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the same ; till such time as they may deserve absolution by penance and con-
fession,

" But whosoever shall be noised or proved to be of this wickedness, if he be
of a religious order, he shall from thenceforth be promoted to no degree of
honour, and he shall be deposed from any which he hath.

" If he be a lay person, he shall be deprived of his quality within the land,
and be no better than a foreigner.

" And if he be a secular, let none but the bishop presume to absolve liim.

" Be it also enacted, that the said curse be published on every Sunday, in
every parish church of England."

See (1) " Ut presbyter! non eant ad potationes, nee ad pLnnas bibant." See Appendix. — Ed.'

ApiJtndix.



PENALTIES AGAINST MARRIED PRIESTS. 1G9

But mark in this great matter wliat followed ; for, as Ranulplius if'^nnj i.
Cestrensis witnesseth, this grievous general curse was soon called ~\~7)~
back again by the suit of certain who persuaded Anselm, that the iios.
publication, or opening of that vice, gave kindlings to the same in the
hearts of lewd persons, ministering occasion of more boldness to
them to do the like :^ and so, to stop the occasion of this vice, the
publication thereof was taken away ; but the forbidding and restrain-
ment of priests'" lawful marriage, which chiefly was the cause thereof,
remained still. And thus, ever since, this horrible crime remained t
among the clergy, both for lack of marriage being more used, and
for lack of publication less punished.

Besides all these synodal acts above comprehended, and given out
by Anselm in his councils before, at another council, held in London Apfeuuiu:
at Whitsuntide in the eighth year of this king [May 24th, a.d. 1 1 08j,
he also directed other new injunctions to the priests.

First, That the priests, deacons, and subdeacons, should live chastely, and Penalties
retain no woman in their house, unless they were of their next kin. and lor-

Item, That they who had retained their wives, or taken new ones, against the asainst
council of London,^ should never more meet them in one house, nor should priests
their wives dwell in the church territory. thefr'^'^^'^''

Item, That such as had dissevered themselves from the society of their wives,
wives, and yet, for some honest cause, had to communicate with them, might
do so if it were witiiout door, and with at least two lawful witnesses.

Item, If any one of them should be accused by two or three witnesses of in the
breakincr this statute, and could not purge himself again by six able men of his 'at'er

. . . ^ ^ . > (lavs shall

own order, if he be a priest, or if he be a deacon by four, or if he be asubdeacon come
by two, then he should be judged a transgressor of the statute, deprived of his f^iise
office and benefice, and not be admitted into the quire, but be treated as infamous, forbid"

Item, He that rebelled, and in contempt of this ne^/ statute held still his ding mar-
wife, and presumed to say mass, upon the eighth day after, if he made not due ri'igeand
satisfaction, should be solemnly excommunicated. meats,"

Item, All archdeacons and deacons to be strictly sworn not to wink or &c.
dissemble at their meetings, or to bear with them for money. And if they
would not be sworn to this, then to lose their offices without recovery.

Item, Such priests, as forsaking their wives were willing to serve still, and Pmifi-
remain in their holy order, first must cease forty days from their ministration, caf'o" of
setting vicars for them in the mean time to serve, and taking such penance upon t"at* haj
them, as by their bishop shoidd be enjoined them. been mar-

Thus have ye heard the tedious treatise of the life and doings of
Anselm, how superstitious in his religion, how stubborn against his
prince he was, what occasion of war and discord he would have
ministered by his complaints, if they had been taken, what zeal with-
out right knowledge, what fervency without cause he pretended, what
pains without profit he took ; who, if he had bestowed that time and
travel in preaching Christ at home to his flock, which he took in
gadding to Rome, to complain of his country, in my mind, he had
been better occupied. Moreover, what violent and tyrannical in-
junctions he set forth of investing and other things, ye have heard ;
but especially agajnst the lawful and godly marriage of priests. What
a vehement adversary he was, in that respect, may appear by these
minutes or extracts of letters, which we have here annexed ; in form
and effect as followcth : —

\}.) Ranulph. Cestrensis, lib. vii. (2) Sec supra, pp. IGO, 16G.



170 LETTERS OF PASCHAL AND ARCHBISHOP ANSELM.

Henry I. A Letter of Anselm.

^' ^- Anselm, archbishop, to his brethren and dearest sons, the lord prior and

^^Q°- others at Canterbury.'

I^i"g As concerning priests, of whom the king commanded that they should havu

permfited ^'^^^ tlicir churclies and their women as they had in the time of his father, and
priests to of Lanfranc, archbishop : both because the king hath revested and reseized the
church"''' whole archbishopric, and because so cursed a marriage was forbidden in a
and council in the time of his father and of the said archbishop : boldly I command,

wives. by tlie authority which I have by- my archbishopric, not only within my arch-
bishopric, but also throughout England, that all priests, who keep wives, shall
be deprived of their churches and ecclesiastical benefices.

A Letter of Pope Paschal to Anselm.

Pascal, bishop, servant of God's servants, to his reverend brother Anselm,
archbishop of Canterbury, greeting and apostolical blessing.^
Pope We believe your brotherhood is not ignorant what is decreed in the Romish

hat*!! so church concerning priests' children. But because there is so great a multitude
decreed it of such within the realm of England, that almost the greater and better part of
at^ Rome, ^^jjg clerks are reckoned to be on this side, therefore we commit this dispensation
priests to your care ; for we grant these to be promoted to holy offices by reason of the
must need at this time, and for the profit of the chui-ch (such as learning and life
wtves"° shall commend among you), so that, yet notwithstanding, the prejudice of the
If profit ecclesiastical decree be taken heed to hereafter, &c.
of the
church

J^^y^o™^ Another Letter of Anselm for InvestinQ-.

Dy priests o

whatimrt To the Reverend Lord and loving Father Paschal, high bishop, Anselm,
then were servant of Canterbury church, due subjection and continual prayers,

church After I returned to my bishopric in England I showed the apostolical decree,

for priests which I being present heard in the Romish council. 1. That no man should
wives ? receive investing of churches at the king's hand, or any lay person's, or should
King become his man for it, and that no man shoidd presume to consecrate him that
Henry (|i(j offend herein. When the king and his nobles, and the bishops themselves, and
nobles Others of the lower degree, heard these things, they took them so grievously, that
ready to they said, they would in no case agree to the thing, and that they would drive
["^R^^- '"^ °^^^ °^ ^^^ kingdom, and forsake the Romish church, rather than keep this
mish thing. Wherefore, reverend father, I desire your counsel by your letter, &:c.
church.

Another Letter of Anselm.

Anselm, archbishop, to the Reverend Gudulpli, bishop, and to Arnulph, prior,
and to William, archdeacon of Canterbury, and to all in his diocese, greeting.^
Against William, our archdeacon, hath written to me, that some priests that be imder
priests re • jjjg custody (taking again their women that were forbidden) have fallen unto the
again ° uncleanness from the which they were drawn by wholesome counsel and com-
their mandment. When the archdeacon Avould amend this thing, they utterly
Pries1:'s despised, ^vith wicked pride, his warning and worthy commandment to be
excom received. Then he, calling together many religious men and obedient priests,
'^""' - excommunicated worthily the proud and disobedient, who beastly despised the
receiving curse, and were not afraid to defile the holy ministry, as much as lay in
again " them, &C.
their

Unto these letters above prefixed, I have also adjoined another of
the said Anselm, touching a great case of conscience, of a monk's
wliipping himself. Wlierein may appear both the blind and lament-
able superstition of those religious men, and the judgment of this
Anselm in the same matter.

(1) Ex epist. Ansel. 11 et 377. \2) Ex epist. 33. (3) Ex epist.37



*



TREATMENT OF TWO AHCHBISHOPS OF MENTZ. 171

Anotlier Letter of Anselra. ^^'""J ^-

Anselm, archbishop, to Eernai'd, monk of the abbey of St. Warburg, greet- ^- ^•
ing and prayer.^ 1108.

I lieard it said of your lord abbot, that thou judgest it to be of greater merit. Whether
when a monk either beats himself, or desireth himself to be beaten of another than '^ ".^■"''f
when he is beaten (not of liis own will) in the chapter, by the commandment of the a monk to
prelacy. But it is not as you think, for that judgment which any man connnandeth '''■}"se
to himself, is kingly ; but that which l^e sutfereth by obedience in the chapter, is i'™chap"
monkish. The one is of his own will; the other is of obedience, and not of his tertohe
own will. That which I call kingly, kings and rich proud men commanded to ■^^''ipped,
be done to themselves ; but that wliich I call monkish, they take not command- fer obe-
ing, but obeying. The kingly is so much easier, by how much it agrecth to the dientiy
will of the sufterer ; but the monkish is so much the more grievous, by how pjno*\,"''"
much it diflereth from the will of the sufferer. In the kingly judgment, the his abbot
sufferer is judged to be his own ; in monkish he is proved not to be his own :
for although the king, or rich man, when he is beaten, willingly showeth
himself Immbly to be a sinner; yet he would not submit himself to this humble-
ness at any other's commandment, but woidd withstand the commander with all
his strength. But when a monk submitteth himself to the whip humbly in the
chapter at the will of the prelate, the truth judgeth him to be of so much
greater merit, by how much he humbleth himself more and more, and more
ti'idy than the other. For he humbleth himself to God only, because he
knoweth his sins, but this man humbleth himself to man for obedience. But he
is moi'e lowly that humbleth himself both to God and man for God's cause,
tlum he which humbleth himself to God only, and not to God's commandment.
'I'herefore, if he that humbleth himself shall be extolled, ergo, he that more
humbleth himself, shall be more exalted. And where I said, that when a
monk is whipped, it diflereth from his will, j^ou must not so understand it, as
though he would not patiently bear it with an obedient will, but because by a
natm-al appetite he would not suffer the sorrow. But if ye say, I do not so
much fly the open beating for the pains (which I feel also secretly), as for the
sliame ; know then that he is stronger that rejoiceth to bear this for obedience'
sake. Therefore be thou sure, that one whipping of a monk by obedience is of xhe jiultj-
more merit than innumerable whippings taken by his own mind. But nient of
whereas he is such that he always ought to have his heart ready without mur- „„ the"
muring obediently to be whipped, we ought to judge him then to be of a great case,
merit, whether he be whipped privily or openly, &c.

And thus much concerning Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury,
whose stout example gave no little courage to Thurstin and Beckct,
his successors, and others that followed after, to do the like against
their kings and princes, as in process hereafter by the grace of Christ
shall appear.

About this time, two famous archbishops of Mentz, being right
virtuous and well-disposed prelates, Avere cruelly and tyrannously
dealt withal, and treated by the bishop of Rome. Their names
Avere Henry and Christian. This Henry, having intelligence that he A,,ve,Mx.
was complained of to the pope, sent a learned man, a special friend
of his, to excuse him, named Arnold ; one for whom he had done
much, and Avhom he had promoted to gTcat livings and promotions.
But this honest man Arnold, instead of an excuser, became an
accuser, bribing the tAvo chiefest cardinals with good gold ; by which judges
means he obtained of the pope, those two cardinals to be sent rupted.
as inquisitors and only doers in that present case. They, coming to
Germany, summoned the said Henry, and deposed him from his
archbishopric in spite of all he could do either by laAV or justice,
substituting in his place the aforesaid Arnold, in hope, truly, of the

(1) Ex epist. 255.



172 . INVESTITURE OF A POPE.

Henry I. ccclcsiastical gold. Whereupon that virtuous and honourable Henry,
A T) as the story telleth, spake unto those his perverse judges on this wise •
1101. " If I should appeal unto the apostolic see for this your unjust pro-

cess had against me, perhaps the pope would attempt nothing more

therein than ye have, neither should I win any thing by it, but only
toil of body, loss of goods, affliction of mind, care of heart, and
missing of his favour. Wherefore I do appeal unto the Lord Jesus
Christ, as the most high and just judge, and cite you before his
judgment, there to answer me before the high Judge ; for neither
justly nor godly, but by con-uption as it pleaseth you, you have
judged." Whereunto they scoffingly answered : " Go you first, and
we will follow." Not long after, as the story goes, the said Henry
ixampie^^ died, wliercof the said two cardinals having intelligence, said one
for cor- to t]jg other jestingly: " Behold, he is gone before, and we must
judges to follow according to our promise." And verily, they said truer than
they were aware of; for within a while they died both in one day.
For the one, sitting upon a jakes to ease himself, voided out, all his
entrails into the draught, and miserably ended his life ; the other gnaw-
ing off the fingers of his hands, and spitting them out of his mouth,
all deformed in devouring himself, died. And in like wise, not
long after the end of these men, the aforesaid Arnold most horribly
in a sedition was slain ; and three days, lying stinking above the
ground unburied, was open to the spoil of every rascal and harlot.
The historiographer^ in declaring hereof crieth upon the cardinals
in this manner : " O ye cardinals, ye are the beginning and authors
hereof. Come hither, draw out now, and bear unto your master the
devil, and together with that money which you have gulped down,
offer him yourselves also."
A.D.uoo. About the same time and year in which King Henry began his
reign. Pope Paschal entered his papacy, succeeding Urban, about
A.D. 1100, nothing swerving from the steps of Hildebrand, his
superior. This Paschal, being elected by the cardinals, after the people
had cried thrice, " St. Peter hath chosen good Rainerus ;" he then
pope's putting on a purple vesture, and a tiara vipon his head, was brought
attire, upou a wliitc palfrey into Lateran, where a sceptre Avas given him, and
a girdle put about hun having seven keys, Avith seven seals hanging
V^^ f Id tl^^reupon for a recognisance or token of his sevenfold power, accord-
power of ing to the sevenfold grace of the Holy Ghost, of binding, loosing,
'^ ^"'"^■^ shutting, opening, sealing, resigning, and judging. After this
Paschal was elected pope, Henry IV., the aforesaid emperor (of
courage most valiant, if the time had served thereto,) thought to
come up to Italy to salute the new pope ; but, understanding
the pope's mind bent against him, he changed his pm'pose. In the
mean time. Paschal, to show himself inferior to Hildebrand in no
point, began first to depose all such abbots and bishops as the emperor
had set up. Also he banished Albert, Theodoric, and Maginulph,
striving at the same time for the papacy. I spake before of Guibert,
whom Henry, the emperor, had made pope against Hildebrand.
Paschal made out an army against this Guibert, who, being put to
Anti- flio^^^i i^ot long after departed.

Christ About the same time, a.d. 1101, the bishop of Florence began to

manifest, tcacli and to prcach of antichrist then to be born and to be manifest,

Appendix. (I) Conradi Chron. Moguutiacum. See Appendix.— Ed. (2) See vol. iii. p. 105. — Ed.



WAR BETWEEN THE EMPEROR AND HIS SON. 173

as Sabellicus testifieth; whereupon Paschal assembling a council at Flo- Henry i.
rence put to silence the said bishop, and condemned his books. In his . j^
council at Troyes, priests tliat were married were condemned for Nico- noG.
laitans : Item, according to the decree of Hildebrand, all such of what ^^^^ —
degree or estate soever they were (being laymen) who gave any ecclesi- bishop of
astical dignities, were condemned of simony : Furthermore, the statute a martyr.
of priests' tithes he there renewed, counting the selling away thereof as ^t Troyes!
a sin against the Holy Ghost. Concerning the excommunication a.d.ho?.
and other troubles, that Hildebrand wrought against Henry IV. the '<j'p<-"'''>-
emperor, it is declared sufficiently before.' This excommunication a tragical
Paschal, the pope, renewed afresh against the said Henry ; and not popePas-
only that, but also conventing the princes of Germany unto a general tlng'tue''
assembly, he set up his own son against him, causing the bishops of son. ^^^
Men tz, Cologne, and Worms, to deprive him of his imperial crown, and the fa-
to place his son Henry V. in his father's kingdom ; and so they did.^ ' '"^'ivs
Coming to the palace at Ingelheim, first they required from him his ^^''""'''•
diadem, his purple, his ring, and other ornaments pertaining to the
crown. The emperor demanded the cause, being then excommuni-
cated and void of friends. They pretended again, I cannot tell what,
— the selling of bishoprics, abbacies, and other ecclesiastical dignities
for money ; also alleging the pope's pleasure and that of other
princes. Then required he first of the bishop of Mentz, and likewise
of the other two, whom he had prefeiTed to their bishoprics before,
asking them in order, if he had received of them any penny for his
promoting them to their dignities. This when they could not deny
to be so, " Well," saith he, " and do you requite me again with this.?"
with divers other words of exhortation, admonishing them to remem-
ber their oath and allegiance to their prince. But the perjured J^^^^^^-
prelates, neither reverencing his majesty, nor moved with his benefits, the son
nor regarding their fidelity, ceased not for all this, but first plucked \f^'^l'^
from him, sitting on his throne, his crown imperial, and then dis- tiier.
vestured him, taking from him his purple and his sceptre. The good
emperor, being left desolate and in confusion, saitli to them : "" Vi-
deat Deus et judicet :"" that is, " Let God see and judge." Thus
leaving him, they went to his son to confirm him in his kingdom,
and caused him to drive his father out ; who then being chased of his
son, and having but nine persons about him, did flee by way of the
dukedom of Limburgh, where the duke being then hunting, and per-
ceiving and hearing of him, made after to follow him. The emperor
fearing no other than present death, for he had displaced the same
duke before out of his dukedom, submitted himself, craving of him
pardon, and not revenge. The duke, full of compassion, and pitying ^^Rrr-tefui
his estate, not only remitted all his displeasure, but also received him oik good
to his castle. Moreover, collecting his soldiers and men of war, he fhankfui
brought him to Cologne, and there he was well received. His son •^"''*^-
hearing this, besieged that city. But the father, by night escaping,
came to Liege, where resorted to him all such as were men of com- .
passion and constant heart, insomuch that his power, being strong
enough, he was wn^ able to pitch a field against his enemies, and so
he did, desiring his friends, that if he had the victory, they would
epare his son. In fine, the battle joined, the fiithcr had the victory,

(1) Seepp.125— 131.— Ed. (2) Ex Historia Helmokli.



174



THE POPE TAKEN PRTSONEH.



-^^g"'-y ^- the son being put to fliglit, and many slain on both sides. But

^ j)_ shortly after, the battle being renewed again, the son prevailed, and

1112. the father was overcome and taken; who then, being utterly dis-

^^_ possessed of his kingdom, was brought to that exigency, that coming

kindness to Spircs, lie was feign to crave of the bishop there, whom he had done

prelate?^ mucli for before, to have a prebend in the church : and for that he

had some skill in his book, he desired to serve in our Lady's quire ;

yet could he not obtain so much at his hand, who swore by our Lady,

he should have nothing there.* Thus the woeful emperor, most

unkindly handled, and repulsed on every side, came to Liege, and

Apiundix. there for sorrow died, after he had reigned forty years ; whose body

The em- Paschal, after his funeral, caused to be taken up again, and to be

years ''^^ brought to Spircs, where it remained five years unburied.^

budai"' After the decease of this emperor Henry IV., his -son Henry V.

A radix ^^Jg'^^d tli6 space of twenty years. This prince coming to Rome

to be crowned of the pope, could not obtain it, before he would fully

A D.I 107. assent to have this ratified, that no emperor should have any thing to

emperor, do witli the clcction of the Roman bishop, or with other bishoprics.^

Besides that, about the same time, such a stir was made in Rome by

the said bishop, that if the emperor had not defended himself with

his own hands, he had been slain. But as it happened, the emperor

having victory, amongst many other Romans slain or taken in the

The pope same skirmish, taketh also the pope and leadeth him out of the city ;

prisoner, wlicre he indentetli with him upon divers conditions, both of his

Appeudix. coronation, and of recovering ag"ain his right and title in the election

of the pope and of other bishops : whereunto the pope assenting agTced

to all. So the emperor, being crowned of Paschal, returned again

with the pope of Rome.

All the conditions between the emperor and the pope, so long as

the emperor remained at Rome, stood firm and ratified ; but as

soon as the emperor was returned again to Germany, forthwith the

Appendix, pope, calling a synod, not only revoked all that he had agreed to

before, but also excommunicated Henry, the emperor, as he had done

War liis father before, reproving the former ' privilegium' for ' pravilegium.'

thepope^ The emperor, returning from Rome to France, there manned

papilts! Matilda, daughter to King Henry ; who then hearing what the pope

had done, (grieved not a little,) with all expedition marched to Rome,

and putteth the pope to flight, and finally placeth another in his

stead. Li the mean time the bishops of Germany, the pope''s good

friends, slacked not their business, incensing the Saxons all that they

might ag'ainst their Cajsar ; insomuch that a great commotion was

stirred up, and it grew at length to a pitched field, which was- fought

in the month of February, by the wood called Sylva Catidaria.

Peace The cmpcror seeing no end of these conflicts, unless he would

betweetf^ yield to the pope, was fain to give over, and forego his privilege, fall-

the em- \x\Q to a Composition, not to meddle with matters pertaining to the

the pope, pope's election, nor with investing, nor such other things belongmg to

the church and churchmen ; and thus was the peace between thena

concluded, and proclaimed to the no small rejoicing of both the armies,

then lying by Worms, near the river Rhine.

CD Ex HelmoMo, et Gotfrido Viterbiensl. (2) Ex Hclmoldo,

(3) Ex Chronico Carionis. lih. iii.



Bernar-
line
monks
come in.



EXCOMMUNICATION OF THE EMPEUOK. 175

In the time of this Paschal lived Bernard, called Abbot of Clair- iienryi.
vaux, A.D. 1108, of whom sprana: the Bernardino monk?. ~A~l7~

About this time the city of Worcester was almost consumed with 1119.'
fire.

All this while Henry the emperor had no issue, having to Avife &\
Matilda, the daughter of Henry I., king of England, and that by the
just judgment of God, as it may appear; for as he, having a father, ^iie city
persecuted him by the pope's setting on, contrary to the part ofacestcrai-
natural son ; so God's providence did not suffer him to be the father ^nsumU
of any child, naturally to love him, or to succeed him. ^j"^ '""'«•



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