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^^- his first offence, one whole year's profit of such one of his benefices or spiritual
. promotions, as it should please the king's highness to assign and appoint; and

1 in '''^°' ^"^ *'^^ same offence, should suffer imprisonment by the space of six
months, without bail or mainprize. But, if any such person, after his first con-
viction, sliould eflsoons offend again, and be thereof, in form aforesaid, lawfully
convicted, then he should, for his second offence, suffer imprisonment by tl)e
space of one whole year; and should also be deprived, ' ij)so facto,' of all his
Penalty, spiritual promotions for ever, so that it should be lawful for the patrons and
donors thereof to give the same again unto any other learned man, in like
manner as if the said party so offending were dead. And if any the siiid person
or j)ersons should again the third time offend, and be thereof, in form aforesaid,
lawfully convicted, then he should, for the same third offence, suffer imprison-
ment during his life. If any such person or persons aforesaid, so offending,
had not any benefice or spiritual promotion, that then he should, for his first
offence, suffer imprisonment by the space of six months without bail or main-
prize, and, for his second offence, imprisonment during his life.

This request, or ratlicr actual agreement, of tlie lords and com-
mons of the parliament, being once understood by the king, was
also soon ratified and confirmed by his regal consent and authority ;
and thereupon the said book of Common Prayer was presently
imprinted, and commanded to be exercised throughout the whole
realm and dominions thereof, according to the tenor and effect of the
said statute. Moreover, in the same session of the said parliament
it was enacted and established by the authority thereof, as foliowcth :

Laws and That forasmuch as great, horrible, and not to be rehearsed inconveniences,

constitu- j^jj,|^ from time to time, risen amongst the priests, ministers, and other officers

against of the clergy, through their compelled chastity, and by such laws as prohibited

priests' them the godly and lawful use of mamage ; that therefore all and every law

debarrwf. ^"'^ \aws positive, canons, constitutions, and ordinances theretofore made by the

autliority of man only, which did prohibit or forbid marriage to any ecclesiastical

or spiritual person or persons, of what estate, condition, or degree soever tliey

were, or by what name or names they were called, wiio, by God's law, may

lawl'ully marry ; in all and every article, branch and sentence, concerning only

the ])rohibition of the marriage of the persons aforesaid, should be utterly void

and of none oH'ect. And that all manner of forfeitures, pains, penalties, eriines,

. or actions, which were in the said laws contained, and of tlie same did follow,

of priests concerning the prohibition of the marriage of the said ecclesiastical persons,

set free, should also be thenceforth clearly and utterl}' void, frustrate and of none effect.

By occasion hereof, it was, thence after, right lawful for any
ecclesiastical person, not having the gift of chastity, most godly to
live in the pure and holy estate of matrimony, according to the laws
and word of God.

But, if the first injunctions, statutes, and decrees of the prince
were, by many, but slenderly regarded, with much less good affection
were these, especially the book of Conunon Prayer, by divers now
received ; yea, and that by some of them, who hatl always before, in
outward show, willingly allowed the former doings, as a]:)pcarcth most
plainly, amongst others, by Bonner the bishop of London ; who, al-
though, by his former letters and other mandates, lie seemed hitherto to
favour all the king's proceedings, yet did he, at that jiresent (notwith-
standing both the first statute for the establishing of the comnmnion
and the abolishing of all private masses, and also this statute of the
ratifying and confirming of the book of Common Prayer), still suffer
sundry idolatrous private masses of peculiar names, as tlie Ajxistles*"



A LETTER TO BOKNER FROM THE COUNCIL. tTJ

Mass, the Lady's Mass, and such lilce, to be daily solemnly sung within Edward

certain peculiar chapels of the cathedral church of Paufs, cloking L_

them with the names of the Apostles'' Communion, and Our Lady''s A. I).
Communion ; not once finding any fault therewith, until such time as ^^^^-
the lords of the council, having intelligence thereof, were fain, by
their letters, to command and charge him to look better thereunto.
And then, being therewith somcAvhat pricked forAvards (perhaps by
fear), he was content to direct his letters unto the dean and chapter
of his cathedral church of PauFs, thereby requesting them forthwith
to take such order therein, as the tenor of the counciFs said letters,
therewithal sent unto them, did import ; both which letters I have,
for the more credit, here following inserted.

A Letter directed from the King''s Council to Edmund Bonner,
Bishop of London, for abrogating of Private Masses ; especially
the Apostles' Mass, within the Church of St. Paul, used under the
name of the Apostles' Communion.^

After hearty commendations ; having very credible notice that within that The
your cathedral church there be as yet the Apostles' Mass, and Our Lady's Mass, Apostles
and other masses of such pecuHar names, under the defence and nomination of down in'
Our Lady's Communion, and the Apostles' Communion, used in private chapels, Paul's.
and other remote places of the same, and not in the chancel : contrary unto
the king's majesty's proceedings, the same being, for the misuse, displeasing to
God ; for the place, Paul's, in example not tolerable ; for the fondness of the
name, a scorn to the i-everence of the communion of the Lord's body and blood:
we, for the augmentation of God's honour and glory, and the consonance of his
majesty's laws, and the avoiding of murmur, have thought good to will and
connnand you, that, from henceforth, no such masses in this manner be in your
church any longer used ; but that the holj' blessed communion, according to the
act of parliament, be ministered at the high altar of the church, and in no
other places of the same ; and only at such time as your high masses were wont
to be used, except some number of people desire, for their necessary business,
to have a communion in the morning ; and yet the same to be executed in the
chancel, at the high altar, as it is appointed in the book of the public service,
without cautel or digression from the common order. And herein you shall
not only satisfy our expectation of your conformity in all lawful things, but also
avoid the murmur of sundry that be therewith justly offended. And so we bid
your lordship heartily farewell.

From Richmond, the 24th of June, anno 1549.

Your loving friends,
Edward Somerset, R. Rich, Chancellor,

William Saint John, Francis Shrewsbury,
Edmund Montague, William Cecil.

A Letter of Edmund Bonner to the Dean and Chapter of Paul's,
sent with the Order in Council.

To my right worshipful friends, and most loving good brethren, master dean
of Paul's, with all the canons, residentiaries, prebendaries, subdeans, and
ministers of the same, and every of them, with speed:

Right worshipful, with most hearty commendations. So it is, this Wednes-
day, the 26th of June, going to dinner, I received letters from the king's council
by a poursuivant, and the same I do send now herewith unto you, to the intent
you may peruse them well, and proceed accordingly;'- pi-aying you, in case all be

(1) See Heylin's History of the Reformation, p. 74. — Ed.

(2) ' Bonner, with his own hand, consenteth to the abrogation of the mass! If he did it of
fear, where was then his conscience f If he did it of conscience, why is he now afraid?' See
Edition 1563, p. G91.— Ed.

3x2



724(



BON'XKR TO THE DF.AX AND ClIAPTr.K OF ST. PAUL S.



Edward not present, yet those that be now resident, and supplying the places, may, in
^^- their absence, call the conij)any togetlicr of the churcli, and make declaration
hereof unto them. Thus committing you to God, right well to fare.
Written with speed this 26lh of June, at one of the clock.
Your loving brother,

Edmund London.



A.D.



Over and Lcsitles all tliis, tlie lord protector, with tlie residue of
the king''s privy and learned council assembling together in the Star
Chamber, about the same matter ; that is, for the advancement and
setting forward of the king's so godly proceedings, called before them
all the justices of the peace, where was uttered unto them, by the
lord Rich, then lord chancellor, an eloquent and learned admonition,
the tenor whereof ensueth.



Justices
slack in
further-
iiiK
religion.



An Admonition addressed by the Lord Chancellor Rich to Justices

of the Peace.

It hath been used and accustomed before this time, to call, at certain times,
the justices of peace before the king's majesty's council, to give unto them
admonition or warning, diligently (as is their duty) to look to the observing of
sucli things as be committed to their charges, according to the trust which the
king's majesty hath in them. Howbcit now, at this time, we call you before us,
nol only of custom^ but rather of necessity, for hearing daily, and perceiving of
necessity, as we do, the great negligence, and the little heed which is taken
and given, to the observing of the good and wholesome laws and orders in this
realm ; whereupon much disorder doth daily ensue, and, the king's majesty's
proclamations and orders taken by tlie council (as we are advertised) not
executed, the people are brought to disobedience, and in a manner all his
majesty's study and ours, in setting a good and most godly stay to the honour
of God and the quiet of the realm, is spent in vain, and come to nothing:
v/hich, as we have great hope and trust not to be altogether so, yet, so much as
it is, and so much as it lackcth of the kee])ing of the realm in a most godly
order aiul stay, we must needs impute and lay the fault thereof in you, who
are tlie justices of the peace in every shire ; to whom we are wont to direct our
writings, and to whose trust and charge the king's majesty hath eonuuitted the
execution of all his proclamations, of his acts of ])arliament, and of his laws.

We are informed that many of you are so negligent and so slack herein, that
it doth appear you do look rather, as it were, through your fingers, than dili-
gently see to the execution of the said laws and proclamations. For, if you
would, according to your duties, to your oath, to the trust which the king's
majesty hath in you, give your diligence and care toward the execution of the
same most godly statutes and injunctions ; there should no disobedience, nor
disorder, nor evil rule, be begim or arise in any ])art of the realm, but it should,
by and by, be repressed, kept down, and reformed. But it is feared, and the
thing itself givcth occasion thereto, that divers of you do not only not set forth,
l)ul rather hinder, so much as lieth in you, tlie king's majesty's proceedings;
and are content that there should arise some disobedience, and that men should
repine against godly orders, set forth by his majesty (you do so slackly look to
the execution of the same) ; so that in some shires, which be further off, it may
appear that the peojile have never heard of divers of his majesty's proclama-
tions ; or, if they have heard, you are content to wink at it, and to neglect it,
so that it is all one as though it were luner commaiuled. But if you do consider
and remember your duties, first to Almighty God, and then to the king's ma-
jesty, the wealth of the whole realm, and the safeguard of yom-own selves, you
must needs see, that except such orders as the king's majesty hath set, and
hereafter shall appoint, be kept, neither can the realm be defended, if the enemy
should invade, nor can it in peace stand; but, upon the contempt of good and
wholesome laws, all disorder and inconveniences will come, the people will be
wild and savage, and no man sure of his own.

If, at any time, there was occasion and cause to be circumspect and diligent



AN ADMONITION TO JUSTICES OF THE PEACE. 725

abbut the same, there was never more time than now. How we stand in Scot- Edicnrd
laud you know, and that ctlier foreign power maketh great preparation to aid ''^•
them, and indeed dotli come to their aid; whereof we are surely informed and . ,>
certified. Wherefore, if there should not be good oi-der and obedience kept in , . ,n'

the realm, the realm were like utterly to be destroyed. Never foreign power — '- '—

could yet hiu't, or in any part prevail in this realm, but by disobedience and '';.'"'. '^^"'^
misorder within ourselves. That is the way wherewith God will plague us, if ence in a
he mind to punisli us. And so long as we do agree among ourselves, and be realm,
obedient to our prince, and to his godly orders and laws, we may be sure
that God is with us, and that foreign powers shall not prevail against us, nor
hurt us.

Wherefore, once again, and still we must and do lay this charge upon you, Orders
that are the better of the shire, and justices of the peace, that with so conve- *^'^'^!" ^"^
nient speed as you can, you do repair down into your countries ; and you shall
give warning to the gentlemen of the shire, who have not necessary business
here, that they repair down each man to his country ; and there, both you and
they wlio be reckoned the stay of every shire to see good order and rule kept :
you, that your sessions of gaol-delivery and quarter-sessions be well kept, and
that therein your meetings be such that justice may be well and truly ministered,
tlie offenders and malefactors punished according to the laws of this realm,
without any fear of any man, or that for favour you shoxdd suffer those to
escape, who, with their evil example, might bring others to the like mishap ;
and that all vagabonds, and lewd and light tale-tellers, and seditious bearers of
false news of the king's majesty, or of his council, or such as will preach without
license, be immediately by you repressed and punished.

And if there should chance any lewd or light fellows to make any routs or Provision
riots, or unlawful assemblies, any seditious meetings, uproars, or uprisings, in against
any place, by the seditious and devilish motion of some private traitors, that spiracy°""
you and they appease them at the first, and apprehend the first authors and and rebel-
causers thereof, and certify us with speed. The lightness of the rude and igno- ^°"*
rant people must be suppressed and ordered by j'our gravity and wisdom. And
here you may not (if any such thing chance) dissemble with those such lewd
men, and hide youi'selves ; for it shall be required of you, if such misorder be :
and surely, without your aid and help, or your dissembling, such misorder
cannot be. Nor do we say, that we fear any such thing, or that there is any
such thing likely to chance ; but we give you warning before, lest it should
chance. We have too much experience in this realm, what inconvenience
Cometh of such matters. And though some light persons, in their rage, do not
consider it, yet we do not doubt but you weigh it, and know it well enough.
And if it should chance our enemies (who are maintained by other foreign Provision
power, and the bishop of Rome) should suddenly arrive in some place in Eng- ^*''^'."^^'
land, either driven by tempest, or of purpose to do hurt, ye should see such powe.
order kept by firing of the beacons, as hath already been written unto you by
our letters, to repulse the same in as good array as you can ; as Ave do not
doubt but you will, for the safeguard of your country, so that the enemy shall
have little joy of his coming : and, for that purpose, you shall see diligently
that men have horse, harness, and other furniture of weapon ready, according
to the statutes and good orders of the realm, and the king's majesty's com-
mandments. And so for this time ye may depart.

What zealous care was in this young king, and in the lord pro- singular
tcctor his uncle, concerning reformation of Christ''s church, and sincere the idng
religion, by these injunctions, letters, precepts, and exhortations, as u"cie'in
well to the bishops, as to the justices of the realm above premised, reformini
it may right well appear. Whereby we have to note, not so much slackness
the careful diligence of the kinsf and his learned council : as the lin- ofpop'sh

^ curdles

gering slackness and drawing back, on the other side, of divers of in fur-'
the said justices and la-\vyers, but especially of bishops, and old lhese"pro-
popish curates, by Avhose cloaked contempt, wilful winking, and stub- <^<-^'-''ii»es-
born disobedience, the book of the Common Praver was, long after
the publishing thereof, cither not known at all, or else very irreve-



726 KING EDWAKd's LLTTKK KKKLKING BONNEK.

Edward rcntly used, throughout many places of tlie realm. Tliis, when tlie
^^' king, by complaint of divers, perfectly understood, being not a little
A.D. aggrieved to see the godly agreement of the learned, the willing
^^'^^- consent of the parliament, and his grace''s own zealous desire, to take
so small effect among his subjects, he decreed presentlv, with the
advice of his whole council, again to write unto all the bishops of his
realm, for speedy and ddigent redress therein ; willing and com-
manding them thereby, that as well they themselves should, thence-
forth, have a more special regard to the due execution of the premises,
as also that all others, within their several precincts and jurisdictions,
should, by their good instructions and willing example, be the more
often and with better devotion moved to use and frequent the same :
as further appeareth by the contents of this letter here ensuing.

Another Letter, directed by the King and his Council to Bonner
Bishop of London, partly rebuking him of negligence, partly
charging him to see to the better setting-out of the Service-Book
within his Diocese.

Right reverend father in God ! right trusty and well-beloved ! we greet
j'ou well : and whereas, after great and serious debating and long conference
of the bishojis and other grave and well-learned men in the lioly Scripttires,
one luiiforni order for Common Prayers and administration of the Sacraments,
hath been, and is, most godly set forth, not only by the common agreement
and full assent of the nobility and commons of the late session of our late par-
liament, but, also, by the like assent of the bishops in the same ])arHament, and
of all other the learned men of this our realm, in their synods and convocations
provincial : like as it was much to our comfort, to understand the godly
travail then diligently and willingly taken for the true opening of things men-
tioned in the said book, whereby the true service and honour of Almighty God,
and the right ministration of the sacraments being well and sincerely set forth,
according to the Scriptures and use of the primitive church, nuich idolatry,
vain su])erstition, and great and slanderous abuses be taken away : so it is no
The small occasion of sorrow unto us, to mulcrstand, by the complaints of many,

kings ^ ^jj.jj pjjj. g.^;,j \)qq\^^ so much travailed for, and also sincerely set forth (as is
lected. aforesaid), remainelh, in many places of this our realm, either not known at
all, or not used ; or at least, if it be used, very seldom, and that in such light
and irreverent sort that the people, in many places, either have heard nothing,
or, if they hear, they neither understand, nor have that spiritual delectation in
the same, that to good Christians a])pertaineth. The fault whereof, like as we
Bonner's must of reason imj)Ute to you and other of your vocation, called by God, tbroui:!!
'"^'K''- our appointment, to have due respect to this and such like matters ; so, considering
noted. that, by these and such like occasions, our loving subjects remain yet still in
their blindness and su])erstitious errors, and, in some j)laces, in an irreligious
forgetfulness of God, whereby his wrath may be provol^ed upon us and them ;
and remembering withal, that amongst other cures committed to our ])rincely
I'hargc, we think this the greatest, to see the glorj" and tnie service of llim
maintained and extolled, by whose clemency we acknowledge ourselves to
have all that we have; we could not but by advice and consent of our dearest
uncle, Edward duke of Somerset, governor of our person, and protector of our
realm, dominions, and subjects, and the rest of our privy council, admonish
you of the premises. Wherein as it had been your oflice to have used an
i .r'.'uu *^'^''"^'^'^ diligence, and to have reformed tlie sriine in all places within \ti\w
diocese, as the case required ; so have we thouglit good to pray and iccpiire
you, and nevertheless straightly to charge and conunand you, that from henee-
AdA^nda. fo'th ye have an earnest and special regard to the redube of these things, so as
the curates may do their duties more ot'ten, and in more reverent sort, and the
people be occasioned, by the good advices and examples of yourself, your chan-
cellor, archdeacons, and other inferior ministers, to come with oftener and
more devotion to ihtir said Common I'rayers, to give thanks to God, and to be



BONNEU S LETTER TO THE CHAPTER OF ST. PAUL S. 7S (

partakers of the most holy communion. Wherein showing yourself diligent, Edward
and giving good example in your own person, you shall both discharge your ''^■
duty to the great Pastor, to whom we all have to account, and also do us good ~, t^~
service : and, on the other side, if we shall hereafter (these our letters and , J^q

commandment notwithstanding) have eftsoons complaint, and find the like —

faults in your diocese, we shall have just cause to impute the fault thereof, and
of all that ensueth thereof, unto you; and, consequently, be occasioned thereby
to see otherwise to the redress of these things ; whereof we would be sony.
And, therefore, we do eftsoons charge and command you, upon your allegiance,
to look well upon your duty hereiuj as ye tender our pleasure. •

Given under our signet, at our manor of Richmond, the 23d day
July, the third year of our reign, 1549.

The bishop of London, amongst the rest of tlie bishops, receiving
tliese letters, did (as always before) in outward show willingly accejit
the same ; and, therefore, immediately with the said letters directed
this his precept unto the dean and chapter of his cathedral church of
PauFs, commanding them to look to the due accomplishing thereof
accordingly.

A Letter of Bonner to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. appI'Ut.

Edmund by the grace of God, &c. : to my well-beloved brethren the dean
and chapter of the cathedral chuixh of St. Paul in London, and to the other
ministers there, and every of them, do send greeting. And whereas it is so,
that of late I have received the said sovereign lord the king's majesty's letters,
of such tenor as is hereunto annexed, and, accoi'ding to my most bounden duty,
am right well willing and desiring,' that the said letters should be in all points
duly executed and observed, according to the tenor and purport of the same, as
appertaineth : these therefore are to require, and also straitly to charge you,
and every of you, on his majesty's behalf, &c., that you do admonish and com-
mand, or cause to be admonished or commanded, all and singular parsons,
vicars and curates of your jurisdiction, to observe and accomplish the same
from time to time accordingly : furthermore requiring and likewise charging
you, and every of you, to make certificate herein to me, my chancellor, or
others, my officers in this behalf, with such convenient celerity as appertaineth,
both of your proceedings in the execution hereof, and also the persons and
names of all such as, from henceforth, shall be found negligent in doing their
duties in the premises, or any of them.

Given at my house at Fulham, the 26th of July, ad. 1549, and in the
third year of our said sovereign lord the king's majesty's reign.

Moreover, forasmuch as the king, at that instant, hearing the slackness
muttering of certain rebellion then stirring (whereof more shall be "n fu""'^'^
said, the Lord willing, hereafter), and also being credibly informed 'ood"^o.
by divers, that, through the evil example, slackness of preaching and ceedings.
administering the sacraments, and careless contempt of Bonner,
bishop of London, not only many of the people within the city of



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