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THE

MODERN TRAVELLER,

VOLUME THE FIFTEENTH.

GREECE.
VOL. I.



THE



MODERN TRAVELLER.



GEOGRAPHICAL, HISTORICAL, AND TOPOGRAPHICAL,



VARIOUS COUNTRIES OF THE GLOBE.



IN THIRTY VOLUMES.



BY JOSIAH CONDER.



VOLUME THE FIFTEENTH.



LONDON:
JAMES DUNCAN, 37, PATERNOSTER. ROW.



MDCCCXXX.



LONDON:
Printed by W. CLOWES,
Stamford-street.



CONTENTS

OF THE FIRST VOLUME.



PAGK

BOUNDARIES 1

ON THE PROPER APPLICATION OF THE TERMS

GREECE AND GREEK 3

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE 7

NATURAL HISTORY 15

POLITICAL DIVISIONS AND POPULATION 21

WORKS OF MODERN TRAVELLERS IN GREECE . . 27

HISTORY OF THE GREEK REVOLUTION 32

STATE AND CHARACTER OF THE PEOPLE 48

HISTORY OF ALI PASHA OF IOANNINA 55

ORIGIN OF THE HETARISTS 119

COMMENCEMENT OF THE REVOLUTION 129

FALL OF TRIPOLITZA HO

CONGRESS OF EPIDAURUS 147

DESTRUCTION OF SCIO 154

FIRST SIEGE OF MESSOLUNGHI 169

CAMPAIGN OF 1822 177

CONGRESS OF ASTROS 18?

CAMPAIGN OF 1823 189

STATE OF AFFAIRS AT THE ARRIVAL OF LORD

BYRON 201

CAMPAIGN OF 1824 206

FALL OF IPSARA 207

STATE OF GREECE AT THE BEGINNING OF 1825. 214

SIEGE AND FALL OF NAVARINO 218

SECOND SIEGE OF MESSOLUNGHI 231

STATE OF PARTIES IN THE AUTUMN OF 1825 ... 238

CHARACTER AND DEATH OF ODYSSEUS.., , 245



iv CONTEXTS.

PACE

INTERVIEW WITH IBRAHIM PASHA 255

POSTURE OF AFFAIRS AT THE CLOSE OF THE

FIFTH CAMPAIGN 256

THE MOREA.

NAVARINO 263

MODON 268

CORON 272

FROM NAVARINO TO ARCADIA 274

FROM OLYMPIA TO ARCADIA 280

FROM ARCADIA TO MESSENE 285

MESSENE 288

FROM SCALA TO MAINA 292

KALAMATA 29?

KITRIES 303

KARDAMOULA 313

MARATHONISI 325

CHARACTER AND HISTORY OF THE MAINOTES.. 328

CERIGO 338

FROM MARATHONA TO MISTRA 341

FROM LEONDARI TO MISTRA 343

MISTRA 351

SPARTA 361

FROM MISTRA TO NAPOU DI MALVASIA 373



THE

MODERN TRAVELLER,



ETC. ETC.



GREECE.

[A country of Europe, lying between lat. 36 15' and 40 N., and
long. 20 10' and 24 ^E ; bounded, on the N , by Albania Proper
and Macedonia ; on the E. by the Egean Sea ; on the W. by the
Ionian Sea ; and on the S. by the Mediterranean.]

THREE centuries and a half have elapsed since, by
the cession of the Morea to the Ottoman conqueror ot
Constantinople, the name of Greece was blotted out
from the map of Europe. It had long been reduced
to a mere name. From the time that Athens fell
before the arms of Sylla, (B. C. 86,) it had ceased to
be an independent power. When the master of the
Roman world removed the seat of empire from Italy
to Thrace, Greece was still nothing more than a pro-
vince of Rome ; and the historian remarks, that " in
the lowest period of degeneracy and decay, the name
of Romans adhered to the last fragments of the empire
of Constantinople." *

It is not true, that " the majesty of Greece fell
under the scimitar of Mahomet II." It had long been
despoiled of its honours by Christian invaders ; and

* Gibbon.
PART I. Jt



2 GREECE.

the pillage of Constantinople by the Latin barbarians,
in the fifth crusade, was not surpassed in horrors by
that which ensued on the Mussulman conquest. In
the partition of the empire by the French and the
Venetians in 1204, Greece, " the proper and ancient
Greece," again received a Latin conqueror in the
Marquis of Montferrat, who is described by Gibbon as
treading with indifference that classic ground. " He
viewed with a careless eye the beauties of the valley
of Tempe, traversed with a cautious step the straits
of Thermopylae, occupied the unknown cities of Thebes,
Athens, and Argos, and assaulted the fortifications of
Corinth and Napoli di Romania, which resisted his
arms." * The fertile island of Crete was purchased of
the Marquis by the Venetians, " with the ruins of a
hundred cities," and colonised with the refuse of the
Adriatic. Sclavonian robbers had desolated the penin-
sula before the Turks became its masters. All of
ancient Greece that had not perished, consisted of its
language, its monuments, and its haunted and teeming
soil, its " vales of evergreen and hills of snow,"

" The sun, the soil, but not the slave, the same;
Unchanged in all, except its foreign lord."

* Gibbon, ch. 61. " It was evident," says Daru, " that this
division of the empire would in a short time ruin the power of the
Latins in the East. Powerful enough to destroy, they were not
sufficiently so to preserve. When we read, in Villehardouin, of the
conquests which this and that prince undertook with a hundred or
six-score knights, we seem to be reading of the expeditions of the
lieutenants of Pizarro or Ferdinand Cortes ; and one is mortified to
see the descendants of the Greeks and the remains of the Roman
empire treated wfcr. such contempt These possessions were con-
ceded to barons with titles hitherto unknown in the East. The earl
of Blois was duke of Nicea; Villehardouin, marshal of Romania.
The novelty of the titles bespoke the great change which had taken
place in the constitution of society ; and Greece must doubtless
have been astonished at beholding an earl of Naxos, a prince of
Lacedminon, a duke of Athens." Hintoire de fenise, lib. iv. 37.



GREECE. 3

" Some confusion," remarks an accomplished Phil-
hellenist, " has been occasioned by the different ideas
attached by various writers to the denominations
Greece and Greeks. When they are exclusively
restricted to those commonwealths that took part in
the Peloponnesian war, or those that sent deputies to
the council of Amphictyons, Macedonia, Epirus, and
Constantinople will be without their limits ; and if a
wider range be taken, there will be danger of con-
founding with the descendants of the Hellenes, many
nations of perfectly different origin, but whose religion
and habitual language have embodied them with the
Greeks. The Wallachian colony that occupies the
passes of Pindus and the frontiers of Thessaly and
Macedonia, is distinguished from its neighbours by
the preservation of a dialect retaining much more of
the Latin than any of its other derivatives. They are
supposed to have acquired this idiom from the Roman
colonies planted by Trajan upon the Dacian frontier.
A Sclavonian race is immediately distinguishable in
the figure, countenance, and habits of the Albanian :
his native idiom bears also marks of the same origin.
But the common tongue of both these tribes, even
among themselves, is Greek ; and few of the Albanian
colonists of Peloponnesus retain even a recollection of
their original language. * Mussulmans in their native
mountains, the Albanians have generally assumed the
Greek faith in their emigrations to the south, and are
supposed to be equally negligent of both. Thessaly,
Boeotia, Attica, and the eastern Morea, are full of their
villages; and the effeminate Greeks are gradually

Mr. Leake states, that the descendants of the Albanian colonists
who, about two centuries ago, settled in Boeotia, Attica, and Argolis,
still speak the Albanian tongue. Outline, &c. p. 9.



4 . GliKKCE.

yielding to a more hardy race, the care of the flock and
culture of the field.

44 When the Russians, after their abortive expe-
dition to the Morea, left its inhabitants, without pro-
tection, to the fury of their masters against whom
they had rebelled, the Turks, too indolent for the
work of slaughter themselves, turned the Albanian
bloodhounds upon that devoted region ; nor was the
task they had given them neglected. All the Morea,
northward of the impervious mountains of Maina,
remained many years in the possession of an unre-
strained banditti. Some of these robbers, no doubt,
settled in the country which they had pillaged ; but
the tall, strong figures and sandy countenances of
many of the peasants in Argolis and Arcadia, refer
their Sclavonian blood to a much earlier date. The
despot of the Morea is said to have had Albanians in
his service ; and Gibbon mentions several irruptions of
Sclavonians into that country so early as the eighth
century. At present, the majority of the smaller
villages is certainly occupied by the descendants of
Sclavonians ; and the pure Greek blood is more likely
to be found in the islands of the Archipelago, than
upon the continent, except in some singular cases.
Eastward of the Strymon, the Albanians are but thinly
scattered ; but the Bulgarians, who occupy the ancient
Thrace, are united, by the Mussulmans, with both
Albanians and Greeks, in the common appellation of
Giaour or infidel, and agree with them in religion and
in the general use of the same tongue." *

The claims of the modern Greeks to the sympathy

Douglas (Hon. F. S. N.) on certain Points of Resemblance be-
tween the Ancient and Modem Greeks. 8vo. pp. 40 43. (3d edn.
1813.)



GEEECE. 5

and aid of Christian Europe, cannot depend on the
geographical, or rather historical question which relates
to the proper application of the name. Their right
and title to the soil, on the ground of inheritance,
would seem to be not much more valid than that of
the Welsh, the genuine Britons, to the sovereignty of
the British isles. Whether, then, the Mainotes are
descended, as they boast, from the ancient Spartans,
or from Lacoriian pirates ; whether the Hydriotes are
Hellenists by descent, or belong, as has been contended
by a modern traveller,* to " the worst and lowest
species of Albanians ;" whatever be the origin of the
various tribes of the peninsula, or how mixed soever
they may be with Sclavonic or Venetian intruders,
their cause is the cause of freedom and of humanity.
Like the Copts of Egypt, they are doubtless both a
mixed and a degenerate race. Still, the interest
attaching to them as Greeks, and which, in spite of
all that may be said against them, must attach to their
name, linked as it is with every classical prepossession
and with the proudest historical recollections, this
interest belongs to the soil, not to the race. Their
substantial claims are those of a persecuted and op-
pressed people : the accidental interest of their cause
arises from the dialect they speak and the country
they occupy. It is felt as a violence done to every
association, an incongruity in the political state of
things, a disgrace to human nature, that Greece, the
cradle of western learning and the birth-place of liberty,
where the language of Homer and Pindar and Plato is
still the vernacular tongue, should be the seat of Tatar
barbarism and Mussulman intolerance, peopled only
by tyrants and by slaves.

Sir W. Cell,



GHEECE.

The distinguishing, perhaps we might say the
redeeming characteristic of the modern Greeks, that
bond which still unites the mixed tribes as one people,
and at the same time connects them with the country
and its ancient masters, is their language ; that bril-
liant phenomenon, alike wonderful in its preservation
and in its origin, which has survived the political revo-
lutions of thirty centuries, and which, disdaining to-
blend with the barbarous idioms of successive invaders,
has triumphed over the Latin itself, and still vindi-
cates its claim to be the only indigenous language of
Greece.* Disguised as it is in the Romaic by various
dialects and perhaps a corrupt pronunciation, it retains,
if we may be allowed the expression, all its vital force,
and is almost daily resuming more and more of its
original character as embodied in the ancient litera-
ture. The little Greek spoken in Asia Minor, on the
contrary, is nearly unintelligible to the inhabitants of
the Peninsula, on account of the number of Turkish
words with which it is interlarded. -f- Thessaly and
the northern provinces have adopted the barbarisms of
Albania, and an Italian may generally be substituted
for a Greek word at Athens and in the Morea. The
Megareans speak a language much less corrupt than
what is spoken in Attica. The harsh and guttural
utterance of the Mai notes has ben remarked by more

* " The Greeks have preserved their original tongue in greater
purity during an equal extent of years, than any nation with which
we are acquainted, perhaps with the single exception of the Ara-
bians; and I believe, the contemporary of William of Malmsbury
or of Froissart would find more difficulty in conversing with his
modern countrymen, than any Athenian of the purer ages with
his." DOUGLAS, p. 91.

\ See Mod. Trav., Syria and Asia Minor, vol. ii. pp. 134; 155,6;
.73.



GREECE.

than one traveller. In Crete, where few even of the
Turks understand their native tongue, the Romaic is
universally employed in conversation, and appears to
have retained the greatest number of ancient Greek
words. Strange to say, the purest Greek is spoken by
the Fanariots of Constantinople, many of whom em-
ploy the ancient idiom with as much facility as if it
were still in general use ; * but this is the result of
cultivation. In Greece Proper, it seems to be the very
effluence of the climate and the inspiration of the
scene.

Upon the whole, the Greek language may be said
still to prevail, more or less, over the whole of what
was anciently considered as included in Hellas ; namely
from the Teenarian promontory to Upper Macedonia,
together with the islands and coasts of the Egean Sea ;
and these are the countries that will now come more
immediately under our observation. The division,
political and military, which has been adopted by
the Greek government, is that of Eastern Hellas,
Western Hellas, the Morea, the Islands, and Crete.
To this we shall adhere, adverting only occasionally to
the ancient and other modern divisions. But first, we
shall take a general view of the

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

THE long chain of mountains which, stretching
across European Turkey from east to west, divides
Servia and Bulgaria from Romelia and Albania, sends
out two secondary ranges, one of which, the ancient



The dialect spoken by the Greeks at Joannina, is considered a*
one of the purest forms of the Romaic.



8 GREECE.

Rhodope, runs in a south-easterly direction to the Sea
of Marmora ; the other, improperly termed the Pindus
Chain, separating the ancient Illyricum from Mace-
donia, extends southward through the whole of Greece,
terminating in the Corinthian Gulf, while various colla-
teral ranges on the western side, traverse Albania,
an5 extend to the shores of the Gulf of Arta. This
mountain barrier, dividing the country longitudinally
into two unequal portions, separates what is now
termed Eastern from Western Greece ; while, in the
parallel of 39, its lateral branches extend quite across
the continent, from the celebrated pass of Thermopylae
on the shores of the Maliac Gulf, to the coast of
Acarnania. This is the range known under the name
of Mount (Eta, which separates the plains of Thessaly
from Bceotia. A double barrier of mountains divides
the isthmus from Continental Greece, while an appa-
rent prolongation of the great longitudinal chain tra-
verses the whole of the peninsula, terminating in the
rocky coast of M aina.

The Boeotian plains terminate to the north-west in
the valley of Phocis and Doris, watered by the Cephis-
sus and its branches, which have their origin in Mount
(Eta. This valley separates the mountains that rise
from the Gulf of Corinth, and which anciently bore
the names of Helicon, Corax, Parnassus, &c., from
the mountains of Locris, the ancient Callidromus and
Cnemis, which are a prolongation of Mount (Eta, and
the northern face of which looks down on the valley of
the Spercheius and the Maliac Gulf. These two
ranges are united in the region of the ancient Doris :
and from their junction, the central chain of Pindus
continues in a N. or N.N.E. direction, gradually in-
clining towards the coast of the Adriatic, and giving



GREECE. 9

off collateral branches which intersect Albania. For
about a hundred miles, this elevated range is nearly
equi-distant from the eastern arid western coasts.

In Western Greece, a series of plains and valleys
lie between Mount Pindus and the irregular range
which borders the entire extent of the western and
southern coast. At some distance from the eastern ex-
tremity of the Gulf of Arta (the ancient Ambracia),
which divides Epirus from Acarnania, rises a steep,
woody mountain, now called Makrinoro (or Makro-
noros, the Long Mountain), which constitutes a pass
of great strength and importance, corresponding to
that of Thermopylae at the eastern end of the CEtean
range, and completing the barrier between Eastern
and Western Greece. To the north of this ridge
rises the vast and apparently insulated mass called
Tzumerka ; * and still loftier mountains, rising to the
N.E. and N. of this, divide the valley of the Aracthus
or river of Arta, from that of the Aspropotamo (the
ancient Achelous). These mountains are commonly
known under the name of Agrafa : as seen from the
elevated plain of loannina, they appear to fill up, in
the distance, the interval between the Tzumerka and
the narrow and lofty ridge called Metzoukel, which
separates the plain of loannina from the deep valley
of the Aracthus. Immediately beyond the river com-
mences the ascent of a lofty groupe, the successive
ridges of which conduct the eye to summits, supposed
to be not less than 7000 feet above the level of the sea.
These mountains, which now bear the name of the.
Greater Metzovo, are, apparently, the very nucleus of
the chain of Pindus. The town of Metzovo is situated
near one of the sources of the river of Arta, in the

Supposed by Dr. Holland to be the ancient Tomarus.
]< 2



10 GREECE.

bosom of these Alpine regions, and forms one of the
most interesting geographical points in the country.
From this part of the chain of Pindus, four consider-
able rivers take their rise, each pursuing its course to
the sea in a different direction. These are, the Arac-
thus, which flows in a south-westerly direction into
the Gulf of Arta ; the Achelous, which rises at no
great distance, and takes a southerly course through a
mountainous district, entering the Ionian Sea near
Messolonghi ; the Peneus (or Salympria), which,
rising on the eastern side of that part of Pindus imme-
diately above Metzovo, descends into the great plains
of Thessaly, and pursues its course to the Archipelago
through the precipitous denies of Tempe ; and lastly,
the Viosa (Vioussa), or Aous, which has its origin in
the mountains to the north of Metzovo, and flowing in
a N.E. direction to Tepeleni, enters the Adriatic near
the site of the ancient Apollonia.

One of the principal routes over Pindus, in pro-
ceeding from the western coast, lies through the canton
of Zagora, in which one of the branches of the river
of Arta has its source, forming its junction with the
Metzovo branch in the deep hollow between Metzou-
kel and Pindus. The Zagora, mountains are distin-
guished from most other parts of the Pindus chain by
their summits spreading out into wide and open plains,
instead of forming narrow ridges. Beyond Metzovo,
in the same direction, is the ridge of Mavronoros, or
the Black Mountain ; and still further northward are
the mountains of Tzebel and Samarina, which are
believed to be among the most elevated points in
Albania. The chain continues to run northwards,
dividing Illyricnm from Macedonia, till it unites with
the mountains that enclose the basin of the Danube.
The upper ridge of Pindus, near Metzovo, appears



GREHECE. 11

to be composed entirely of serpentine. The exposed
surface of the rock is every where covered with a yel-
lowish green steatite, generally disposed in a sort of
scales upon the serpentine, which is prohably super-
posed upon primitive slate. The ridge intervening
between the plains of loannina and the valley of the
Aracthus, exhibits a series of layers of calcareous slate,
apparently of recent formation, interrupted at intervals
by rocks of limestone, which come down in abrupt
cliffs to the channel of the stream. This limestone
probably forms the basis of all the country westward
of the river of Arta, and is the material also of the
lower parts of the Pindus chain on the eastern side.
The bed of the river, however, and the channels of
the streams which join it from the east, contain frag-
ments of syenite, porphyry, and serpentine, and some-
times mica-slate, jasper, and conglomerate rock,
indicating that the more central parts of Pindus are
composed in part of primitive formations. In the
valley of the Salympria, there is a most remarkable
groupe of insulated rocks, composed entirely of a con .
glomerate, consisting of granite, gneiss, mica slate,
chlorite slate, syenite, greinstone, and quartz pebbles.
The origin of this formation, which is of a very limited
extent, presents an interesting problem to the geo-
logist. Limestone, however, is the prevailing rock,
for the most part cavernous, and with abrupt and
precipitous faces. The whole chain of (Eta, in parti .
cular, appears to belong to the great calcareous forma-
tion of Greece. The general appearance of the lime-
stone strikingly corresponds to that in the north of
Ireland ; its colour, in general, is nearly milk-white ; it
contains a great quantity of flint, either in layers or in
nodules ; and large deposites of gypsum have taken
place upon it, particularly near the coasts of the



12 GltEECE.

Adriatic and Ionian seas. The Scironian rocks on
the southern coast of the Isthmus, consist of breccia,
lying, as in Attica and over all the northern part of
the Morea, on a stratum of limestone. In Thessaly,
the limestone gives way to the serpentine hreccia called
verde antico ; and that curious aggregate of dark dial-
lage and white feld-spar, called by Italian lapidaries
bianco e nero antico, is found in Macedonia. Other
varieties of porphyry occur also in Thrace, particularly
one of hornblende, resembling lava, in the great plain
of Chouagilarkir, near the foot of the Karowlan moun-
tains, a branch of the ancient Rhodope. But in Hellas
Proper, with the exceptions above mentioned, to
which may be added the breccia formation around
Mycen, and the substratum of the rock of the
Acropolis at Athens, the mountains so uniformly con-
sist of limestone, that scarcely any other substance
can be met with.*

The most fertile districts of Greece are Macedonia,
Thessaly, and the eastern parts of Phocis and Boeotia.-f-
The agricultural produce of Attica, owing to the
lightness of the soil, is confined to barley and olives.
The Morea is said to be susceptible of every species of
cultivation. The mountainous region of Epirus is the

These geological observations are taken chiefly from Dr. Hol-
land's Travels in the Ionian Isles, &c., and Dr. Clarke's Travels,
part. ii. ,

f " Marathon, forgotten in every other respect, is now only
regarded, as it was before its glory, for being the granary of the

barren Attica Pindus and (Eta, with their various branches, are

Impracticable to the Albanian husbandman ; though, in the little
winding valleys (the &rv%eu) that intersect them, we may be
secure of always finding a village with its surrounding fields of
maize or cotton." DOUGLAS, p. 31.

t " The corn of the Morea has long been highly prized in tht
adjoining islands, and its culture is proportionally extensive. Its



GREECE. 13

most barren. Thessaly yields wool and silk ; and the
soil of Macedonia is particularly favoxirable to tobacco :
that of Yenige, on account of its balsamic odour, is
preferred even to that of Latakia in Syria. Cotton
also is extensively cultivated. But the principal wealth
of Macedonia anciently consisted of its mines. The
most celebrated were those of the mountain Pangaeus,
from which Philip annually derived a thousand talents



barley, however, is not so much esteemed, and its Indian corn had
never been exported. The Peninsula is by no means a country foi
wine, the greater portion of its consumption being imported from
the Archipelago. Two species, however, are admired by the Greeks ;
the wine of Mistra and that of St. George in Corinth. Both are
only of a light body, and acquire a disagreeable flavour from the
turpentine with which they are purified. The grapes are neither
large nor of fine flavour ; the best are produced at Gastouni.
One species, however, the raisin de Corinthe (Zante currant), has
been extensively cultivated of late along the shores of the gulfs ot
Lepanto and Salamis, where it has taken the place of tobacco plan-
tations. Other fruits are likewise produced in abundance ; lemons,
not large, nor peculiarly fine ; oranges, the best are found at
Calamata ; peaches, pomegranates, apricots, almonds, and a variety
of shell fruit. The figs, especially those of Maina, are remarkable
for their sweetness. The markets of Napoli di Romania are plen-



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