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THE

MODERN TRAVELLER,



VOLUME THE SEVENTH.



INDIA.

VOL, I.



THE



MODERN TRAVELLER,



DESCRIPTION,



GEOGRAPHICAL, HISTORICAL, AND TOPOGRAPHICAL,



VARIOUS COUNTRIES OF THE GLOBE.



IN THIRTY VOLUMES.



BY JOSIAH CONDER.



VOLUME THE SEVENTH.



LONDON:
JAMES DUNCAN, 37, PATERNOSTER-ROW.



MDCCCXXX.



LONDON:

Printed by W. CLOWES,
Stamford-street.



CONTENTS

OF THE FIRST VOLUME.



! PAGE

BOUNDARIES OF INDIA 1

ANCIENT NAMES AND DIVISIONS &.

TERRITORIAL EXTENT AND POPULATION 6

POLITICAL DIVISIONS 9

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY -... 10

THE INDUS 11

THE GANGES 21

THE BRAHMAPOOTRA 31

CLIMATE, SOIL, &c. 39

VEGETABLE AND MINERAL PRODUCTIONS 47

NATURAL HISTORY 67

ANCIENT HISTORY OF INDIA 103

EARLY MARITIME TRADE WITH INDIA 143

COURSE OF THE OVERLAND TRADE 145

NAVIGATION OF THE ERYTHREAN SEA BY THE

ROMAN FLEETS 153

MOHAMMEDAN HISTORY 162

GH1ZNIAN DYNASTY 164

GHOURIAN DYNASTY 188

KHULJIAN DYNASTY 203

FIRST MOGUL INVASION UNDER TIMOUR 223

SULTAN MOHAMMED BABER 238

FOURTH PATAN DYNASTY 268

RESTORATION OF THE MOGUL DYNASTY 270

ACCESSION OF AURUNGZEBE 289



iv CONTENTS.

MM

ORIGIN OF THE MAHRATTA POWER UNDER SE-

VAJEE 297

DEATH AND CHARACTER OF AURUNGZEBE 330

ORIGIN OF THE SEIKS 338

ORIGIN OF THE NIZAM STATE 346

PERSIAN INVASION UNDER NADIR SHAH 349

ORIGIN OF THE DOORAUNEE MONARCHY OF

CAUBUL '. 355

DISSOLUTION OF THE MOGUL EMPIRE 356



DIRECTIONS FOR PLACING THE PLATES.

MAP of INDIA to face the Title



THE

MODERN TRAVELLER,



INDIA.

A region of Asia, lying between lat. 6 and 35 N., and long. 66*
4<y and 92 E. Bounded, N., by the Himalaya Mountains ;
E,, by the Burrampooter and the Bay of Bengal ; S., by the
Indian Ocean ; and W., by the Indian Ocean, the Indus, and
the Solimaun Mountains.]

UNDER the classical appellation of India, the an-
cients appear to have comprised the whole of that vast
region of Asia stretching east of Persia and Bactria,
as far as the country of the Since ; its northern
boundary being the Scythian desert, and its southern
limit, the ocean. The name is generally supposed to
have been derived from the river Indus, which waters
its western extremity, and which signifies the Blue or
Black River. The extensive application of the word
renders it, however, more probable, that it was em-
ployed to denote the country of the Indi, or Asiatic
Ethiops ; answering to the Persian Hindoo-stan, or
the country of the Hindoos.* By the Brahmins, the

* The Greeks gave the appellation of Indians both to the south-
ern nations of Africa and to the Hindoos, using the words Indian
and Ethiop as convertible terms. Herodotus describes the eastern
Ethiops, or Indians, as differing from those of Africa by their long
hair, as opposed to the woolly head of the Caffre. Virgil speaks
of the Abyssinian Ethiops under the same name. (Georg. iv. 293.
JEn. vi. 794.) See Vincent's Periplus, Prel. Dis. 10,11. Sir W.
PART I. B



2 INDIA.

country is denominated Medhyama, or Medhya-
Whumi, the central land,* and PunyaUhumi, the land
of virtue ; appellations vague and unmeaning : it is
also called Bharat-khand, the kingdom of Bharat,
who is fabled to have been its first monarch. Taken
in its most extended application, as denoting the
countries inhabited by the Hindoos, it comprises a
considerable territory west of the Indus ; and part
of Affghanistan, as well as Tatta and Sinde, must be
included within its limits. t By the Mohammedan
writers, the term Hindostan is restricted to the eleven
provinces lying to the north of the Nerbuddah river,
which belonged to the empire of the Mogul sovereigns
of Delhi. This is now usually distinguished as Hin-
dostan Proper. :

Jones's Works, 4to, i. 114. Bryanfs Anal., iv. 272, et eq. No such
words, Mr. Wilkins says, as Hindoo or Hindostan, are to be found
in the Sanscrit dictionary. The name, however, which seems to
have originated with the Persians, is as ancient as the earliest pro-
fane history extant.

* The appellation, Middle land, is said to have been given to
the country from its occupying the centre of the back of the tor-
toise tliat supixnts the world. The Chinese, however, in like
manner, call their country Chung-we, the central kingdom, and
Tchon-koo, the centre of the world. This geographical place of
honour has been claimed by many semi-barbarous nations.

t " Whether Sind, westward of the Indus, belongs properly to
Persia or to India, is, perhaps, as doubtful a circumstance as the
appropriation of Egypt to Asia or to Africa. Strabo and Arrian,
after Eratosthenes, declare India limited by the Indus westward ;
yet, in this direction, our modern Sind extends considerably be-
yond the river, while it is generally assigned to Hindustan by the
Eastern writers." OUSELEY'S Tmvels, vol. i. p. 149. The Orien-
tals distinguish, perhaps arbitrarily, between Sind and Hind : they
apply the latter word to India, (as Bahr al Hmd, the Indian Sea,}
the former to the Persian side of the Indus. D'Herbelot says, that
the Persians call the Abyssinians Siah Hindou, black Indians. Can
Sinde be a contraction of the two words ?

Strictly speaking, the name ought to be applied only to that
part which lies to the north of the parallels of 21 or 22. The



INDIA. 7

may at least shew the manner in which the population
is distributed.

BRITISH INDIA.

Bengal Presidency. Square Miles. Population.

Bengal, Bahar, and Benares 162,000 39,000,000*

Additions in Hindostan, since

A.D. 1765 148,000 18,000,000

Gurwal, Kumaoon, and the tract

between the Sutuleje and the

Jumna 18,000 500,000

328,000 57,500,000

Madras Presidency ] 54,000 15,000,000

Bombay Presidency 11,000 2,500,000

Territories in the Deccan acquired

since 1815 60,000 8,000,000

553,000 83,000,000

BRITISH ALLIES AND TRIBUTARIES.

The Nizam 96,000 10,000,000

The Nagpoor Rajah ;'. 70,000 3,000,000

The King of Oude 20,000 3,000,000

The Guicowar 18,000 2,000,000

Kotah, Boondee, and Bopaul 14,000 1,500,000

The Mysore Rajah 27,000 3,000,000t

The Satarah Rajah (or Peishwx). 14,000 1,500,000

Travancore and Cochin 8,000 1 ,000,000

Other Rajahs and petty Chiefs 283,000 15,000,000

550,000 40,000,000



* In 1801-2, the returns made to the Governor-general.with regard
to the state of the Bengal Presidency, gave the following results :

Population.

Calcutta division 9,725,000

Dacca division 5,297,789

Moorshedabad 5,995,340

Patna about 7,000,000

Benares 7,654,325



35,672,454



t In the territories of the Mysore Rajah, in 1804, there were
482,612 families, including 2,171,754 souls. Of these families,
1. ,000 were Mohammedans; 25,3/0 Brahmins; 72,627 Lingaits ;
and 2063 Jains.



8 INDIA,

INDEPENDENT STATES.

Square Milet. Population.

The Nepaul Rajah 53,000 2,000,000

The Lahore Rajah 50,000 3,000,000

The Ameers of Sinde 24,000 1,000,000

The Dominions of Sindia 40,000 4,0)00,000

TheKingofCaubul 10,000 1,000,000

177,000 11,000,000

BRITISH INDIA 553,000 83,000,000

ALLIES AND TRIBUTARIES 550,000 40,000,000

INDBPBNDBNT 177,000 11,000,000

Grand Total 1,280,000 134,000,000*

According to Humboldt -j-

Squ. Marine BytheSq.

The three Presidencies, with Pro- Leagues Population. League.

vinces newly acquired 49,200 55,500,000 1128

Countries under the protection of

the Company 40,900 17,500,000 428

Independent Indda 19,000 28,000,000 1473

109,100 101,000,000 925



* Hamilton, vol. i. p. xxxvi.

t Humboldt, Pers. Narr., voL vi. pp. 337, 8. In these estimates,
the population of Ceylon and the Isles is not included. Mr. Wal-
lace gives the following as the nearest approximation to the fact
that he could arrive at.

Under the direct government of Great Britain 60,000,000

Under the direct influence of the British Govern-
ment 40,000,000

Under Independent Chiefs 20,000 000

ID the Islands of the Indian Seas 20,000,000



140,000,OCO

The population of Orissa is supposed to be about 4,500,000

Hyderabad 2,500,000

Khandeish 2,000,000

Naundere 500,000

- Berar 2,000,000



11,500,000

In these provinces, the Mohammedans are as 1 to 10; except in
Khandeish, where they are as 1 to 6. In the district of Chittagong,



INDIA. 11

southern Ghauts ; the latter, the Malayala range, ter-
minating at Cape Comorin. The composition and
character of these different systems of mountains and
rivers, will be more particularly described in our
topographical view of the respective grand divisions
of the country.

With the exception of Cape Comorin at its southern
extremity, and Diu Head, the southern point of
Gujerat, India has no great promontories ; and the
only bendings of the coast which merit the name of
gulfs, are the bay of Cutch and that of Cambay, which
give a peninsular form to the province of Gujerat.
The western coast of the Deccan, although indented
by numerous creeks, roadsteads, and mouths of rivers,
has, on the whole, one uniform direction. From Cape
Comorin to the coast of Bengal, there is not a single
natural harbour, and the roads are encumbered with
sand-banks. Merchant vessels are obliged to ride at
a distance of a mile and a half from shore, and ships
of war at two miles. So gradual is the declivity of
the bottom, that the depth, at twenty miles from land,
does not exceed fifty fathoms. There are few sea-
coasts, of such extent, so destitute of islands. Exclu-
sive of emerged sand-banks and mere rocks, Ceylon
may be said to be the only one. The Laccadives
(LaJcsha-dioipa^ or hundred-thousand isles) and Mal-
dives (Malaya- dwipa, Malay islands) run in a chain,
about 75 miles off the Malabar-coast, from lat. 12 to
the line : they are, for the most part, unproductive and
of little value, and many of them are barren rocks.

THE INDUS

" THE glory of Hindoostan," it has been remarked,
consists in its noble rivers ; and in this respect, the



12 INDIA

country presents a remarkable contrast to Persia, the
neighbouring kingdom on the west ; but the Indo-
Chinese countries (or what has been improperly called
the Ultra- Gangetic peninsula) are still more highly
favoured. The Indus, the first river, beginning from
the west, is one of the largest in the world. It is
supposed to have its source in the northern declivity
of the Cailas branch of the Himalaya mountains, about
lat. 31 3(X N., and long. 80 30' E., within a few
miles of the sources oftheSutlej. After flowing for
400 miles in a N.N.W. direction, it bends towards
the S.W., and at Draus, in Little Tibet (in lat. 35
55', long. 76 48'), receives a large branch called the
Lahdauk river. It then pursues its solitary course
for above 200 miles, through a rugged and mountain,
ous country, to Mullay, where it receives the Abas-
seen ; after which, penetrating the highest range of
the Hindoo Coosh mountains, it passes for fifty miles
through the lower parallel ranges, to Torbaila, where
it enters the valley of Chuch. spreading and forming
innumerable islands. About forty miles lower down,
near the fort of Attok, in lat. 33 15', it receives the
Caubul river from the west ;* and soon after rushes

* I give that name," (the Caubul river,) says Mr. Elphin-
stone, ' in conformity to former usage, to a river formed by dif-
ferent streams uniting to the east of Caubul. Two of the most
considerable come from Hindoo Coosh, through Ghorebund and
Punjsheer, and derive their names from those districts. They join
to the N.E. of Caubul, and pursue a south-easterly course till they
reach Baureekaub. A stream little inferior to those just men-
tioned, comes from the west of Ghuznee, and is joined, to the E.
of Caubul, by a rivulet which rises in the Paropamisan mountains,
in the hill called Cohee Baba. This rivulet alone passes through
Caubul, and may be said to have given its name to the whole river.
All the streams I have mentioned, unite at Baureekaub, and form
the river of Caubul, which flows rapidly to the East, increased by
all the brooks from the hills on each side. It receives the river of



INDIA. 13

through a narrow opening into the midst of the
branches of the Solimaun chain of mountains. Its
stream is here exceedingly turbulent. Even when the
water is lowest, the conflux of these rivers is attended
by waves and eddies, with a sound like the sea. But
when they are swelled by the melting of the snows, a
tremendous whirlpool is created, the noise of which is
heard at a great distance. Here, boats are frequently
swallowed up or dashed to pieces against the rocks,
which superstition has invested with legendary terrors.
At the town of Attok, (where properly it may be
said to enter India,) the Indus, after having been
widely spread over a plain, is contracted to the breadth
of about 300 yards, becoming proportionally deep and
rapid. When its floods are highest, it rises to the
top of a bastion about 37 feet in height. It becomes
still narrower where it enters the hills ; and at
Neelaub, fifteen miles below Attok, it is said to be not
more than a stone's throw across, but extremely rapid.
From Neelaub, it winds among bare hills to Karabaugh
(incorrectly written Calabag), in lat. 33 7' 39 '', pass-
ing through the Salt range in a deep, clear, and tran-
quil stream, and thence pursuing a southerly course
towards the ocean without any further interruption or
confinement from hills. It enters the rich valley of
the Esa-khels in four great channels, which repeatedly

Kaushkaur" (Kashgar river) " at Kaumeh, near Jellalabad,"
(whence it is sometimes called the Kama,) " and thence nins east,
breaks through the inner branches of Hindoo Coosh, and forms
numerous rapids and whirlpools. After entering the plain of
Peshawer, the Caubul river loses a good deal of its violence, but
is still rapid. It breaks into different branches, which join again
afte/ they have received a river formed by two streams which come
from the valleys of Punjcora and Swaut ; and having now collected
all its waters, it enters the Indus a little above Attok. The Caubul
river is very inferior to the Indus, being fordable in many places
in the dry weather." ELFHINSTONE'S Caubul, vol. i. pp. 183-5.



14 INDIA.

meet and again separate, but are seldom found uniteil
in one stream. At Kaheeree Ghaut, in lat. 31 28',
the main channel, when at the lowest (in January), is
only about 1000 yards in breadth and twelve feet in
depth ; but several large branches run parallel to it.
The bed of the river here is sand, with a small quan-
tity of mud. The flat country and the islands, which
are overflowed in the hot season, are an exceedingly
rich black alluvial soil, well cultivated in many places,
and in others overgrown with high jungle.

Below Attok, the Indus receives no stream deserv-
ing the name of a river, from the west, till it is joined,
at Kaggulwalla, by the Kourum, from the Solimaun
mountains. TLe only considerable tributary south of
this, is the Gomul, the waters of which, being ex-
hausted by irrigation in the northern part of Damaun,
never reach the Indus except when swelled by rains.
Two smaller streams, the Choudwa and the Wukwa.
then also pay their tribute to this majestic river.

On the eastern side, the Indus is joined, at Mittan-
dakote, by the five rivers of the Punjaub, united in
one immense stream called the Punjnood. For seventy
miles above this junction, the two streams run nearly
parallel ; and at Ooch, which is fifty miles up, the
distance between them is not more than ten miles.
In July and August, the whole of the intermediate
country is under water ; and the villages, with few
exceptions, are only temporary erections. The whole
of the country to Hyderabad, the capital of Sinde, is
of a similar description. On the left bank are some
considerable towns and numerous villages, with canals
of irrigation leading to them from the river. In this
part of its course, the Indus frequently eats -away its
banks, and gradually shifts its course. Although it
divides into several channels as it approaches the sea.



INDIA. 17

The Chunaub, or Acesines, the second river of the
five, and the largest in size, rises in the Alpine
district of Kishtewar in the Himalaya mountains,
near the south-eastern corner of Cashmere. Due N.
from the city of Lahore, this river is 300 yards wide
in the dry season, and nearly a mile arid a half when
swelled by the rains. Like the Jelum, it is not
fordable, but a small part only of its channel requires
to be swum over. Its junction with that river is at-
tended with great noise ; a circumstance noticed by
the historians both of Alexander and of Timour. Its
banks are low and well -wooded.*

Fifty miles below this junction, and about 40 miles
above the city of Moultan, the Chunaub receives the
waters of the Rauvee (Iravati) or Hydraotes. This
is the smallest of the five rivers, but its length is
considerable. It issues from the mountainous district
of Upper Lahore,-f- and flowing S.W., enters the
plains near Shahpoor (or Rajepoor) ; whence the
great canal of Shah Nehr (now filled up) accompanied
it to Lahore, a distance of 80 miles. The intent of
this canal was, by keeping the water at a higher
level, to supply that city in the dry season, when,
like most of the Indian rivers, the Rauvee is from 20
to 30 feet below its banks. The city of Lahore stands

of 33, is hilly ; and to the southward is a desert, with the exception
of a few miles inward from the banks of the rivers. ELPHIN-
STONE, vol. ii. p. 478.

* The space between the Chunauo and the Behut, according to
Major Rennell, is nowhere more than 30 geo. miles within the
limits of the Punjaub. Lieut. Macartney, however, makes the
horizontal distance from Jellalpoor Ghaut to Vizeerabad Ghaut, 44
miles. The country is excessively low, the soil rich, chiefly pas-
ture. EIPHINSTONE, vol. ii. p. 4?9.

f Mr. Rennell says : " its sources are in the mountains near Na-
gorkote, a famous place of Hindoo worship." They do not appear
to have been explored.



Id INDIA.

o i the southern bank. Three other canals, for the
purpose of watering the country on the S. and E. of
Lahore, were drawn from the same place. This river
is fordable in the dry season, being then only 4 feet
deep, and its channel is very narrow ; but it has a
very muddy bottom, and is full of quicksands. Its
banks are low and well wooded. There are few boats
on this river, whereas they are numerous on the
Jelum and Chunaub.*

The Chunaub, after receiving the Rauvee, still
retains its name, till, nearly 100 miles below Moultan,
it is joined by the united waters of the Beyah and the
Sutlej, under the name of the Gharrah, Kerah, or
Gavra. The Beyah ( Vipasa or Beypasha), the ancient
Hyphasis, rises in the mountains of Keeloo in the
pergunnah of Sultanpoor. For the first 200 miles,
its course is due south ; it then bends to the west-
ward, and after a course of about 350 miles, joins the
Sutlej about midway between its source and the Indus,
not far from Feroozpoor. It appears, however, that it
formerly fell into the Sutlej much below the place
where they now meet, there being still a small canal,
called the old bed of the Beyah. -f-

' The space between the Rauvee and the Chunaub, at their
entrance into the plains, is about 54 geo. miles; and they gradually
approach each other during a course of 170 miles. The junction
is effected nearly midway between Toolumba and Moultan."
RBNNKLL. Lieut. Macartney says : "The distance from Vizee-
rabad Ghaut (on the Chunaub) to Meannee Ghaut on the Ravee,
is 55 miles. The doab is rich and flat, but higher land than the
last, and the soil not so very rich." ELPHINSTONE, vol. iL p. 480.

t Hamilton's Gazetteer. Rennell, p. 102. Lieut. Macartney
gives a very different account of this river. " The Beyas and the
Sutluj," he says, " are nearly the same size, but the Beyas is
rather the largest. Their course too is nearly the same from the
snowy ridge: 150 miles to their junction, and 2(50 more to their
junction with the Chunaub." This river measured, at Bhirowal



INDIA. 23

of the river) commences the Gangetic delta. T!IH
two westernmost branches, the Cossimbazar and Jel-
linghy rivers, unite and form what is called the
Hooghly ; the only branch that is commonly navigated
by ships, forming the port of Calcutta. The Cossim-
bazar river is almost dry from October to May, and
the Jellinghy is, in some years, scarcely navigable
during the driest months ; so that the only subordinate
branch that is at all times navigable by boats, is the
Chanduah river, which separates at Moddapoor, and
terminates in the Hooringotta river. The easternmost
branch of the Ganges is joined by the mighty Brah-
mapootra below Luckipoor, where these rivers have
formed a gulf interspersed with mud islands. The
delta, which has nearly 200 miles of coast, consists of
a labyrinth of rivers and creeks, all of which are salt,
except those which communicate immediately with
the principal arm of the Ganges. This dreary tract
of country bears the name of the Sunderbunds.* The
navigation through these intricate passages or natural
canals, is effected chiefly by means of the tides, and
extends more than 200 miles through the thick forest
that covers the numberless islands formed by the dif-
ferent channels. These are so various in point of
width, that a vessel has at one time her masts en-
tangled among the trees, and, at another time, sails
on a broad river skirted with woods. There are two
distinct passages ; the southern or Sunderbund passage,

* From Sanderi-vana, a wood of Sundery-trees. Some derive it
from Soonder, beautiful, and bon, forest ; while others again con-
tend, that the proper name is Shunderbund, the tract being com-
prehended in the ancient zemindary of Shunderdeep. In I?tt4,
the Sunderbunds, together with Cooch Bahar and Rangamutty, all
nearly waste, contained, according to Major Rennell, 37,549 square
miles. The Sunderbunds are equal in extent to the principality
of Wales. RENNELL, p. 339. HAMILTON'S Go:.



24 INDIA.

and the Balliaghaut passage. The former is the
longest, but leads through the widest and deepest
channels, and opens into the Hooghly or Calcutta
river. The latter opens into a lake on the eastern
side of the city. The whole forest of the Suuderbunds
is abandoned to the wild beasts, except that here and
there may be seen a solitary fakeer. During the dry
season, the lower shores are visited by the salt-makers
and wood-cutters, who exercise their trade at the con-
stant peril of their lives ; for tigers of the most enor-
mous size not only appear on the margin, but fre-
quently swim off to the boats that lie at anchor in the
rivers. The waters also swarm with alligators.*

The mean rate of motion of the Ganges is less than
three miles an hour in the dry months. In the wet
season, and while the waters are draining off from
the inundated lands, the current runs from five to six
miles, and in particular situations, even eight miles
an hour. The descent of the river, taking its wind-
ings into calculation, is estimated by Mr. Rennell at
less than four inches per mile.-f Owing to the loose-
ness of the soil composing its banks, the Ganges has,
in the lapse of years, considerably shifted its course.
In tracing the coast of the delta, there are no fewer
than eight openings, each of which appears to have

* The existence of this fortst has always been considered as of
political importance, as it presents a strong natural barrier along
the southern frontier of Bengal. Nor is it practicable to bring into
culture these salt marshy lands, which are for the most part over-
flowed by the tide. Excellent salt, in quantities equal to the
whole consumption of Bengal and its dependencies, is here made,
and transported with equal facility ; and the woods present an in-
exhaustible supply of timber for boat-building and other purposes.

t An instance is mentioned, as coming within Major Rennell's
own knowledge, of a boat that was carried fifty-six miles in eight
hours, against a wind so strong as to prevent any progressive motion
independent of the current. See RKNNKLL'B Memoir, p. 340.



INDIA. 25

been, in its turn, the principal mouth ; and the size
of the delta itself has probably undergone, in the
course of ages, material changes from the action of
the waters, and the deposites left by the periodical
floods.*

It is thought that the Ganges is but little swelled
by the melting of the snows, the waters derived from
this source being not more than sufficient to balance
the waste by evaporation ; but it evidently owes its
periodical rise in part to the rains which fall in the
mountains. The sum total of its rise is 32 feet, out
of which it rises 15 feet by the latter end of June ;



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