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''' commending the church of Rome as catholic and apostolical, and say
that these doctors, speaking of the church of Rome which thoi teas,
said not untruly, calling it catholic and apostolical ; for that the same
church took not only their ordinary succession of bishops but also their
ordinary doctrine and institution from the apostles. 13ut speaking of

(1) For an explanation of the lojjical terras here and elsewhere used, see the Appendi.x.— Ed.

was com


the clmrcli of Rome wliicli noio is, we say the said places of the doctors Exor-
are not true, neither do appertain to the same ; all which doctors '^"""'
neither knew the church of Rome that now is, nor, if they had, would
ever have judged any thing therein worthy such commendation.

Over and besides, our adversaries yet more object against us. The prin.
who, heaving and shoving for the antiquity of the Romish church, Action''"
for lack of other sufficient reason to prove it, are driven to fall in "'" '!'*'
scanning the times and years. '• What !" say they, " where was this against
church of yours before these fifty years ? " To whom briefly to {ertants.
answer, first we demand what they mean by this which they call our Answer,
church ? If they mean the ordinance and institution of doctrine and
sacraments now received of us, and differing from the church of
Rome, we affirm and say, that our church was, when this church of
theirs was not yet hatched out of the shell, nor did yet ever see any
light : that is, in the time of the apostles, in the primitive age, in
the time of Gregory I. and the old Roman church, when as yet no
universal pope was received publicly, but repelled in Rome ; nor this
fulness of plenary power yet known ; nor this doctrine and abuse of
sacraments yet heard of. In witness whereof we have the old acts
and histories of ancient time to give testimony with us, Avherein we
have sufficient matter for us to shew that the same form, usage, and
institution of this our present reformed church, are not the beginning
of any new church of our own, but the renewing of the old ancient
church of Christ ; and that they are not any swerving from the church church of
of Rome, but rather a reducing to the church of Rome. Whereas ^o""ed '^'^'
contrary, the church of Rome which now is, is nothing but a swerving p^^u^ch"^^
from the church of Rome which then was, as partly is declared, of Rome,
and more shall appear, Christ willing, hereafter.

And whereas the said our adversaries do moreover charge us with Another
the faith of our fathers and godfathers, wherein we Avere baptized, ,onhe'°"
accusing and condemning us for that we are now revolted from them i^^'"^'^-
and their faith, wherein we were first christened : to this we answer. Answer.
that we being first baptized by our fathers and godfathers in water, in ^ou™d^"„
the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, the fo'!""' tj^'"
same faitli wherein we were christened then, we do retain : and ofhisgod-
because-our godfathers were themselves also in the same faith, there- alipohits)
fore they cannot say that we have forsaken the faitli of our godfathers. JJJ'J^^^g
As for other points of ecclesiastical uses, and circumstances con- consonant
sidered, besides the principal substance of faith and baptism, if they
held any thing Avhich receded from the doctrine and rule of Christ,
therein we now remove ourselves ; not because we would differ from
them, but because we would not with them remove from the rule of
Christ's doctrine. Neither doth the sacrament of our baptism bind
us in all points to the opinions of them that baptized us, but to the
faith of him in Avhose name we were baptized. For as, if a man were
christened of a heretic, the baptism of him notwithstanding were
good, although the baptizer were naught ; so, if our godfathers or
fathers, which christened us, were taught any thing not consonant to
christian doctrine in all points, neither is our baptism worse for that,
nor yet are we bound to follow them in all things, wherein they
themselves did not follow the true church of Christ.

Wherefore as it is false, that we have renounced the faith of our


Exor- godflxtlicrs wherein we were first baptized, so is it not true, that wc
— 1^^ arc removed from the cliurch of Rome ; but ratlicr we say, and (bv
church of ^^'^ ^(-•ii-'vc of Christ) will prove, that the church of Rome hath utterly
dhtTn l'^ii"tcd from the church of Rome, according to my distinction before
Kuisiied touched. Which thing the more evidently to declare, I will here
chTch'of compare the church of Rome with the church of Rome ; and in a
Rome, general description set forth (by God's grace) the difference of both
times the churches, that is, of both the times of the church of Rome : to
church of ^^^^ intent it may be seen whether we, or the church of Rome, have
Rome more apostatized from the church of Rome. And here first I divide
dered. tlic churcli of Romc in a double consideration of time ; first, of those
first six hundred years which were immediately after Christ ; and
secondly, of the other six hundred years, which now have been in
these our latter days : and so, in comparing these two together, will
I search out what discrepance is between them both. Of the which
two ages and states of the Roman church, the first I call the primi-
tive church of Rome, the other I call the latter churcli of Rome,
counting this latter church from the expiration of the thousand years
between the binding of Satan and the time of his loosing again, accord-
ing to the prophecy of St,John"'s revelation ;' counting these thousand
years from the ceasing of persecution, under Constantine the Great,
to the beginning of persecution of the church again under Boniface
■y^, VIII. and Ottoman the first Turkish emperor.^ And thus have ye the
church of Rome parted into two churches, in a double respect and
consideration of two sundry states and times. Now in setting
and matching the one state M'ith the other, let us see whether the
church of Rome hath swerved from the church of Rome more than
Ave, or no.
T'„e first And to begin, first, with the order and qualities of life, I ask here
Knormi- ^^ ^^^^^ Roman clergy, where was this church of theirs which now is,
tics of in the ancient time of the primitive church of Rome, with this pomp

life in the , . , • i i • • i n • • -i i • 7 • tT

latter and pride, witli this riches and supernuity, with this glona mundi,
Rome. ° ^nd name of cardinals ; Avith this prancing dissoluteness, and Avhoring
Tnd prac- ^^ ^^^*^ courtcsaus ; Avith this extortion, bribing, buying and selling of
tices to spiritual dignities ; these annates, reformations, procurations, exac-
money. tious, aud otlicr practiccs for money; this aA'arice insatiable, ambition
intolerable, fleshly filthiness most detestable, barbarousncss and neg-
ligence in preaching, promise-breaking faithlessness, poisoning and
supplanting one another; with such schisms and divisions, Avhich
never were more seen than in the elections and court of Rome these
seven hundred years, Avith such extreme cruelty, malice, and tyranny
in burning and persecuting their poor brethren to death ?

It were too long, and a thing infinite, to stand particularly upon
these above rehearsed. And if a man should prosecute at large all
the schisms that have been in the church of R(;iuc since the time of
Damasus I., Avhich are counted to the number of eighteen schisms,^

(0 Rev. XX. 3. (2) See note (4), p. 4, supri.— Ed.

(3) Wernenis Rolwink, a monk of the Carthusian order, has reckoned the schisms in the
Romish church at twenty-three, and they have been treated, at some loncth, in " Theodorici a
Niem. Pontif. quondam scribje hist, sui temporis libri iii;" Arpent. KiO'.i. See also Geddes'
" Tracts," vol. iii. Lend. I70G ; and Bishop Stillin'jfleet "On the Idolatry practised in the Churrh
of Rome," ch. 5. There is a notice of Rohviiik in " Oudin. comment, de scripp. eccles." torn iii.
col. 27.'!8, and in " Fabricii Bihlioth. mcdii a'vi," vol. vi. ; and his chronicle is included in tb-i
collection of " Scriptores rcrum Gcrnianic." by Pisfotius, as re-edited by Struvius (Ratlsbona-,
172G) ; torn. ii. p. 393.— Ed.


v?liat a volume would it require ? Or, if here should be recorded all Exor-
that this see hath burned and put to death since the loosing out of — """'
Satan, who were able to number them ? Or if all their sleights to p,'"/tk"es
get money should be described, as process of matter would require, of the
who were able to recite them all ? Of which all notwithstanding, "h^rcii
the most principal grounds are reckoned at least to fourteen or "o gJt""'
fifteen sleights.^ money.

1. Annates, or taxes on vacant archbishoprics, bishoprics, abbacies,
priories conventual, and other benefices elective.^

2. Annates for retaining all previous preferments, along with the
new one, although there had been paid similar annates before, on
similar occasions, for the same preferments.

3. New annates for all the same are required again, toties quoties
they be, or are feigned to be, vacated by presentation to a new benefice,
whereby it hath sometimes chanced that three or four annates have
been paid by the same person for the same benefice.

4. Preventions of benefices given out before they fell ; the same
prevention being often given to divers and sundry persons by the
pope^s officials, for money's sake.

5. Resignations upon favour, which used to be granted by the
ordinary, but which now in all cases the pope forbiddeth, or rather
challengeth to be reserved to himself.

6. Commendams.

7. Vacancies in Curia Romana.'

8. Dispensations without end, as to dispense with age, with order,
with benefices incompatible, as, if the number be full, if the house be
of such or such an order. Item, dispensation for irregularity of
various kinds, as for times of marriage, for marrying in degrees for-
bidden, or in affinity canonical (as for gossips to marry): It hath been
known in France that a thousand crowns have been paid to Rome in
one instance, for dispensing with this canonical affinity (of gossips,
as we call it), the same being yet not true but feigned. Item, dis-
pensing for eating meats in times prohibited.

9. Innumerable privileges, exemptions, graces for not visiting,
or visiting by a proctor, for confirmations of privileges, for transac-
tions made upon special favour of the pope, for exchanges of benefices
with dispensation annexed, or making of pensions, with such like.

10. Mandates issued by the pope to ordinaries, whereof every
ordinary, if he have ten benefices in his gift, is liable to be served
with one : if he have fifty benefices in his gift, he may be served with
two mandates . and for every mandate there comes to the pope about
twenty ducats. And yet, notwithstanding, so many mandates are sold,
as will come buyers to pay for them and take their chance.

11. The pope's penitentiary, for absolution of cases reserved to

(1) This passage on the sources of revenue to the papal court is taken from a work of Carolus
MolinEEUs, an eminent French civilian, entitled " Conimentarius in Edictum Henrici Secundi,
contra parvas datas," etc., first written in Latin in 15oI, and ten years after in Freni'h. In fact,
the greater part of what Foxe says on the Life, Jurisdiction, and Title of the hishops of Rome has
been culled from that work. Collation with the original has detected several blemishes in Fo.\e's
translation, which have been removed. — Ed.

(2) " Elective benefices" are explained by Car. Mol. to be those which were not rated in the pope's
books, and whose annual income was between 12 and 24 ducats. — Ed.

(3) That is, when the incumbent dies in Rome, or within twenty leagues of it, thoush it be
only by accident that he was there. The pope nominates to all benefices vacant in Curia Romana,
excepting those of the neighbouring bishoprics.— Ed.



Exor- the ])opc, for breaking and clianging of vows, for translation from

— 1!!^ one monastery to another, also from one order to another, for license

to enter into certain monasteries, to carry about altars, with many

other things of like device, pertaining to the office of the pope's


1^. Giving and granting of innumerable pardons and indulgences,
not only in public churches, but also to be bought in i)nvate chapels.

13. Appointing notaries, and prothonotaries apostolic, and bishops
"vague,"" termed " nullitenentes"' at Rome.

14. Granting bulls and commissions f(jr new foundations, or for
changing of the old ; reducing regular monasteries to a secular state,
or restoring again to the old ; and writs without end about matters
depending in controversy, that otherwise might and ought to be
decided by the ordinary.

A.^eLu- By reason of all which devices (not including the first, of the
annates), it was found by a computation made in the time of Louis
XI. (a.d. 1463), that, at that time, the sum of 200,000 crowns was
yearly paid, and transported to Rome out of France alone ; which
sum Carolus Molineus testifietli, had in his time, a.d. 1551, been
doubled to 400,000, besides a like sum for annates ; to all which add
the revenues of French benefices, held by aliens at the court of
Rome : which altogether are thought to make the total sum yearlv
going out of France to the pope's coffers of late years, ten hundred

sumnia thousaud, or a million, crowns. Now what hath risen besides in other
realms and nations, let other men' conjecture.

Wherefore if the gospel send us to the fruits to know the tree, I
pray you what is to be thought of the church of Rome, with these
fruits of life ? Or, if we will seek the church in length and number
of years, where was this church of Rome with these qualities then, at
what time the church of Rome was a persecuted church, not a perse-
cuting church ? And when the bishops thereof did not make mar-
tyrs, as these do now, but were made martyrs themselves, to the
number of five-and-tAventy, in order one after another ? Or when
the bishops thereof were elected and exalted, not by factious con-
spiring, not by power or parts-taking, not by money or friends-
making, as they be now, but by the free voices of the people and
of the clergy, with the consent of the emperor joined -withal, and
not by a few conspiring cardinals, closed up in a comer, as now
they be, etc.

The And yet, if there were no other difference in the matter, but only

proof. corruption of life, all that Ave would tolerate, or else impute to the
jurisdic- common fragility of man, and charge them no further therein than
Tiiisnew ^^'^ might chargc ourselves. Now over and beside this deformity of
'il'.'.'rne'in'^ life, wlicreiu they are clean gone from the former steps of the true
three cliurcli of Rouic, wc liavc moreover to charge them in gi-eater points,
rh'i'i-^ more nearly touching tiie substantial ground nf ilie church, as in their
icnged. jurisdiction prcsumj)tuously usurped, in tlieir title falsely grounded,
and in their doctrine heretically corrupted. In all which three
])oints, this latter pretended church of Rome hath utterly sequestered

(1) Episcopi Nullitenentes, or Portatiles, or Vapantes, were such as had no diocese, but were
apijoiiitcd to extraordinary services. See Uucange's Glossary, v. Kpiscopus.


itself from the image and nature of the ancient and true church of E:rnr-
Rome, and they have erected to themselves a new church of their ''"""'
own making, as first usurping a jurisdiction never known before to
their ancient predecessors. For although the church of Rome in the
old primitive time had his place due unto that see among other
patriarchial churches, and due authority over and upon such churches
as were within his precinct, and bordering near unto it, as appears
by the acts of the Nicene council :* yet. the universal fulness and
plenitude of power in both the regiments, spiritual and temporal,
in deposing and dispensing matters of the church not to him belong-
ing, in taking appeals, in giving elections, investing in benefices, in
exempting himself from obedience and subjection of his ordinary
power and magistracy, with his coactive power newly erected in the
cliurch of Rome, was never received nor used in the old Roman
church, from the which they disagree in all their doings.

For although Victor, then bishop of Rome, about a.d. 190, went victor
about to excommunicate the east churches, for the observation offromiiu
Easter-day, yet neither did he proceed therein, neither was permitted m,jn"(?a.
by Irenaeus so to do. And although Boniface I. likewise, writing to t'O" by
the bishops of Carthage, required of them to send up their appella- BonifaTe
tions unto the cliurch of Rome, alleging moreover the decree of the \- ^jj'*|\
Nicene council for his authority ; the bishops and clergy of Carthage council of
assembling together in a general council (called the Sixth Council of^l^^^.^^^^
Carthage) to the number of two hundred and seventeen bishops, council of
after that they had perused the decrees in the authentic copies of the ^" ^""^
aforesaid Nicene council, and found no such matter as was by the
said Boniface alleged, made therefore a public decree, that none out
of that country should make any appeal over the sea. And what Appeiia-
marvel if appeals were forbidden them to be made to Rome, when Rome"
both here in England the kings of this land would not permit any to [°/Eng-"
appeal from them to Rome, before king Henry II., who was there- '*"''•
unto compelled by pope Alexander III., because of the murder of
Thomas Becket ; and also in France, the like prohibitions were
expressly made by Saint Louis, a.d. 1268, who did forbid by a Appeiia-
public instrument called " pragmatica sanctio," all exactions of the Rome'"
pope's court within his realm. Also by king Philip the Fair, ["''^1.3^,^"
A.D. 1296, the like was done, who not only restrained all sendinQ- ^ *><■,

p,. ,. T-, 111 Appendix.

or going up ot his subjects to Rome, but also that no money,
armour, nor subsidy should be transported out of his realm.^ The
like also after him did king Charles V., surnamed the Wise, and his
son likewise after him Charles VI., who also punished as traitors
certain seditious persons for appealing to Rome. The like resist- The _
ance, moreover, was in the said country of France, against the pope's furlsdV -
reservations, preventions, and other like practices of his usurped ^i°"gj''i„
jurisdiction, in the days of pope Martin V., a.d. 1418. Item, France,
when king Henry VI. in England, and king Charles VII. in France,
did both accord with the pope, in investing and in collation of bene-
fices, yet, notwithstanding, .the high court of parliament in France
did not admit the same, but still maintained the old liberty and
customs of the French church : insomuch that when the duke of

(1) Nieen. Con. can. 6. Vide infr^, p. 31.

(2) Ex Aimonio de gestls Francoruni, lib. v. cap. 33.


Exor- Bedford came with tlie lung's letters patent to have the pope's

'^'""'' procurations and reservations admitted, yet the court of parliament

Avould not agree to the same, but the king's procurator-general was

fain to go betwixt them, as is to be seen in their registers, a.d. 1425,

the oth day of March. In the days of the which king Charles VII.

The prag- was sct forth in France " pragmatica sanctio," as they call it, against

panction. tlic annatcs, reservations, cxpcctatives, and such other proceedings

Apv"diz. "^' the pope's pretended jurisdiction, a.d. 1438. Wherefore, Avhat

marvel if this jurisdiction of the pope's court in excommunicating,

taking appeals, and giving of benefices, was not used in the old

church of Rome, when in these latter days it hath been so much

resisted ?




The And what should I speak of the form and manner of elections now

■urisdic- ^^^^'^^ ^" ^^^ church of Rome, clean converted from the manner of the
tioQcon- old church of their predecessors.'' For, first, in those ancient days,
e^e«'iofi3 when yet the church remained in the apostles only, and a few other
mined, disciplcs, the apostlcs then, with prayer and imposition of hands,
elected bishops and ministers ; as, by the apostles, James was made
bishop of Jerusalem, Paul in Crete elected Titus, and Timothy in
Ephesus : also Peter ordained Linus and Clement in Rome, etc.
After which time of the apostles, when the church began more to
multiply, the election of bishops and ministers stood by the clergy
and the people, with the consent of the chief magistrate of the place,
and so continued during all the time of the piimitive church, till the
^ s-^' . time and after the time of Constantino IV., emperor of Constantinople,
which emperor (as write Platina and Sabellicus)^ published a law con-
cerning the election of the Roman bishop, that he should be taken
for true bishop, whom the clergy and jieople of Rome did choose and
elect, without any tarrying for any authority of the emperor of Con-
stantinople, or the deputy of Italy : so as the custom and fashion
had ever been before that day, a.d. 280. And here the bishops
began first to writhe out their elections and their necks a little from
the emperor's subjection, if it be so as the said Platina, and Sabel-
licus after him, report. But many conjectures there be, not un-
Con^Mi- profitable, rather to think this constitution of Constantino to be
The ma's- forgcd and untrue : first, for that it is derived* from the pope's biblio-
terofthe ti,ecary, that is to say, from the keeper and master of the pope's
niry SUB- library, a suspected author, who, whatsoever feigned or apocryphal
writings he could find in the pope's chests of records, making any
thing on his master's side, that he compiled together, and thereof both
Platina, Sabellicus, and Gratian take most part of their reports, and
therefore may the more be suspected.

Secondly, whereas Platina and Sabellicus say, that this Con-
stantino IV. was moved by the holiness of pope Benedict II. to make
that constitution, how secmeth that to stand with truth, when both
the emperor was so far ofif from liim, being at Constantinople, and

(11 Ennead 8. lib. vi.

\Ti Set Molinaeue, torn. iv. p. 357.— Ed.





also for that the said pope reigned but ten months ? which was but Exor-

a small time to make his holiness known to the emperor so flir off. _

And grant he were so holy, yet that holiness might rather be an
occasion for the emperor so to confirm and maintain the old received
manner of his institution, than to alter it.

The third conjecture is this, for that the said constitution was not
observed, but shortly after by the said Benedict, was broken in the
election of pope Conon.^ And yet notwithstanding, albeit the con-
stitution were true, yet the election thereby was not taken away from
the people, and limited to the clergy only, and much less might be
taken away from the clergy, and be limited only to the cardinals,
without the consent of their prince and ruler, according to their
own rubric in their decrees, where the rubric saith ■?■ " Let no bishop
be given to any people against their wills ; but let the consent and
desire both of "the clergy and of the people, and of the order, be also
required," etc. And in the same distinction,^ also, we read the same
liberty and interest to be granted by Charlemagne an^ Louis his
son ; not to a few cardinals only, but to the order as well of the
clergy, as of the people, to choose not only the bishop of Rome, but
any other bishop within their own diocese whatsoever, and to the
monks likewise to choose their own abbot, setting aside all respect of
persons and gifts, only for the worthiness of life, and gift of wisdom,
so as might be most profitable for doctrine and example unto the flock,
etc. And this continued till the time of the aforesaid Charlemagne Liberty
and Louis his son, of the which two, Charlemagne the father received foThlT'^
expressly of pope Adrian I., a.d. 775, full jurisdiction and power a'nj^t^o',,,^
to elect and orclain the bishop of Rome, like as did also Otho, the people to
first German emperor, of pope Leo VIIL, a.d. 961. The other, \^^r'^

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