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quae ohtulit duo aera, quod plus omnibus misit. Quamvis ergo hasc oblatio ex sui quantitate suffi-
ciet ad satisfaciendum pro onini pcena : tamen fit satisfactoria illis pro quibus oifertur, vel etiam
otterentibus, secundum quantitatem sueb devotionis, et non pro tota poena."

(4) " Quod sacriticium sacerdotis habet vim satisfactivam," etc.


finished, and the arguments written and delivered to the hands of Ma^y.
master Say, tlie prisoner was had away by the mayor, and the doctors "YIT
dined together at the University college. 'l55-1*.


The next day following, which was the 17th of April, was brought smith set
forth Dr. Ridley to dispute ; against whom was set Dr. Smith to be at'aiiii.'t'"^
principal opponent. Touching which Dr. Smith, forsomuch as Ri^'iey.
mention here happeneth of his name, first the reader is to be adver- '^pp^'^"""
tised what is to be attributed to his judgment in religion, who so
oftentimes before had turned and returned to and fro, grounded (as it
seemeth) upon no firm conscience of doctrine, as both by his articles
by him recanted may appear, and also by his own letter sent a little
before in king EdwarcUs days to the ar''hbishop of Canterbury from
Scotland. W^hich letter I thought here to exhibit as a certain preface
before his own arguments, or rather as a testimony against himself,
whereby the reader may understand how devoutly he magnified them
and their doctrine a little before, against whom he now disputeth so
busily. Read I beseech thee his epistle and judge.

The true Copy of a certain Epistle of Dr. Richard Smith to Dr.
Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, declaring his Afl^ection to the
setting-forth of God''s sincere AV^ord.

Most honourable. I commend me unto your lordship, doing the same to
understand, that I wrote letters to your grace in January last and the 10th day of
February, declaring the causes of my sudden and unadvised departing from your
grace over the sea ; and desiring your good lordship, of your charity toward
them that repent of their ill acts, to forgive me yourself all the wrong I did
towai'ds your grace, and to obtain in writing the king's majesty's pardon for me
in all points concerning his laws : upon the receipt whereof I would return
again home, and, within half a year (at the uttermost) afterward, write " De Dr. Smith
Sacerdotum Connubiis," etc. a Latin book that should be a just satisfaction for iHnposing
any thing that I have written against the same. Reliquaque omnia dogmata forlhe"^
vestra turn demum libentur amplexurum, ubi Deus mentem meam [ita persuf.- marriafje
deat] ut ea citra conscientijE la^sionem agnoscam, doceamque. I wrote not this "J^prlests
that I want any good living here, but because mine absence out of the realm,
is dishonour to the king's highness and realm, and because I must needs (if I
tarry here a quarter of a year longer) write an answer to your grace's book of the
sacrament, and also a book of common places against all the doctrine set forth
by the king's majesty, which I cannot do with a good conscience. Wherefore I
beseech your grace help me home, as soon as you may conveniently, for God's
sake ; and ye shall never, I trust in God, repent that fact.
Ex urbe divi Andrete. 14. Feb.

Rich. Smitheus.

And thus much touching the forenamed Dr. Richard Smith, being
set here (as is said) to dispute against bishop Ridley, who was brought
now, the next day after the archbishop, to answer in the divinity
school. Against whom also, besides Dr. Smith, disputed Dr. Weston, Dispufers
Dr. Tresham, Dr. Oglethorpe, Dr. Glyn, Dr. Seton, and Dr. Cole, \itS-
master Ward, master Harpsfield, Dr. Watson, master Pic, master
Harding, master Curton, master Fecknam : to all them he answered
very learnedly. He made a preface to these questions, but they
would not let him go forth in it, but caused him to make an end of
the same, and said it was blasphemy. And some said, he drave off


■"^""•y- the time in ambiguous things, nothing to the purpose ; and so they
A. D. would not suffer him to say his mind. Dr. Smith coukl get nothing
1554. at his hand ; insomuch that others did take his arguments and prose-

cuted them. He showed himself to be learned, and a great clerk.

They could bring nothing, but he knew it as well as they.

^pp^-Lx. The Disputation beginneth.

Weston the prolocutor : — " Good christian people and brethren, we have begun
this day our school, by God's good speed I trust ; and are entering into a contro-
versy, whereof no question ought to be moved, concerning the verity of the body
of our Lord Jesu Christ in the eucharist. Christ is true, who said the words.
The words are true which he spake, yea, truth itself that cannot fail. liCt us
therefore pray unto God to send down unto us his holy Spirit, which is the true
interpreter of his word; which may purge away errors, and give light, that
verity may appear. Let us also ask leave and liberty of the church, to permit
the truth received to be called this day in question, without any ])rejudice to
the same. Your parts thereof shall be to implore the assistance of Almighty
God, to pray for the prosperity of the queen's majesty, and to give us quiet and
attentive ears. Now go to your question."
Theques- Dr. Smith : — "'I his day, right learned master doctor, three questions are
tious. propounded, whereof no controversy among Christians ought to be moved, to

" First, Whether the natural body of Christ our Saviour, conceived of the

Virgin Mary, and offered for man's redemption upon the cross, is verily

and really in the sacrament by virtue of God's word spoken by the

priests, etc.

" Secondly, Whether in the sacrament, after the words of consecration, be

any other substance, etc.
" Thirdly, Whether in the mass be a sacrifice propitiatory, etc.
" Touching the which questions, although you have publicly and apertly pro-
fessed your judgment and opinion on Saturday last ; yet being not satisfied
with that your answer, I will essay again to demand your sentence in the first
question — whether the true body of Christ, after the words pronounced, be
really in the eucharist, or else only the figure. In which matter I stand here
now to hear your answer."

(The Preface or Protestation of Dr. Ridley before his Disputation.)

" I i-eceived of you the other day, right worshipful master prolocutor, and ye
my reverend masters, commissioners from the queen's majesty and her honour-
able council, three propositions; whereunto ye commanded me to prepare
against this day, what I thought good to answer concerning the same.

" Now, whilst I weighed with myself how great a charge of tlie Lord's flock
was of late committed unto me, for the which I am certain I must once render
an account to my Lord God (and that how soon, he knoweth), and that more-
over, by the commandment of the apostle Peter, I ought to be ready ahvay to
give a reason of the hope that is in me with meekness and reverence, unto every
one that shall demand the same : besides this, considering my duty to the
church of Christ, and to your worships, being commissioners by public authority;
I determined with myself to obey your commandment, and so openly to declare
^hat unto you my mind touching the aforesaid propositions. And albeit plainly to
moved confess unto you the truth in these things which ye now demand of me, 1 have
^|'jj'*^y.'<' thought otherwise in times past than now I do, yet (God I call to record unto
judgment niy soul, I lie not) I have not altered my judgment, as now it is, either by con-
fromtlie straint of any man or laws, either for the dread of any dangers of this world,
liome^ °^ either for any hope of commodity ; but only for the love of the truth revealed
unto me by the grace of God (as I am undoubtedly persuaded) in his holy word,
and in the reading of the ancient faitliful fathers.

" These things I do rather recite at this present, because it may happen to some
of you hereafter, as in times past it hath done to me : I mean, if ye think other-
wise of the matters propounded in these propositions than I now do, God may
open them unto you in time to come.

disputation; of ridley at oxford. 471

" But howsoever it shall be, I will in few words do that, which I think ye all Mary.

look I should do ; that is, as plainly as I can, I will declare my judgment

herein. Howbeit of this I would ye were not ignorant, that I will not indeed ^- ^^'
wittingly and willingly speak in any point against God's word, or dissent in any ^^^'*-
one jot from the same, or from the rules of faith, or christian religion : which Ridley
rules that same most sacred word of God prescribeth to the church of Christ, submit-
whereunto I now and for ever submit myself, and all my doings. And because self to the
the matter I have now taken in hand is weighty, and ye all well know how clmrchof
imready I am to handle it accordingly, as well for lack of time, as also lack of ^'^'^'^'•
books : therefore here I protest, that 1 will publicly this day require of you,
that it may be lawful for me, concerning all mine answers, explications, and
confirmations, to add or diminish whatsoever shall seem hereafter more conve-
nient and meet for the purpose, through more sound judgment, better delibe-
ration, and more exact trial of every particular thing. Having now, by the
way of preface and protestation, s])oken these few words, I will come to the
answer of the propositions propounded unto me, and so to the most brief expli-
cation and confirmation of mine answers."

Weston : — " Reverend master doctor, concerning the lack of books, there is no
cause why you should complain. What books soever you will name, you shall
have them;' and as concerning the judgment of your answers to be had of
yourself with further deliberation, it shall, I say, be lawful for you, until
Sunday next, to add unto them what you shall think good yourself. My mind
is, that we should use short arguments, lest we should make an infinite process
of the thing."

Ridley : — " There is another thing besides, which I would gladly obtain at
your hands. I perceive that you have writers and notaries here present. By
all likelihood our disputations shall be published : I beseech you for God's sake
let me have liberty to speak my mind freely, and without interruption ; not be-
cause I have determined to protract the time with a solemn preface, but lest it
may appear that some be not satisfied. God wot I am no orator, nor have I
learned rhetoric to set colours on the matter."

Weston : — " Among this whole company, it shall be permitted you to take
two for your part."

Ridleif • — " I will choose two, if there are any here with whom I were ac-

Weston : — " Here are two that master Cranmer had yesterday. Take them
if it please you."

Ridley : — " I am content with them ; I trust they are honest men." ^

Tlie First Proposition.
In the sacrament of the altar, by the virtue of God's word spoken of the
priest, the natural body of Christ, born of the Virgin Mary, and his natural
blood are really present under the forms of bread and wine.

(The Answer of Dr. Ridley.)

Ridley : — " In matters appertaining to God we may not speak according to xhe pro-
the sense of man, nor of the world : therefore this proposition or conclusion is position
framed after another manner of phrase or kind of speech than the Scripture •'"darlj '
useth. Again, it is very obscure and dark, by means of sundry words of doubt- terms.
ful signification. And being taken in the sense which the schoolmen teach,
and at this time the church of Rome doth defend, it is false and erroneous, and
plain contrary to the doctrine which is according to godliness."

(The Explication.)

Ridley : — " How far the diversity and newness of the phrase, in all this first
proposition, is from the phrase of the holy Scripture, and that in every part
almost, it is so plain and evident to any that is but meanly exercised in holy
writ, that I need not now (especially in this company of learned men), to sj)end
any time therein, except the same shall be required of me hereafter. jir^t

"First, there is a doubtful sense in these words 'by the virtue of God's word ;' for doubt.

(1) This promise was not kept.

(2) These two notaries were master Jewel, sometime bishop of Salisbury, and master Gilbert









The pro-
after the
of the
Tran sub-
tion not
in Scrip-


it is doubtful what word of God this is ; whether it be that which is read in
the evauirehsts, or in Paul, or any other. And if it be that which is in the
evangelists, or in St. Paul, what that is. If it be in none of them, then how it
may be known to be God's word, and of such virtue that it should be able to
work so great a matter.

" Again there is a doubt of these words 'of the priest,' whether no man may
be called a priest, but he which hath authority to make a propitiatory sacrifice
for the quick and the dead ; and how it may be proved that this authority was
committed of God to any man, but to Christ alone.

" It is likewise doubted, after what order the sacrificing priest shall be, whe-
ther after the order of Aaron, or else after the order of Melchizedek. For as
far as I know, the holy Scripture doth allow no more."

Weston : — " Let this be sufficient."

Ridley : — " If we lack time at this present, there is time enough hereafter."

Weston : — " These are but evasions or starting holes : you consume the time
in vain."

Ridley : — " I cannot start far from you : I am captive and bound."

Weston: — " Fall to it, my masters."

Smith : — " That which you have spoken, may suffice at this present."

Ridley : — " Let me alone, I pray you ; for I have not much to say behind."

Westo7i: — " Go forward."

Ridley : — " Moreover, there is ambigiiity in this word ' really,' whether it be
taken as the logicians term it, ' transcendenter;' that is, most generally: and
so it may signify any manner of thing which belongeth to the body of Christ,
by any means ; after which sort we also grant Christ's body to be really in the
sacrament of the Lord's supper (as in disputation, if occasion be given shall be
declared), or whether it be taken to signify the very same thing, hiiving body,
life, and soul, which was assumed and taken of the word of God, into the unity
of person. In which sense, since the body of Christ is really in heaven, because
of the true manner of his body, it may not be said to be here in the earth.

" 'I'here is yet a further doubtfulness in these words, ' under the forms of bread
and wine,' whether the forms be there taken to signify tlie only accidental and
outward shows of bread and wine ; or therewithal the substantial natures
thereof, which are to be seen by their qualities, and perceived by exterior
senses. Now the error and falseness of the proposition after the sense of the
Roman church and schoolmen, may hereby appear, in that they affirm the
bread to be transubstantiated and changed into the flesh assumed of the word of
God, and that (as they say) by virtue of the word, which they have devised by
a certain number of word.s, and cannot be found in any of the evangelists, or in
Paul ; and so they gather that Christ's body is really contained in the sacrament
of the altar. Which position is grounded upon the foundation of the transub-
stantiation ; which foundation is monstrous, against reason, and destroyeth the
analogy or proportion of the sacraments : and therefore this proposition also,
which is builded upon this rotten foundation, is false, erroneous, and to be
counted as a detestable heresy of the sacramentaries."

Weston : — " We lese time."

Ridley : — " You shall have time enough."

Weston : — " Fall to reasoning. You shall have some other day for this

Ridley : — " I have no more to say concerning my explication. If you will
give me leave, and let me alone, I will but speak a word or two for my con-

Weston : — " Go to ; say on."

(The Confirmation of the aforesaid Answer.)

Fes- Ridley : — " There ought no doctrine to be established in the church of
God, which dissenteth from the word of God, from the rule of faith,
and draweth with it many absurdities that cannot be avoided.

ti- " But this doctrine of the first proposition is such :

no. " Ergo, It ought not to be established and maintained in the church of
" The major or first part of my argument is plain, and the minor or second

part is proved thus :


"This docti'ine maintaineth a real, corporal, and carnal presence of Christ's Mary.
flesh, assumed and taken of the word, to be in the sacrament of the Lord's

supper, and that not by virtue and grace only, but also by the whole essence ^'

and substance of the body and flesh of Christ. ^'*'

" But such a presence disagreeth from God's word, from the rule of faith, The real

and cannot but draw with it many absurdities : presence

" Ergo, The second part is true. agreeth

" The first part of this argument is manifest, and the second may yet further from

be confirmed thus :"- Scripture.

Weston : — " Thus you consume time, which might be better bestowed on Weston
other matters. Master opponent, I pray you to your arguments." again iu-

S7nith : — " I will here reason with you upon transubstantiation, which you et[/RiJ-
say is contrary to the rule and analogy of faith ; the contrary whereof I prove ley.
by the Scriptures and the doctors. But before I enter argumentation with you,
I demand first, whether in John vi., there be any mention made of the sacra-
ment, or of the real presence of Christ in the sacrament ?"

Ridley : — " It is against reason, that I sliould be impeached to prosecute that
which I have to speak in this assembly ; being not so long, but that it may be
comprehended in few words."

Weston: — " Let him read on."

Ridley : — " First of all, this presence is contrary to many places of the holy seven in-
Scripture. conveni-

" Secondly, it varieth from the articles of the faith come of

" Tliirdlv, it destroyeth and taketh away the institution of the Lord's supper, the real

" Fourthly, it maketh precious things common to profane and ungodly per- presence,
sons ; for it casteth that which is holy unto dogs, and pearls unto swine.

" Fifthly, it forceth men to maintain many monsiruous miracles witliout
necessity and authority of God's word.

" Sixthly, it giveth occasion to the heretics who erred concerning the two
natures in Christ, to defend their heresies thereby.

" Seventhly, it falsifieth the sayings of the godly fathers ; it falsifieth also
the catholic faith of the church, which the apostles taught, the martyrs con-
firmed, and the faithful (as one of the fathers saith) do retain and keep until
tliis day. Wherefore the second part of mine argument is true."

(The Probation of the antecedent or former part of this Argument by the parts


" This carnal presence is contrary to the word of God, as appeareth, thus: — Thesevr
* I tell you the truth. It is profitable for vou that I go away, for if I go not '"'^»n-
away, the Comforter shall not come unto you.'' ' Whom the heavens must re- declared
ceive until the time of restoring of all things which God hath spoken.'^ 'The by parts,
children of the bridegroom cannot mourn so long as the bridegroom is with them : l. The
but now is the time of mourning.' ^ ' But I will see you again, and your hearts ^^^^ P'^®"
shall rejoice.'* ' I will come again and take you to myself.'* ' If they shall a'^'ainst
say unto you. Behold here is Christ, or there is Christ, believe them not: for the Scrip-
wheresoever the dead carcase is, thitlier the eagles will resort.'* "^'^'

" It varieth from the articles of the faitli : ' He ascended into heaven, and 2. Against
sitteth on the right hand of God the Father, from whence (and not from any 'he arti-
other place saith St. Augustine), he shall come to judge both the quick and the f^jtij

" It destroyeth and taketh away the institution of the Lord's supper, which 3. it de-
was commanded only to be used and continued until the Lord himself should S'troyeth
come. If, therefore, he be now really present in the body of his flesh, then must the rution of
supper cease: for a remembrance is not of a thing present, but of a thing past the Lord's
and absent. And there is a difference between remembrance and presence, supper,
and, as one of the fathers saith, ' A figure is in vain where the thing figured is

" It maketh precious things common to profane and ungodly persons, and con- fai,e't|^™"
straineth men to confess many absurdities. For it aflirmeth, that whoremongers etc.

(1) John xvi. (2) Acts iii. (.3) Matt. ix.

(4) John xvi. (5) John xiv. (6) Matt. xxiv.


Mary, and murderers, yea, and (as some of them hold opinion) the wicked and faith-

■ less, mice, rats, and dogs also, may receive the very real and corporal body of

A. D. the Lord, wherein the fulness of the Spirit of light and grace dwelletli : contrary
1554. to the manifest words of Christ in six places and sentences of John vi.

" It confirmeth also and maintaineth that beastly kind of cruelty of the
' Anthropophagi,' that is, the devourers of man's flesh : for it is a more cruel
thing to devour a quick man, than to slay him."'

AduZda f^^ ■ — " ^^ requireth time to speak blasphemies. Leave your blasphemies.'

Ridley : — " I had little thought to have had such reproachful words at your

Weston : — " All is quiet. Go to your arguments, master doctor."

Ridley: — " I have not many things more to say.'^

Weston : — " You utter blasphemies with a most impudent face : leave off, I
say, and get you to the argument."

5. It Ridley : — "' It forceth men to maintain many monstruous miracles, without all
maintain- ri»cessity and authority of God's word. For at the coming of this presence of
Straus""" ^^^^ body and flesh of Christ, they thrust away tlie substance of bread, and affirm
miracles that the accidents remain without any subject; and, in the stead thereof,they place
without ( heist's body without his qualities and the true manner of a body. And if the

sacrament be reserved so long until it mouldeth, and worms breed thereof, some
say that the substance of bread miraculously returneth again, and some deny it.^
Otlier some affirm, that the real body of Christ goeth down into the stomach of the
receivers, and doth there abide only so long as they shall continue to be good.
But another sort hold, that the body of Clirist is carried into heaven, so soon as
the forms of bread be bruised with the teeth. O workers of wonders ! Truly, and
most truly, I see that fulfilled in these men, whereof St. Paul prophesied, ' Be-
cause they have not received the love of the truth, that they might be saved, God
shall send them strong delusions, that they should believe lies, and be all damned
which have not believed the truth.'* This gross presence hath brought forth
that fond fantasy of concomitance, whereby is broken at this day and abrogated
the commandment of the Lord for distributing of the Lord's cup to the laity.*

6. Itglv- " It giveth occasion to heretics to maintain and defend their errors; as to
eth occa- Marcion, who said that Christ had but a phantastical body; and to Eutiches,
heretics, who wickedly confounded the two natures in Christ.

7. It fal- " Finally, it falsifieth the sayings of the godly fathers and the catholic faith
sifieth the of the church, which Vigilius, a martyr and grave writer, saith, was taught of
the'oW " ^•''^ apostles, confirmed with the blood of martyrs, and was continually main-
doctors, tained by the faithful, until his tinie. By the sayings of the fathers, I mean of

Justin, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius Emissene, Athanasius, Cyril,
Epiphanius, Jerome, Chrysostome, Augustine, Vigilius, Fulgentius, Bertram>
and other most ancient fathers. All those places, as 1 am sure I have read
making for my purpose, so am I well assured that I could show the same, if I
miglit have the use of mine own books; which I will take on me to do, even
upon the peril of my life, and loss of all that I ma}' lose in this world.
The faith " But now, my brethren, think not, because I disallow that presence which

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