Edom]
Therefore Jehoshaphat could go through Idumsea to the Bed Sea
and prepare him a fleet in Ezion-geber. On Ezion-geber and its
position in the land of Edom, see above on ix. 26. a deputy

was king] What had become of the royal family of Edom, which
Hadad (see xi. 14 seqq.) appears to have established again, we are
nowhere told. Nor is there anything to guide us to a conclusion
by whom the deputy was appointed. 48. shij)s of Tharshish]

See above on x. 22. Ophir] See ix. 28. the ships

were broken] According to the Chronicler (2 Chron. xx. 35 — 37)
these ships were built in conjunction with Ahaziah, king of Israel.
And Eliezer the prophet rebuked Jehoshaphat for this alliance,
and said, ' because thou hast joined thyself with Ahaziah, the Lord
hath broken thy works.' Thus the breaking of the ships, however
it came to pass, by storm or otherwise, was regarded as brought
about by divine interposition. 49. Let my servants go

with thy servants] This appears to have been an attempt to
engage Jehoshaphat in a second expedition. If there were two
expeditions contemplated, one may have been to Ophir, and the
other to Tarshish.



142 I. KINGS, XXII. 51—53.

fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David
his father : and Jehoram his son reigned in his stead.

51 Ahaziah the son of Ahab began to reign over Israel in Sa-
maria the seventeenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah,

i>2 and reigned two years over Israel. And he did evil in the
sight of the Lord, and walked in the way of his father, and in
the way of his mother, and in the way of Jeroboam the son of

53 Nebat, who made Israel to sin: for he served Baal, and wor-
shipped him, and provoked to anger the Lord God of Israel,
according unto all that his father had done.



51. the seventeenth year] The R.V. inserts in before these
words, and as the preposition is in the original, there is no ground
for excluding it in the English. On the chronology see above
on verse 42. and reigned] R.V. and he reigned.

52. the wag of his mother] i.e. he tried to put down the worship
of Jehovah altogether, as Jezebel had done. who [R.V.
'wherein he] made Israel to sin] On a similar change, cf. above
xvi. 30. 53. for [R.V. And] he served Baal] This is an
additional count in his wickedness, not an explanation of what is
contained in the verse before. Hence the change.



INDEX.



Aaron, rod of, 53

Abel-beth-ma«*ichah, 98

Abel-meholah, 31, 119

Abiathar, the priest, 21, 30

Abijah, son of Jeroboam, 92, 91, 95

Abishag, 9

AbishaIom = Absalom, 95

Abner, 18

Achisb, king of Gath, 24

Adonijah, 10, 20

Adoniram, 30, 36

Adoram, 82

Abab, king of Israel, 103, 132, 133, 139

Abaziah, son of Abab, 142

Abijah the Shilonite, 77, 90

cdmug (alqum) trees, 68

Amasa, 18, 23

Ammonites, god of the, 73

Amon, 137

Anathoth, 21

Aphek, 126

Aram, 72

Argob, 31

ark, contents of the, 53, 54

Arubboth, 30

Arza, 101

Asa, king of Judab, 96, 97, 98, 101

Asherah, 96, 105, 111

Asherim, 92, 94, 140

Athaliah, 133

Azariah, son of Zadok, 29

Azzah=Gaza, 32

Baal, 104; prophets of, 111, 112

Baana, sou of Ahilud, 31

Baasha, king of Israel, 97

Barzillai the Gileadite, 19

bath, Hebrew measure so called, 48

Bath-sheba, 11

Belial, sons of, 130

Ben-Abinadab, 30

Benaiah, David's captain, 10, 21

Ben-Deker, 30

Ben-Geber, 31

Ben-hadad, 97, 121, 124

Ben-Hesed, 30

Ben-Hur, 30

Beth-el, 84, 85 ; prophet of, 8

Beth-horon, towns so called, 64

Boaz, pillar called, 47

Bui, month so called, 43

Byblus, 37

Cabul, explanation of the name, 63
Calcol, 33
Carchemish, 71
G'armel, Mt, 111, 113
chambers round the Temple, 38
Chemosh, god of the Moabites, 73
Cherethites, the, 10, 14, 94
Cherith, torrent-bed of, 105
cherubim, the, 42, 52
Chinneroth, 98
chronological table, 5



coast, meaning of, 9

cor, a Hebrew measure, 32

cracknels, what, 90

Cyrus, God stirs up the heart of, 58

Damascus, 71, 119

Dan, 84, 98

David, 25, 74

Deuteronomv, allusions to, 18,

Dor, 30

dreams, God speaks by, 27

cast country, children of the, 33 ,

Edom, destruction of, 74

Egypt, 66

Elah, king of Israel, 101

Elath, 66

Eli, family of, 22

Eliada, 76

Elijah the Tishblte, 105, 106, 111, 112,

114, 118, 131
Elisha, son of Shaphat, 119
El-Tib, desert of, 75
En-rogel, 11
Ethan the Ezrahite, 33
Ethanim, month so called, 52
Ethbaal, king of Zidon, 104
Euphrates, 32, 92
Ezion-geber, 66, 141

feasts of the Jewish year, 65

gate, as a seat of judgement. 28, 134

Gaza, 32

Geba of Benjamin, 98

Gebalites, 37

Gibbethon, 99, 102

Gibeon, the great high place. 26, 61

Gihon, notice of, 14

Gilead, 31, 105, 106

Hadad, the Edomite, 74, 75

Hadadezer, 76

Hamath, 60

Hanani, 98

harness, 122

Havvoth-Jair, 31

Hazael, king of Syria, Hi)

Hazor, 63

heaven of heavens, 55

Hem an, 33

Hezion, 97

Hiel the Bethelite, 105

high places, 73, 96

Hiram, king of Tyre, 34, 35, 63, 68

Hittites, kings of the, 70

Horeb, 117

horns of the altar, 16, 22

houses of high places, 84

Ibzan, the j udge, 64

Ijon, 98

m=with the loss of, 105

Israel and Judah, clearly distinct, 33, 79



144



INDEX.



Jabin, king of Canaan. 63

Jachin, pillar called, 47

Jadon, 85

Jehoshaphat, king of Judali, 133, 140,

138, 141
Jehu, 100, 119
Jericho rebuilt, 105
Jeroboam, son of Xebat, 76, 77
Jezebel, 104, 116, 129
Jezreel, 132
Joab, 10, 15, 18, 22, 74
Joash, the king's son, 137
Jokmeam, 31

Joktan, dwelt in Arabia, 66
Jonathan, son of Abiathar, 15
Joppa, 36
Josephus, 28, 81, 83, 85, 96, 107. 114,

121, 131
Josiah, king of Judah, 85

Kadesh, 72

Kidron, brook, 23, 96

Kishon, the brook, 115

lamp, significance of, 78
Lebanon, beauty of, 64
lev//, of Solomon, 36, 65, 82
'little child,' meaning of, 26, 75

Maachah, 95, 96

Malcham, 73

Maneh, value of the, 69

meat-offerinq, meaning of, 60

Megiddo, 31, 63

Micaiah, 134, 135, 136

Midian, where, 75

Milcom, 72

Millo, 63, 77

Mizpdh, 98

Mosaic law, Naboth's regard for, 129

Mount of Offence, 73

Naamah, wife of Solomon, 93
Naboth, 129, 130, 131
Nadab, king of Israel, 93, 99
Nathan, the prophet, 11

Obadiah, 109, 110
oil, beaten, 36
Omri, 86, 102, 103, 133
Ophir, 66

Palmyra. 64

Paran, wilderness of, 75, 117
Paul the hermit, life of, 106
Peletbites, the, 14, 94
Pharaoh, king of Egypt, 25, 64, 75
Pharaoh's daughter,*25, 45, 65
present - marriage-portion, 64
Proverbs of .Solomon, 33

queen-mother, dignity of, 20, 65



Kamah, 97

Pamoth-tJilead, 31, 133 ; battle of, 137

Rehoboam, 79, 80, 82, 93

Pezon, son of Eliada, 76

riddles, among the ancients, 67

river, the= Euphrates, 32

Samaria, 89, 92, 103
sandalwood, thought to be almug, 68
seah, a Jewish measure, 113
Septuagint, 22, 61, 63, 67, 70, 104, 105,

106, 107, 113, 139
servants, meaning of, 9, 67
Shaalbim, 30
Sheba the Benjamite, 81
Slieba, queen of, 66, 68
Shechem, 79, 83
She/elah, 71

'shekel,' the word, omitted, 69
Shemaiah, 83
Shimei, notices of, 19, 23
Shishak, king of Egypt, 25, 79, 94
Shunem, 9

shut up and left, meaning of, 91, 132
Socoh, 30

Solomon, 25, 33, 34, 53, 59, 66, 69, 73, 79
w« = grandson, 29
spices, Arabia famous for, 67
stones, twelve, for an altar, 113
stoning, place for, outside the city, 130
strangers, forced labour of, 65
streets made in foreign towns, 127
•Succoth, 51

Taanach, 31

Tadmor, 64

talent, value of, 69

Taphath, daughter of Solomon. ".1

Tarsbish, ships of, 70, 141

Temple, 38, 55

Tibni, son of Ginath, 103

Tiphsah, 32

Tirzah, 92, 98, 100, 101, 102

Tyre, need of food supply in, 36

Tyrians, skilled seamen,"66

Tyropceon, 77

Uriah the Nittite, 95

venture, at a, 138

Wady el Arish, 60

Zadok, the priest, 10, 30
Zarephath, 106
Zarethan, 31, 51
Zedekiah, 133, 134
Zemaraini, 95
Zerah the Ethiopian, 9S
Zeruiah, 10
Zif, month of, 37
Zimri, 101, 102
Zoheleth, stone of, 11



lAMBRIDUK: FKINTJiU BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. AND SONS, AT THK UMVBRSJTT PRESS.



1



3



Cfte Cambridge 33itile for ^cboate
antr Colleger*

OPINIONS OF THE PKESS.

The Book of Judges. J. J. Lias, M.A. "His introduction
is clear and concise, full of the information which young students
require, and indicating the lines on which the various problems
suggested by the Book of Judges may be solved." — Baptist
Magazine.

I. Samuel, by A. F. Kirkpatrick. " Kemembering the interest
with which we read the Books of the Kingdom when they were
appointed as a subject for school work in our boyhood, we have
looked with some eagerness into Mr Kirkpatrick's volume, which
contains the first instalment of them. We are struck with the
great improvement in character, and variety in the materials, with
which schools are now supplied. A clear map inserted in each
volume, notes suiting the convenience of the scholar and the
difficulty of the passage, and not merely dictated by the fancy of
the commentator, were luxuries which a quarter of a century ago
the Biblical student could not buy." — Church Quarterly Review.

II. Samuel. A. F. Kiekpatrick, M.A. " Small as this work
is in mere dimensions, it is every way the best on its subject and
for its purpose that we know of. The opening sections at once
prove the thorough competence of the writer for dealing with
questions of criticism in an earnest, faithful and devout spirit ;
and the appendices discuss a few special difficulties with a full
knowledge of the data, and a judicial reserve, which contrast most
favourably with the superficial dogmatism which has too often
made the exegesis of the Old Testament a field for the play of
n nlim itp.fi paradox and the ostentation of personal infallibility.
The notes are always clear and suggestive ; never trifling or
irrelevant ; and they every where demonstrate the great difference
in value between the work of a commentator who is also a Hebraist,
and that of one who has to depend for his Hebrew upon second-
hand sources." — Academy.

I. Kings and Ephesians. "With great heartiness we com-
mend these most valuable little commentaries. We had rather
purchase these than nine out of ten of the big blown up expositions.
Quality is far better than quantity, and we have it here." — Sword
and Trowel.

II. Kings. "It would be difficult to find a commentary better
suited for general use." — Academy.

The Book of Job. "Able and scholarly as the Introduction
is, it is far surpassed by the detailed exegesis of the book. In this
Dr Davidson's strength is at its greatest. His linguistic know-
ledge, his artistic habit, his scientific insight, and his literary
power have full scope when he comes to exegesis... The book is
worthy of the reputation of Dr Davidson ; it represents the results
of many years of labour, and it will greatly help to the right
understanding of one of the greatest works in the literature of the
world." — The Spectator.

" The Gospel according to St Matthew, by the Rev. A. Carr.
The introduction is able, scholarly, and eminently practical." —
English Churchman.



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS (continued).
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Online LibraryJoseph Rawson LumbyThe first book of the Kings : with map, introduction and notes → online text (page 18 of 18)