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be erected in the said place of Cabriers, on the which was engraven '

the year and the day of the taking and sacking of this town, by John
Minerius, lord of Opede, and chief president of the parliament of
Provence ; for a memorial for ever of that barbarous cruelty, the like
Avhereof was never yet heard of. Hereupon we, with all our pos-
terity, have to understand what be the reasons and arguments where- The ar-
with the Antichrist of Rome is wont to uphold the impious seat of |,"™re-'^
his abomination ; who now is come to such excess and profundity of "'"'"."'«

,,,., p... , ,,. . . , ^ ,.•' doctrine

all kinds ot iniquity, that all justice, equity, and verity being set of the
aside, he seeketh the defence of his cause by no other thing but only cimrch
by force and violence, terror and oppression, and shedding of blood, ^tandeth.

In ihe meanwhile the inhabitants of Merindol, and other places
thereabout, were among the mountains and rocks, in great necessity
of victuals, and much affliction ; who had procured certain men who
were in some favour and authority with Minerius, to make request for
them unto him, that they might depart safely whither it should please
God to lead them, with their wives and children, although they had
no more but their shirts to cover them. Whereunto Minerius made
this answer : " I know what I have to do ; not one of them shall es-
cape my hands ; I will send them to dwell in hell among the devils."' ^

After this there was a power sent unto la Coste, which likewise they The town
overcame, and committed there great slaughter. Many of the inha- d"tr*oy-'''
bitants fled away and ran into an orchard, where the soldiers ravished ^'^■
the women and maidens ; and when they had kept them there inclosed
a day and a night, they handled them so cruelly, that the women H^i^^^
with child and the younger maidens died shortly after. It were ^°^^«-
impossible to comprehend all the lamentable and sorrowful examples
of this cruel persecution against the Merindolians, and their fellows,
insomuch that no kind of cruel tyranny was unpractised ; for they
that escaped by woods, and went wandering by mountains, were
taken and set in galleys, or else were slain outright.

Many who did hide themselves in rocks and dark caves, some
were famished with hunger, some were smothered with fire and smoke
put unto them : all which may more fully be understood by the records
of the court, and by the pleas between them and their adversaries in
the high consistory of the court of Paris, where all the doors being
set open, and in the public hearing of the people, the cause of this when the,
trouble and persecution was shortly after solemnly debated between !;/„"" "'
two great lawyers ; the one called Aubrius, who accused Minerius the ^^P
president, committed to prison ; and the other called Robert, the de- their'
fendant who was against him. The cause why this matter of Merindol pleaded''^
was brought in plea and judgment to be decided by the law was this : app"ici>x.

Henry II., French king, Avho newly succeeded Francis his father
above-mentioned, considering how this cruel and infamous persecu- '^^^
tion against his own subjects and people was greatly misliked of king's
other princes, and also objected both against him and his father as a n^otedYy
note of shameful tyranny by the emperor himself, Charles V., and pe^or™'
that in the public council of all the states in Germany, for so murdering chariesv.

(1) Antichrist, here playeth the devil. - .,



504 THE HISTORY OF MERINDOL AND CABRJERS.

and spoiling his own natural subjects, without all reason and mercy ;



" . yj he therefore, to the intent to purge and clear himself thereof, caused
154"! the said matter to be brought into the court, and there to be decided

7Z by order of justice, A. D. ]547.
Append.;r. ' rjij^-^ ^.^^^gg^ j^fj^^j, j^ ^^,,jg pjeadcd to aud fro in public audience, no
The less than fifty times, and yet in the end could not be determined, so
lite Me- brake off and was passed over; and at length Minerius, being loosed
a'lls'^after out of prisou, was rcstorcd to his liberty and jjosscssions again, upon
death ^^^^^ condition and promise made unto Charles the cardinal of Lorraine,
pleaded that he should banish and expel these new Ciiristians (terming so the
times. true professors of the gospel) out of all Provence.
Just Thus Minerius being restored, returned again into Provence, where

God upon he began again to attempt greater tyranny than before. Neither did
Minerius. ^^^^ raging fury cease to proceed, before the just judgment of God,
lighting upon him, brought him by a horrible disease unto the tor-
ments of death, which he most justly had deserved. For he, being
struck with a strange kind of bleeding in manner of a bloody flux,
f and not being able to obtain other relief, thus by little and little his
entrails within him rotted : and Avhen no remedy could be found for
this terrible disease, and his entrails now began to be eaten of worms,
a certain fomous surgeon, named La ISIotte, who dwelt at Aries, a man
no less godly than expert in his science, was called for, who, after he
t had cured him of this difficulty of relieving himself, and therefore
was in great estimation with him ; before he would proceed further to
search the other parts of his putrefied body, and to search out the
inward cause of his malady, he desired that they that were present in
Goo'^ the chamber with Minerius, would depart a little aside. This being
given to donc, he began to exhort Minerius with earnest words, saying, how
by his'"* the time now required that he should ask forgiveness of God "by Christ,
surgeon, f^j. j^jg enomious crimes and cruelty, in shedding so much innocent
blood ; and declared the same to be the cause of this so strange pro-
fusion of blood coming from him.
He seek- Thcse Avords being heard so pierced the impure conscience of this
biooVof miserable wretch, that he was therewith more troubled than with the
^ron""^ agony of his disease ; insomuch that he cried out to lay hand upon
the surgeon as a heretic. La Motte hearing this, eftsoons conveyed
liimself out of sight, and returned again to Aries. Notwithstanding
it was not long but he was sent for again, being entreated by his
friends, and promised most firmly, that his coming should be without
any peril or danger : and so with much ado, he returned again to
Minerius, what time all now was past remedy. And so ^linerius.
The raging and casting out most horrible and blaspheming words, and
r.wfof'^^ feeling a fire which burnt him from the navel upwards, with extreme
Minerius ^tcuch of the lowcr parts, finished his wretched life. AMiereby we
have notoriously to understand, that God, through his mighty arm, at
length confoundcth such persecutors of his innocent and faithful ser-
vants, and bringeth them to nought ; to whom be praise and glory
for ever !

Moreover, besides this justice of God showed upon ^linerius, here
also is not to be forgotten that which followed likewise upon certain
of the others who were the chief doers in this persecution under Mi-
nerius aforesaid ; namely, Louis de Vaine, brother-in-law to the said



NOTES ON THE TRECEDIKG HISTORY. 505

president, and also the brother and the son-in-law to Peter Durant, Prove nce
master-butcher in the town of Aix ; which three did slay one another, a. D.
upon a certain strife that fell among them. And upon the same day 1530
the judge of Aix, who accompanied Minerius in the same persecution, to
as he returned homeward, going over the river Durance, was drowned.^ 1^'^^-

Just

plague of
NOTES UPON THE HISTORY OF JNIERINDOL, ABOVE RECITED. God upon

, three per-
secutors.

Thus hast thou heard, loving reader ! the terrible troubles and
slaughters committed by the bishops and cardinals, against these
faithful men of Merindol,. which, for the heinous tyranny, and for ex-
ample of the fact most unmerciful, may be comparable with many of
the first persecutions in the primitive church, done either by Decius,
or Diocletian.

Now, touching the said story and people of Merindol, briefly by ''"^,igf°of
the way is to be noted, that this was not the first time that these men Merindol
of this country were vexed ; neither was it of late years that the doc- of'the
trine and profession of them began. For (as by the course of time, ^gnges.
and by ancient records it may appear) these inhabitants of Provence,
and other coasts bordering about the confines of France and Piedmont,
had their continuance of ancient time, and received their doctrine first
from the Waldenses, or Albigenses, who were (as some say) about
A.D.I 170; or (as others do reckon) about a.d. 1216, whereof
thou hast, gentle reader ! sufficiently to understand, reading before.^

These Waldenses, otherwise called Pauperes de Lugduno, begin- App1:ndix.
ning of one Peter Waldo, citizen of Lyons, as is before showed,
by violence of persecution being driven out of Lyons, were dispersed
abroad in divers countries, of whom some fled to ^larseilles, some to
Germany, some to Sarmatia, Livonia, Bohemia, Calabria, and Apulia.
Divers strayed to the countries of France, especially about Provence wai-
and Piedmont, of whom came these Merindolians above-mentioned, howand
and the Angrognians, with others, of whom now it followeth likewise "Ij^^'^^
(God willing) to discourse. They that were in the country of Tou- began.
louse, of the place where they frequented, were called Albii, or
Albigenses. Against these Albigenses, friar Dominic was a great ^^""jj^'jj.^j
doer, labouring and preaching against them ten years together ; and of the
caused many of them to be burned, for which he was highly accepted frfarl an
and rewarded in the apostolical court, and at length, by pope Hono- (,"^"1^^'°
rius IIL, was made patriarch of the black guard of the Dominic Friars.^ denses.

These Albigenses, against the pope of Rome, had set up to them-
selves a bishop of their own, named Bartholomseus, remaining about
the coasts of Croatia and Dalmatia, as appeareth by a letter of one
of the pope''s cardinals above specified.'* For this cause the see of
Rome took great indignation against the said Albigenses, and caused
all their faithful catholics, and the obedientiaries to their church, to
rise up in annom-, and to take the sign of the holy cross upon them,
to fight against them, a. d. 1206 ; by reason whereof great multi-
tudes of them were pitifully murdered, not only of them about Tou-
louse and Avignon in France (as is afore to be seen), but also in all
quarters, miserable slaughters and burnings of them long continued,

(1) Ex Hist. Gallica, Pantal. et aliis. (2) See vol. ii. p. 264.— Ed.

(3) Ex Antonino, part iii. tltul. 19. capitulo 1. (4) See vol. ii p. 35C in the note.— Ed.



50G THE HISTORY OF MERINDOL AXD CABRIERS.

Provence, from tlic icigH of Frccleric II., emperor, almost to tliis present time,
, y. through the instigation of the Roman popes.
1530 Paulus yEmilius, the French chronicler, in his sixth book, \\Titing

. to of these Pauperes de Lugduno, and Ilumiliati, and dividing these
1547. two orders from the Albigenses, reporteth that the two former orders
were rejected by the pope Lucius III., and in their place two other
orders were approved, to wit, the order of the Dominic Friars, and
that of the Franciscans : which secmeth not to be true, forasmuch as
this pope Lucius was twenty years before Innocent III. ; and yet
not in the time of pope Innocent was the order of the Dominic Friars
approved, but in the time of pope Honorius III., who was forty
years after pope Lucius. Again, Bernard of Lutzenberg, in his
Cataiogus Hareticorum, affirmeth, that these Pauperes de Lugduno,
or Waldenses, began first a.d, 1218 ; which if it be true, then must
the other report of ^Emilius be false, writing that the sect of Pau-
peres de Lugduno, was refused by pope Lucius III., who was long
before this, a.d. 1181.

Amongst other authors who write of those Waldenses, John Sleidan,*
treating of their continuance and doctrine, thus writeth of them.
" There be," saith he, " in the French province, a people called
"Waldois. These, of an ancient trade and custom among them, do
not acknowledge the bishop of Rome, and ever have used a manner
of doctrine somewhat more pure than the rest ; but especially since
the coming of Luther, they have increased in more knowledge and
perfection of judgment : wherefore they have been oftentimes com-
plained of to the king, as though they contemned the magistrate, and
would move rebellion, with other such matter falsely surmised against
them, more of despite and malice, than of any just cause of truth.
There be of them certain towns and villages, among which Merindol
is one. Against these INIerindolians sentence was given five years
past, at Aix, being the high tribunal-scat or judgment-place of Pro-
vence, that all should be destroyed without respect of age or person,
in such sort as that the houses being plucked down, the village should
be made plain, even with the ground ; the trees also should be cut
do-vvn, and the place altogether made desolate and desert. Albeit,
though it were thus pronounced, yet was it not then put in execution,
by means of certain that persuaded the king to the contrary, namely,
one William Belay, who was at the same time the king's lieutenant
in ]*iedmont. But at last, on the 12tli of April, a.d. 1545, John
Minerius, president of the council of Aix, calling the senate, read the
king''s letters, commanding them to execute the sentence given, &c.^

^,/Ziir. Moreover, concerning the confession and the doctrine of the said
Merindolians, received of ancient time from their forefathers the
Waldenses, thus it followeth in the said book and place of John
Sleidan.'

At last, saitli Slcidan (after he liad described what great cruelty was showed
against them) when the rejjort thereof was bruited in Germany, it oll'ended the
.niinds of many ; and indeed the Switzers, who were then of a contrary religion

(1) Sec the story of Sleidan, lib. xvi.

(2) Tliis Confession, worthy of perpetual memory, you shall see more largely set out in Henry
Pantaleon, writing of the destruction of Cahriers anil Meriiulol, and also iu tlue french story of
Johan. Sleid. lib. xvi, (3) See the Appendix.— Ed.



Tllli HISTORY OF THE WALDENSES OR WALDOIS. 507

to the pope, entreated the king, that he would show mercy to such as were Piedmont.
Hed.



Whereunto the said king Francis made answer in this wise ; pretending that ^- ^*
he had just cause to do as he did : inferring moreover, that they ought not to 1"^^**
be careful what he did within his dominions, or how he punislied his offenders, *^



tliem, notwithstanding (saith Sleidan), that he, the year before, had received The con-
from the said his subjects of Merindol, a confession of their faith and doctrine, fession

The articles thereof were, that they, according to the christian failh, con- ofme"*'^
fessed first, God the Father, creator of all things : the Son, the only mediator Wal-
and advocate of mankind : the Holy Spirit, the comforter and instructor of all ^f "^.'^'' '"
truth. doi.

They confessed also the church, which they acknowledged to be the fellow-
ship of God's elect, whereof Jesus Christ is head. The ministers also of the
church they did allow, wisliing that such as did not their duty should be
removed.

And as touching magistrates, they granted likewise the same to be ordained
of God to defend the good, and to punish the transgressors. And how they
ov/e to him, not love only, but also tribute and custom, and no man herein to
be excepted, even by the example of Christ, who paid tribute himself, &c.

Likewise of baptism, they confessed the same to be a visible and an outward
sign, that representeth to us the renewing of the spirit, and mortification of the
members.

Furthermore, as touching the Lord's supper, they said and confessed the same
to be a thanksgiving, and a memorial of the benefit received through Christ.

Matrimony they afiirmed to be holy; and instituted of God, and to be
inhibited to no man.

That good works are to be observed and exercised of all men, as holy Scrip-
ture teacheth.

That false doctrine, which leadeth men away from the true worship of God,
ought to be eschewed.

Briefly and finally, the order and rule of their faith they confessed to be the
Old and New Testament ; protesting that they believed all such things as are
contained in the apostolic creed : desiring moreover the king to give credit to
this their declaration of their faith ; so that whatsoever was informed to him to
the contrary, was not true, and that they would well prove, if they might be
heard.

And thus mucli concerning tlie doctrine and confession of the
Merindolians out of Sleidan, and also concerning their descent and
offspring from the Waklenses.

€:fje ili^torp of t^e per.^ecutioni? and K>ar^ again^^t tfje people m;::,;„
calleti BafCiens^e.s" ot l©alDoi.^%

IN THE VALLEYS OF ANGROGNE, LUCERXE, ST. MARTIN, PE-

ROUSE AND OTHERS, IN THE COUNTRY OF PIEDMONT,

FROM A.D. 1555, to A.D. 1561.

The ]Mart}'rs of the Valley of Angrogne, the Martyrs of the
Valley of Lucerne, the INIartyrs of St. Martin, the Martyrs of
Perouse and others. Persecuted by the Parliament of Turin ;
the President of St. Julian ; Jacomel, a Monk and Inquisitor ;
Monsieur de la Trinity ; the Gentlemen of the Valleys ; Charles
Truchet , Boniface Truchet ; the Collateral of Corbis ; the Col-
lateral de Ecclesia ; the Dulce of Savoy ; Monks of Pignerol ; and
by many others more. Enemies of God, and Ministers of Satan.

To proceed now further in the persecution of these Waldois, or
Waldenses, you have heard hitherto, first how they, dividing them-
selves into divers countries, some fled to Provence and to Toulouse,



508 TIIK HISTORY OF THE WALDF.XSES OR WALDOIS.

Fi.dmont. of wliom sufficient liatli been said. Some went to Piedmont, and
s^ jj) tlie valley of Angrogne, of -whom it followcth now to treat, God
'1555' willing.

to Thus these good men, by long persecution, being driven from

^TjjfilL_ p]ace to place, were gi'ievously in all places afflicted, Ijut yet could
never be utterly destroyed, nor yet compelled to yield to the super-
stitious and false religion of the church of Rome : but ever abstained
from their corruption and idolatrv, as much as was possible, and gave
themselves to the word of God, as a rule both truly to serve him,
and to direct their lives accordingly.

They had many books of the Old and New Testament translated
into their language. Their ministers instructed them secretly, to
avoid the fury of their enemies who could not abide the light ; albeit
they did not instruct them with such purity as was requisite. They
lived in great simplicity, and with the sweat of their brows. They
were quiet and peaceable among their neighbours, abstaining from
blasphemy, and from profaning of the name of God by oaths, and
such other impiety ; also from lewd games, dancing, filthy songs, and
other vices and dissolute life, and conformed their life wholly to the
rule of God's word. Their principal care was always, that God might
be rightly served, and his word truly preached ; insomuch that in our
time, when it pleased God to set forth the light of his gospel more
clearly, they never spared any thing to establish the true and pure
ministry of the word of God and his sacraments. This was the cause
that Satan Avith his ministers did so persecute them of late more
cruelly than ever he did before, as manifestly appcareth by the bloody
and hon'ible persecutions which have been, not only in Provence,
against those of Merindol and Cabriers, also against them of Prague
and Calabria (as the histories afore written do sufficiently declare),
but also against them in the country of Piedmont, remaining in the
valley of Angi-ogne, and of Lucerne, and also in the valley of St.
IVIartin and Perouse, in the said country of Piedmont. This people
of a long time were persecuted by the papists, and especially within
these few years they have been vexed in such sort, and so diversely,
that it seemcth almost incredible: and vet hath God always miracu-
lously delivered them, as hereafter shall ensue.

Albeit the people of Angrogne had before this time certain to
preach the word of God, and minister the sacraments unto them pri-
vately ; yet in the year of our Lord L555, in the beginning of the
month of August, the gosjjcl was openly preached in Angrogne. The
ministers and the people intended at first to keep themselves still as
secret as they might ; but there was such concourse of people from
all parts, that they were compelled to preach openly abroad. For
this cause they built them a church in the midst of Angrogne, wlicre
Tiiejust assemblies were made, and sermons preached. It happened about
omiXon that time, that one .John Martin, of Briqueras, a mile from Angrogne,
Ma'nin, a "^^'"^ vauutcd cvcry where, that he would slit the minister's nose of
i.orsecii- Angrogne, was assaulted by a wolf which bit off his nose, so that he
died thereof mad. This was commonly known to all the toAvns
thereabout.

At this season the French king held these aforesaid valleys, and
they were under the jurisdiction of the i)arlianitnt of Tiuiii. At



the An-
giogni-



PERSECDTION OF THE ANGROGNIANS AND OTHERS. 509

the end of the December followino;, news was brought, that it was ?/«''«-»'.
ordained by the said parliament, that certain horsemen and footmen ^ ^7
should be sent to spoil and destroy Angrogne, Hereupon some who 1-355
pretended great friendship to this people, counselled them not to go to
forward with their enterprise, but to forbear for a while, and to wait ^^^^-
for better opportunity. But they, notwithstanding, calling upot
God, determined with one accord constantly to persist in their reli-
gion, and in hope and silence to abide the good pleasure of God : so
that this enterprise against Angrogne was soon dashed. The same
time they began also openly to preach in Lucerne.

In the month of March, a.d. 1556. the ministers of the valley of Banho-
St. Martin preached openly. At that time certain gentlemen of the b'ook-"' ^
valley of St. Martin took a good man named Bartholomew, a book- nJal'i";
binder, prisoner, as he passed by the said valley, who was sent by
and by to Turin ; and there, with a marvellous constancy, after he
had made a good confession of his faith, he suffered death ; insomuch
that divers of the parliament were astonished and appalled at his con- ^j^g
stancy. Yet they of the said parliament, being sore incensed against si<i';"t of
the Waldois, sent one, named the president of St. Julian, associating and
unto him one called De Ecclesia and others, to hinder their enter- l^ntti
prise. These coming first to the valley of Perouse, where as yet no
preachers were, but they were accustomed to resort to the sermons
of Angrogne, very much troubled and feared the poor people there. Api^nutx.

From thence they went to the valley of St. Martin, and remained
there a good while, tormenting the poor people, and threatening
their utter ruin and destruction. After that they came to Lucerne,
troubling and vexing the people there in like manner. From thence
they went to Angrogne, accompanied by many gentlemen, and a
great rabble of priests of the said country : but by the way, the pre-
sident inquired for one dwelling at St. Jean, near to Angrogne, and
examined him, whether he had not baptized his child at Angrogne,
and wherefore he had so done ? The poor simple man answered,
that he had baptized his child at Angrogne, because baptism was
there administered according to the institution of Christ. Then the
president, in a great rage, commanded him in the king"'s name to bap-
tize his child again, or else he should be burnt.^ The poor man
desired the president that he might be suffered to make his prayer to
God, before he should make answer thereunto : which after he had Example
done in the hall, before all the company there present, he required prij"e'r.
the president that he would write, and sign the same with his own
hand, that he would discharge him before God of the danger of that ^^^^
offence, if he should baptize his child again, and that he would take sidem
the peril upon him and his. The president, hearing this, was so ed"at"he"
confounded, that he spake not one word a good while after. Then ^^^.^ ^^_
said he, in a great fury, "Away, thou villain! out of my sight :"" ands-^er.
after that he was never called again any more.

After they were come to Angrogne, the president, having visited
the two temples, caused a monk to preach in the one, the people



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