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THE

MODERN TRAVELLER.

VOLVJtE TBE THIRTIETH.

BRAZIL AND BUENOS AYRES.
VOL. II,



THE



MODERN TRAVELLER.



DESCRIPTION,



GEOGRAPHICAL, HISTORICAL, AND TOPOGRAPHICAL,



VARIOUS COUNTRIES OF THE GLOBE.



IN THIRTY VOLUMES.



BY JOSIAH CONDER.



VOLUME THE THIRTIETH.



LONDON:
JAMES DUNCAN, 37, PATERNOSTER-ROW.



MDCCCXXX.



LONDON;

Printed by W. CLOWES,
Stamford-street.



CONTENTS
OF THE SECOND VOLUME.



PAGE

PROVINCE OF MINAS GERAES 1

FROM THE FRONTIER TO VILLA RICA 5

FROM SANTO PAULO TO VILLA RICA 11

DESCRIPTION OF A BRAZILIAN CAMPO 24

ST. JOAM D'EL REY 28

VILLA RICA 44

GOLD MINES OF VILLA RICA 51

MARIANNA 60

ENVIRONS OF VILLA RICA EASTWARD 6?

TOPAZ MINES OF CAPAO 69

LEAD MINES OF CUJABEIRA 73

CHAPEL OF CONGONHAS 75

EXCURSION TO SERRA CARACA 79

FROM VILLA RICA TO TEJUCO - 85

DIAMOND DISTRICT 96

COMARCA OF PARACATU 102

COMARCA OF SAHARA , 104

PROVINCE OF GOYAZ 107

PROVINCE OF MATTO GROSSO 116

PROVINCE OF ESPIRITO SANTO 130

PROVINCE OF PORTO SEGURO 148

THE BOTUCUDOES 172

PROVINCE OF BAHIA.. 184



CONTENTS.



BAHIA .................................................. iy

FROM ILHEOS TO MINAS GERAES .............. 213

PROVINCE OF SEREGIPE D'EL REY .............. 283

PROVINCE OF PERNAMBUCO ...................... 226

PROVINCE OF PARAIBA ............................ 258

PROVINCE OF RIO GRANDE D'EL NORTE ...... 262

PROVINCE OF SEARA .............................. 268

PROVINCE OF PIAUHY .............................. 274

PROVINCE OF MARANHAM ........................ 278

PROVINCE OF PARA ................................ 287

PROVINCES OF SOLIMOENS AND GUIANA.... 293

BUENOS AYRES.

BOUNDARIES OF THE VJCEROYALTY .......... 303

DESCRIPTION OF THE CITY ...................... 306

HISTORY OF THE COLONY OF BUENOS AYRES 307



THE

MODERN TRAVELLER,



ETC. ETC.



BRAZIL.

MINAS GERAES.

WE now enter upon one of the most important pro-
vinces of Brazil, the auriferous regions of Minas Geraes
(General Mines), in the heart of which the Marquis Pombal
would have placed the new capital of the Portuguese em-
pire, which he projected to transfer to the western hemi-
sphere. In some respects, St. Joao d'el Rey would be a
more advantageous position for the capital of Brazil, than
Rio. It is more central, and, in the event of foreign in-
vasion or attacks, more secure. Guarded by the moun-
tains which form a natural barrier, its elevated plains
would see.m to be the very place for the King of Diamonds
to hold his court. One prominent objection is the want
of good roads ; but, perhaps, there is another objection
more insuperable behind. Good roads would make the
forbidden districts too accessible, and the residence of the
court in any part of the province would attract too large a
population to the neighbourhood.

Minas Geraes is the most mountainous province in the
empire. The Serra Mantiqueira, which divides it from
the provinces of Rio and St. Paulo on the south,
commencing in the northern part of the latter province,

PART III. B



2 BRAZIL.

runs almost north-east, " not without many windings," as
far as the town of Barbazena, in the comarca of St Joao
d'el Rey ; it then inclines northward to the extremity of
the province, varying its elevation and name. Its most
elevated head, called Itoculumc (the child of stone), is
reckoned the highest in the province. On the north, it is
separated from Bahia and Pemambuco by the rivers Verde
and Carynhenha ; on the east, it is bounded by part of
Bahia, Porto Seguro, and Espiritu Santo ; and, on the
west, by Goyaz. Its extreme length from north to south
is about 600 miles, extending from lat. 13 to 21 W
south ; its width about 350 miles.* The climate is tem-
perate, compared with others in the torrid zone, owing to
the elevation of its table land ; and none of the provinces
abound more with rivers and mountain torrents. The
greater part of these have their origin in the Serra Man-
tiqueira, and are received by four general channels. Two
of these flow eastward, namely, the Rio Doce and the
Jequitinhonha ; the former irrigating the comarca of Villa
Rica, the latter that of Serro Frio. The St. Francisco has
a northward course, watering the comarca of Sabara;
while the Rio Grande, or Para, takes a westward direction,
after receiving the Rio das Mortes, which gave its former
name to the comarca of St. Joao d'el Rey. The division of
the province into these four com areas was first made in the
year 1714. Ca/al, indeed, states, that Minas Geraes was
not created a province till six years later, being included,
up to 1720, in the capitania of St. Paulo.



* Mr. Henderson says, (we presume, on the authority of Cazal,)
that it is nearly 400 miles long, by 280 ofmedinm width, extending
from 15 SO' to 21 4^ ; but his own map contradicts this state-
ment. Mr. Mawe speaks loosely, but more accurately, when he
makes the capitania extend from 600 to TOO miles in length ; bat
he considerably overrates its breadth, which he supposes to be
nearly equal to its length.



BRAZIL. 3

The discovery of this portion of Brazil is ascribed to an
intrepid adventurer named Sebastiam Fernandez Tourinho,
an inhabitant of Porto Seguro, who, in 1573, proceeded
with a party of adventurers, up the River Doce, and ex-
plored the country westward for three months, sometimes
by land, sometimes by water ; he penetrated as far as the
Jequitinhonha, by which he descended to the coast, carry-
ing with him specimens of the mineral riches of the country.
These consisted, however, chiefly of emeralds, for the gold
mines were not discovered for a century later. A few
years afterwards, an individual named Adorno conducted
an expedition, consisting of 150 whites and 400 Indians,
up the Cricare to the emerald mines visited by Tourinho,
returning by the same river as his predecessor; and a
third adventurer is said to have subsequently penetrated
still further. A hundred years after, some Paulistas of
Thaubate first discovered gold in the comarca of Villa
Rica, about thirty miles to the south of the present
capital; and on their return, (about 1694,) a smclting-
house was established at Thaubate. Tidings of this dis-
covery soon spread, and a great number of Paulistas were
induced to undertake expeditions in various directions,
not, as hitherto, for the purpose of kidnapping the In-
dians, but in the still more animating pursuit of gold.
Numerous rival establishments were formed in the pro-
vince ; and hence arose the feuds between the Thauba-
tenos and Piratininganos, who never associated in their
mining enterprises. At length, the attention of Govern-
ment was attracted to the golden discovery. Obstinate
disputes had arisen between the Paulistas and the Portu-
guese, and the contest had assumed the character cf a san-
guinary civil war, when, in 1710, Don A. d' Albuquerque
Coelho, the first governor-general of the province of St.
Paulo, succeeded in suppressing these disorders. Villa
Rica and Marianna were created towns in 1711 ; St Joa



4 BRAZIL.

d'el Key and Sahara in 1712 ; and Villa do Principe in
1714. In 1720, Don Lourenzo d'Almeyda was appoint-
ed the first governor-general of Minas Geraes. Up to
1808, the only circulating medium in this province is said
to have been gold dust ; but its circulation was then pro-
hibited, and a paper currency has been substituted. In
1818, Villa Rica was declared the capital of Minar, as
Villa Boa was made that of Goyaz, and Villa Bella of
Matto Grosso.

Besides gold, the province contains platina, silver,
copper, iron, lead, mercury, antimony, bismuth, fossil-coal,
diamonds, emeralds, rubies, topazes, chrysolites, sapphires,
agates, aqua-marinas, amethysts, and almost all the pre-
cious stones ; also cotton, tobacco, sugar, wheat, maize,
mandioc, coffee, indigo, ipecacuanha, columbo root, jalap,
liquorice, vanilla, various gums, and Jesuits' bark. The
population is computed at upwards of 600,000 souls, of
whom nearly a fourth are slaves, the property of the miner
and the agriculturist* Indians are found only upon the
eastern confines of the province, on the banks of the Rio
Doce, or in the impenetrable forests of the Serra do
Mar.

The travellers to whom we are chiefly indebted for our



* In 1776, according to documents cited by Mr. Sonthey, the
province of Minas Geraes contained 319,769 inhabitants. In 1808,
according to M. Von Eschwege,a German traveller, the population
amounted to 433,049 ; of whom, 106,684 were whites, 129,656 free
innlattoes, 47,937 free negroes, and 148,772 negro and mulatto
slaves. In 1820, there were computed to be 456,075 free persons,
an<l 165,210 slaves; total, 621,885 ; a very considerable increase,
notwithstanding that, in the comarca of Villa Rica, the decrease of
the gold-washing is supposed to have occasioned a decline in the
population, which, in 1770, was computed at 78,618, and in 1813,
at only 72,209 inhabitants. " With double the population," re-
marks Dr. Von Spix, " Minas has three and a half times as many
negro slaves, and nine times as many free negroes as St. Paulo."
ol. i. p. 229.



BRAZIL. O

information respecting this province, are Mr. Mawe, Mr.
Luccock, and Drs. Von Spix and Martius. Mr. Mawe,
in 1808, travelled from Rio to Villa Rica, and from thence
as far northward as Tijuco, and the banks of the Jequi-
tinhonha. Mr. Luccock, in 1817, took the route from Rio
to St. Joao d'el Rey, from which place he proceeded to
Villa Rica, and returned by a partly different route to
Rio, by Congonha and Barbazena. Dr. Von Spix, who
visited Villa Rica about a year after, entered Minas
Geraes from St. Paulo. We shall first avail ourselves of
JMr. M awe's account of the route



FROM THE FRONTIER TO VILLA RICA.

MENTION has already been made of the circumstances
which led to Mr. Mawe's obtaining permission to explore
the diamond mines of Serro do Frio.* On the 17th of
August, 1809, he set out for Villa Rica, in company with
an English merchant of the name of Goodall, and with an
escort, provided by Government, of two men of the min-
ing corps, which entitled him to the free use of such mules
as he might require on the road. It was a journey which
no Englishman had ever before undertaken ; nor had any
of his countrymen been hitherto permitted to pass the
barrier of alpine mountains that stretch along the coast.

The route from Porto d'Estrella to the second re-
gister, on the banks of the Paraibuna, has already been
described, f At rather more than a league's distance from



* See vol. i. p. 191.

t Vol. i. pp. 159180. Mr. Mawe's Moremim is evidently the
liilioiiici im of Mr. Luccock ; but it is not so easy to reconcile these
two L-avellers oil another point. Mr. Luccock describes the Parai-
buna as issuing from the Serra Mantiqueira, and falling into the
Paraiba on the northern bank. The second register, therefore,
must be that on the banks of the former river. Mr. Mawe, on the
B 2



6 BRAZIL.

that river is Rosinha do Negro, a small village, situated,
like all those, in this part of the country, which are con-
nected with a large plantation, at the bottom of a deep
hollow, and by the side of a small stream. About two
leagues further is a third register, which bears the name
of Mathias Barboza, by whom it was erected near the be-
ginning of the last century. It is formed by mud walls,
enclosing a large area, with a gateway at each end, through
which the public road passes. On entering the first gate,
travellers are required to deliver their passports for exami-
nation ; and if any suspicion is excited, the rnules are un-
loaded, and the cargoes undergo the strictest scrutiny.
" It not unfrequently happens," says Mr. Mawe, " that
a negro has been suspected of swallowing a diamond ; in
which case he is shut up in a bare room till the truth can
be proved." The register of Mathias Barboza is the great
toll-house of Minas Geraes. Every three months, it is
required to remit the sum collected for duties to Villa
Rica: the annual amount is stated by Mr. Luccock at
about 25,000 sterling. Here it is usual for the traveller
to exchange all his metallic money for the bWtctes (notes),
which form, with the exception of a little copper and bars
of gold, the only currency of the province. On quitting
the province, he may again exchange these lllhctcn at any
of the registers, for those of the district on which he is
entering.* The road, which lies through extensive tracts
of wood, continues to ascend in a direction north-west by

contrary, calls the first register the " register of Paraibuna," and
the second, the " register of Faraiba," giving the latter name to
the second river.

" Having arranged for a credit in the principal towns," says
Mr. Luccock, " 1 had no business of this kind to transact, and
would advise future travellers to do the same. Gold, being the
produce of almost every part of the country, is seen in great abmid
ance, both in dust and in bars ; but, to prevent confusion respect -
ing the royal claims, none is allowed to circulate as coin."



BRAZIL. /

north, and there is a sensible change in the temperature.
In some parts, the scenery reminded Mr. Luccock of the
woody country near Sheffield, but " without its blackness,
forges, and smoke." He noticed, for the first time, two
kinds of heath, and among the trees, observed the pine and
the common box-tree, the latter growing to the height of
more than twelve feet. Great numbers of toucans and parro-
quets are seen, the former always flying singly, the latter
in flocks. Mr. Mawe lodged at a fazenda called Maderas,
beyond the register, which he computed to be 100 miles
from Porto d'Estrella. The following day, pursuing his
route over a chain of mountains, he passed several falls of
the Paraibuna, and traversing a tract of woodland, arrived
at the village of Juiz de Fora, containing a small chapel
and a few poor houses. The Paraibuna, which runs close
by, has dwindled greatly from its magnitude lower down,
and flows with a rapid but unruffled current over a sandy
bed. Near this place is the site of the first gold- washing :
it is very small, and had been abandoned for many years.
The auriferous sand is brought down by the floods, being
evidently not in its natural bed. The surface of the coun-
try is, in general, a good strong clay ; the rocks are of
gneiss or granite. As the road continues to ascend, the
trees are smaller, the heaths and ferns larger and more
vigorous, and the air is fresh and cool, except between the
hours of two and four P.M. The fazenda of Antonio
Ferreira, (Mr. Luccock writes it Moreira,) is the next halt-
ing-place ; a day's journey from that of Maderas.* Here
are a rancho and a vcnda ; but the house was in ruins in
181 7 Mr. Luccock gives the following account of the
circumstances which had occasioned the destruction of the
establishment. " The proprietor, having offended a



* Mr. Luccock lodged, the preceding night, at a small place called
St. Vinctnte.



8 BRAZIL.

powerful and vindictive neighbour, was charged by him
with carrying on an illicit trade in gold dust. In the
dead of the night, he found his house suddenly surrounded
by a party of cavalry, by whom he was apprehended and
conveyed to prison, where he died of a broken heart : his
property was confiscated, and his family turned adrift.
All his neighbours represented him as an industrious man
who was growing wealthy, and agreed in asserting their
belief that he was perfectly innocent of the offence laid to
his charge. The ruined walls and many scattered frag-
ments of agricultural implements, remained a monument
of this atrocious act of oppression.

A journey of nine hours, over steep mountains and
through valleys of cultivable ground, brought Mr. Mawe
to a small fazenda which is not named, except as being
the residence of two worthy dames, Donna Clara and
Donna Maria. The next fazenda, called Mantiqueira,
is situated in the largest plain which the traveller had as
yet traversed; it comprised some rich land, watered by
numerous streams, but overrun with weeds and brushwood,
and the house was falling to ruin. " The people here,"
says Mr. Mawe, " seemed to act as if the tenure by which
they held their lands, was about to be abolished. Their
old houses, fast hastening to decay, bore no marks of re-
pair. Wherever a bit of garden-ground was enclosed, it
appeared overrun with weeds. Where coffee-trees, planted
in former years, still existed, the present occupiers were
too indolent to gather the fruit. No enclosures were made
for pasturage : a few goats supplied the little milk that
was consumed, and cow's milk was rarely to be procured.
Here is land which, under the influence of this genial
climate, is capable of yielding two-hundred-fold ; here is
wood in abundance for every purpose, excellent clay for
making bricks, and water at command. Yet, all these ad-
vantages are lost to the present occupiers, who consider



BRAZIL.

them too cheap to be valuable, and perpetually hankering
after the precious minerals, seem to think that the only
standard for estimating the gifts of nature, is the difficulty
of obtaining them." Having passed the hamlet of St.
Sebastian, Mr. Mawe arrived, late in the evening, at a
village consisting of about twenty houses, called Borda do
Campo, situated, as its name implies, at the edge of the
open country. The next day's route lay for some miles
by the side of a barren mountain of quartz, and then
descended a declivity, tremendously steep, and full a mile
in length, to the banks of the Rio das Mortes, here a
small rivulet, about seven yards in width, but of consider-
able depth and rapidity. On its further side is an estala-
gcm (inn), called Rcglstro Vclho (old register), where
the toll of the province used to be paid, before it was
transferred to Mathias Barboza. Here are three ranches
and four or five houses. Proceeding hence, the eye is
again relieved from confined wood-scenery by the prospect
of a grand amphitheatre of mountains, bounded by others
of amazing magnitude covered with forests. The road
again ascends from the vale of the river, and, in about three
miles, conducts the traveller to Barbazena, where the two
great roads from the mining country unite ; the one to the
westward, leading to St. Joao d'el Rey, Sahara, and
Cujaba ; the other, in a northerly direction, to Villa Rica,
Tijuco, and Minas Novas. This place is stated by Cazal
to be 35 miles east-south-east of St. Joao, and 50 south-
south-west of Villa Rica.

Barbazena, at the time of Mr. Mawe's visit, contained,
according to his calculation, about two hundred houses.
He was the first Englishman that had been seen there,
and the inhabitants were intensely curious to know the
object of his journey. " Many of the shops," he says,
" were well-stocked with English manufactures, and a
considerable traffic was carried on with the interior, in



10 BRAZIL.

baize, cotton goods, salt, and iron." When Mr. Luccock
visited this place eight years after, no prominent marks of
commercial prosperity were to be seen. " On the contrary,"
he says, " many of the shops, which, for the country,
are handsome ones, were shut ; and it is notorious, that
much of the trade which the town once maintained with
Sabara and the northern parts of the province, is now
removed to St. John's. The people whom we saw, were
chiefly of the mixed colours, and were employed in spin-
ning cotton and other domestic manufactures." The town
is pleasantly situated on the southern declivity of a con-
siderable hill, and is divided into two principal streets at
right angles with each other, which are paved. It then
contained, according to this traveller, 350 houses, many of
them good ones, and two churches. Cazal mentions one
church of our Lady of Mercy, and three chapels. The
country adjacent is very fertile. The Brazilian pine is
found here, and the olive is said to fructify in some parts.
Mandioc is cultivated, but bread is scarce.

Mr. Mawe pushed forward to a fazenda called Rese-
quinha. The next day, pursuing his journey over a
dreary tract interspersed with small woods, he reached
Bandeira de Coelho : " a more dirty and slovenly place,
in a finer situation," he says, " we never visited." Six
miles further is " a large village called Louza,* well built,
and containing full 2000 inhabitants ;" but it had declined
from its former consequence, the rich mines to which it
owed its importance, being nearly exhausted. In the
vicinity of this place, Mr. Mawe passed a hill covered
with micaceous iron ore, and the road, for above half a
mile, was covered with a rich oxide of iron. At Alto de
Virginia and S. Antonio do Ouro Branco, are extensive
gold. washings, and the inhabitants are consequently

* No place of this uauie is mentioned by either Cazal, Luccock ,
or Von Spix. Possibly, Logoa Dooracla is meant.



BRAZIL. 11

wretchedly poor. The day's journey terminated at Alto
do Morro, an cstalagcm deriving its name from the
" tremendous mountain" on which it stands. Continuing
his route over bleak and sterile mountains, in one day
more, Mr. Mawe reached Villa Rica. Before we proceed
to describe the wonders of this city of Plutus, it will be
proper, however, to trace the route taken by Mr. Luccock,
and that of Drs. Von Spix and Martius, to the same
point.

FROM ST. PAULO TO VILLA RICA.

WE have already followed the last-mentioned travellers
on their route from Ypanema, at far as the register, or
custom-house, which marks the frontier of the two pro-
vinces of St. Paulo and Minas Geraes.* After passing
over the Morro Grande by a dangerous road, they reached
a level plain, in which stands the arraial of Camanducaya,
the first station in the province. Beyond this place, ragged
mountain chains extend from north to south, with side
valleys to the west : the rock is generally a reddish granite.
In this gloomy wilderness, the traveller meets with but a
few huts, inhabited chiefly by mulattoes ; and, besides
milk and black beans, no kind of provisions is to be ex-
pected. The rainy season unfortunately had commenced
when these travellers set out from Ypanema. The nume-
rous mountain streams had overflowed their banks to a
great distance ; the roads were broken up by them, the
bridges carried away, and the low grounds suddenly con-
verted into lakes. The mules could scarcely proceed in
the bottomless roads, and their riders had either to wade
or to swim through the overflowed torrents which they had
to pass ; while at night, an open shed, or a dilapidated
hut, afforded, hi many cases, the only shelter, and the wet
wood, which presented the only fuel, emitted more smoke

* Vol. i. pp. 25461.



12 BRAZIL.

than flame. On descending from the mountains into the
valley of the Rio Mandu, they found this inconsiderable
stream swelled to a turbid and impetuous river above a
quarter of a league in width, and passable only by means
of a boat The village of Mandu, consisting of a few poor
clay huts, situated in a low country almost entirely covered
with wood, was founded between thirty and forty years
ago, and owes its origin to its favourable position for the
trade from Thaubate to Minas. By this route, the Pau-
listas import European goods in exchange for cheese, mar-
malade, tobacco, and coarse cottons. Two days' journey
to the westward, is Caldas da Rainha, a warm sulphureous
spring, which has of late been much frequented.* The
next day after crossing the Mandu, the travellers experi-
enced similar difficulties in crossing the Rio Servo, which
had inundated the woody tracts to the depth of from four
to six feet. To the north of this river, and about two
miles from Mandu, they perceived the first traces of gold-
washing. The rock is a quartzy, whitish-green mica-slate,
upon which lies a considerable mass of red heavy loam,
from which the metal is washed. The greater part of the
tract is covered with wood, enclosing small plantations of
maize, mandioc, and the sugar-cane. Three leagues from
the Mandu is St. Vincente, a small place pleasantly situ-
ated on a hilL Two leagues further is St. Anna de Sa-
pucahy,f where the gold- washings are of considerable ex-
tent The broad trenches cut in the terraced declivities,

* " Near the margin, and not far from the origin of the Mozam-
bo, a branch of the Sapucahy, there are several wella of sulphure-
ous water, some warmer than others, which have been found bene-
ficial in certain diseases ; and between the plains of the rivers
Verde and Barpondy, near a rivulet which falls into the Verde,
there are various mineral and vitriolic waters." Hendtrsott, p. 209.



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