About the tenth of Apryll, Cranmer Archbishop of Canterburye, Ridley Aprill 12.
Bishop of London, and Hugh Latimer, once bishop of Worcester, were con-
ueyghed as prisoners from the Tower to Wyndsore : And after from thence to
the vniuersitie of Oxforde, there to dispute with the diuines and learned men
of the contrary opinion. Two dayes after theyr commyng to the vniuersitie,
being the xii. of Apryll, diuerse learned men of bothe the vniuersities were sente April; 12.
in commission from the conuocation aboue mentioned, of the clergye, to examine
them, and dispute with them in certaine articles. The names of the chief were
tliese : of Oxforde, Doctor Weston Prolocutor : Cole, Chedsey, Pye, Harpsfielde,
Smyth. Of Cambridge, Yong, Seton, Watson, Atkinson, Thecknam, &c. On
the xiiithof Apryll, these learned men conuented in Saint Maries Churche, and Aprill 13.
the three persons before named were brought out of prison, and seuerally one
after another were asked their opinions in iii. questions, whiche were these.
1. Whether the naturall bodye of Christ was really in the sacramente by 3 aues-
vertue of the words spoken by the priest, or no ? tions.
2. Whether in the sacrament, after the words of consecration, were any other
substance, then the substance of the body and blond of Christ ?
3. Whether in the Masse were a sacrifice propitiatorye, for the sinnes of the
quicke and the dead?
Forsomuche as they aunswered negatiuely vnto these three questions, dispu-
tations wer ofFred them the Tuisdaye folowing, being the xvi. of that moneth :
and thereto wer they willed to prepare themselues. Cranmer and Ridley vppon
protestation agreed to dispute : Latimer refused, sayinge that he woukle offer
to them in fewe wordes the summe of his faith, and thereto woulde stande,
Nowe to declare consequently all thynges in ryght ordre, the next is, to set
foorth fyrste the ordre and maner of that disputation, then what theyr argu-
mentes were on bothe sides, whiche disputed with them. Al whiche here
foloweth orderly to be sene.
The whole discourse of the disputations holden at Oxforde betwixt the thre
Bishops, and other diuines, descrybed in a certayne letter of a scholer of the
same vniuersity, who was himself present therat, and semeth in his report,
moste nexte to come to the truth of the matter.
These are to let you knowe the effecte and summe of the examination of the
Doctors, or Byshoppes, whiche were here vpon Sonday before Doctor Weston,
with many other mo, bothe of Oxforde and Cambridge, to the number of 33.
First was brought before him the Byshop of Canterbury that was : to whome
Doctor Weston made a short preface, in prayse of vnitie, and especially in the
churche of Christe. Then did he declare, that he was one of that vnitie, and
a member tliereof in time past : but of late yeares he did separate, and cut of
hymselfe from it, by teaching and setting forth of erronious doctrine, making
euery yere a newe Faith. Therefore it pleased the Queues grace, to sende
them of the conuocation, and other learned men, to bryng him to this vnitye
again, if it might be. Then shewed he hym how they of the conuocation house
had agreed vpon certaine articles, wherevnto they wylled hym to subscribe.
The Bishop aunswered to tlie preface very wittely, modestly, and learnedly,
shewing that he was verye glad of an vnitie, forasmuche as she was Conser-
uatrix omnium rerum publicarum, tarn Ethnicorum quam Christianoruni. That
is to saye, mainteiner of all common wealthes, as well Heathen, as of Chris-
tians : and so he dilated the matter, with one or twoo stories of the Romanes
common wealth, and declared that the common wealth of Rome was the
APPENDIX TO VOL. VI.
authour of all destruction, sedition, and abominable doctrine in the church of
Christ : whiche thing when he had doone, he saide : that he was verye glad to
come to an viiitie, so that it were in Christ, and agreable to his holy worde.
Articles Then did the Notarye reade the articles vnto him, whiche were these : In
to dispute Sacramento Altaris, quod verba consecrationis a sacerdote prolata, diuina virtute
upon. efficiunt verum corpus, reale, et naturale, natum ex virgine, sub speciebus panis
J et vini. That is : In the sacrament of the altar, that the wordes of consecra-
tion vttered by a Priest, by the diuine vertue, is made the verye reall and natu-
rall bodye borne of the virgyn, vnder the kyndes of bread and wyne. The
2. second article. Post consecrationem non remanet substantia panis et vini, neque
vlla alia substantia nisi dei et hominis. That is : After the consecration, the
substance of bread and wine doe not remaine, nor any other substaunce, but of
3. God and man. The third article. In missa est sacrificium propitiatorium et
viuiticum pro viuis et defunctis. That is : In the Masse there is a propitiatory
and liuely sacrifice, for the quick and the dead. The Byshop of Canterbury
did reade them ouer thre or foure times, and asked them what thei ment by
these termes (verum et naturale) that is, true and naturall. Doe you not
meane, saith he, corpus organicum, that is, a sensible body? Some aunswered,
Idem quod natns ex virgine, that is : the same that was borne of the virgin :
Canter- and SO confused, som said one thing, some another. Than the Bishop of Can-
^^o- terbury denied it vttei-ly : and when he had looked vppon the other two, he
sayd they wer all false, and against Goddes holy word. Therfore'woulde not
he agree in that vnitie wyth them. Then they willed him to write his mind of
them, that they might see them that nyght. He was so contented, and sc
they appoynted him with Anthony Smith, a time and leasure to defende him
against Monday in the diuinitie scholes, whiche the Bishop was contented to
doe. lie was greatly commended of euerye bodie for his modestye : insomuche
that 1 d3'd see some maisters of Arte wepe for him, ^Yhich in iudgement were
Ridley, contrarye to him. Then Doctor Ridley, when he heard the articles red vnto
him, aunswered without any delay, saying: they were all false, and saide
further, that they sprang out of a bitter and soure roote. His aunsweres were
sharpe, witty, and verye learned. Then did they lay to his charge a sermon
that he made, when he was Bishop of Rochester, wherein (they said) he spake
wyth the transubstantiation. He denied it vtterlye, and asked whether they
could bring out anye that heard him, which would say and affyrme with them
tiie same. They coulde bring no proofe of it at al. After that he was asked
of one whether he desired not my Lorde Chauncellour that nowe is, to sticke to
the Masse, and other thinges : He saide, that my Lorde woulde save no such
thinges, or wordes of him ; for if he did, he reported not the truthe of him.
Then he was asked vvhether he would dispute or no. He answered : As long
as God gaue him life, he sluild not onely haue his heart, but also his mouthe
and penne, to defende his truthe : but he required time and bookes. They
sayd he could not, and that he should dispute on Thursday, and till that time
he should haue bookes : He sayde it was not reason that he riiighte not haue
hys owne bookes, and time also to looke his disputations. Then gaue they him
the articles, and bad him write his minde of them that nyght, and so did they
conimaunde the Mayre to haue hym from whence he came.
Latimer. Then was brought to them olde Latimer, whiche had not with them so many
woordes, as the other: his voyce was very lowe, so that I coulde not heare him
as the otlier, but that I heard hym say the articles were al false. Again they
tolde him that he should dispute in them. He saide, he was almost as mete to
dispute, as to be a captayne of Callis : but he saide, that he would declare his
minde, either by writing, or by worde. Furthermore, he sayde he woulde
stande to all that they coulde laye vppon his backe. He sayde also, that he
coidd not be suffered to haue penne, yiike, paper, nor bokes, neuer since he
was in trouble laste, but onely the newe testament, whiche (lie sayde) he had
rtfad over seuen times deliberately, and yet coulde not finde neither marybones,
nor sinowes of the Masse in it. At whiche aunswere they were sore offended:
And Doctor Weston sayde that he would make him graunte, that it had bothe
mary and sinowes in the new testament. Then saide maister Latimer, that
will you neuer do maister Doctor, and so was he commaunded to be had to the
place where he came fro.
Crann-.er Nowe for the disputations on Monday, as it was appoynted before, dyd
'^^^ ^ aunswere to the same maister Doctor Cranmer: I coulde not write the argu-
APPENDIX TO VOL. VI.
mentes, there was such throng of people. They wer such as we heard before,
and he aunswered in lyke maner. And where some haue reported liim to bee
vtterly vnlearned, and not able to vnderstande a latin text of a Doctor : hee
hath shewed himselfe learned bothe in latin and Greke, for truely he had a '
better latin tonge, then diverse that dyd oppose hym. There were somctyme
fine or sixe at him at one tytne, so that if he had answered to one, other two or
three would haue bene at him at one tyme, before he had spoken iialfe a sen-
tence. The strongest argument which was thought to blank hym, was out of
Chrisostom, which is this. Idem est in terris quod est sunimo honore dig-
lium. That is : that thing is on earth, whiche is worthy greatest honour.
Ergo naturale corpus Christi est prjesens in terris : alioqui non est in terris quod
est sumnio honore dignum. That is : Ergo the naturall bodye of Christ is
present in earth, or els there is not in earth that is worthy greatest honour.
He aunswered that Chrisostome had in that place : ostenditur, representatur, A place
et per sacramenta tanquani ob oculos ponitur Christus, eius verum corpus fide of ^''"y-
et digne sumentibus, et sic est in terris quod est summohonoie dignum. That aun-
is : Christ is shewed and represented by the saci-ameutes, euen as hoe were swered.
putte before oure eyes, to such as receyue his true bodye in faith, and so is on
earth that is woorthye greatest honour, as Paule to the Galatians sayeth :
Christus lesus depictus pre oculis illorum, et inter illos cruciiixus, because he
was so set foorth to them, as it had bene before theyr eyes, predicatione verbi,
by preaching the worde. Then arose tliere a controversy about the translation
of a word in the Bishop of Canterburies ooke. it was about (verum) and
(vere,) truely or of a truthe, whiche the Bishoppe sayde little or nothing differed
in sense : and saide as farre as he remembred it was also in Doctor Smythes
booke. Then did Doctor Weston bid Doctor Smith aunswere for himselfe.
He aunswered neuer a v/orde. Than maister Price sa\'de by the Canon lawe,
diabolo non permittitur defensio, sed prohibetur. To the devil defence must
not be geuen, but taken away from him. For ther were so many at him still,
that it was impossible for any one man to aunswere directlye to them all. Tiiere
were that disputed besydes these Doctors, Doctor Chedsey, D. Weston, Doctor
Tresham, and Yong, Doctor Cole, Doctor Coke, Doctor Oglethorp, Doctor
Seton, maister Pye, and maister Harpsfield.
The next day did they dispute with Doctor Ridley. First Doctor Smith, D. Ridley
Doctor Weston, Doctor Tresham, Doctor Oglethorp, Doctor Cole, maister disputeth.
Warde, maister Harpsfield, D. Watson, maister Price, maister Harding,
maister Cartor, maister Brandor, to all them he aunswered very learnedly.
He made a preface to these questions, but they would not let hym go forth in
it, but caused hyin to make an ende of the same, and saide it was blasphemye,
and some saide he droue away the time in ambyguous thinges, nothing to the
purpose, and so they would not suffer hym to save his mynde. Doctor Smith
could get nothing at his hand, in so muche other did take his argumentes, and
prosecuted them. He shewed himself to be learned, and a great scholer : they
could bryng nothing, but heknewe it as well as they. Thus for lackeof leasure
I make an ende.
The Doctors of Cambridge broughte all the subscriptions of the scholers, and
a letter sealed with the Uniuersitie scale, wherin they senied to lament, that
these men beyng once of their bodie, nowe hadde separated themselues from
them, and the churche. Here is suche subscribing as neuer hath bene sene
afore : for thei say they will haue them to prison out of hand, and the Canon
lawes executed vppon them, that would not subscribe. All oure house haue sub-
scribed, sauing I and my chamberfelowe, and we looke euery houre, when we
shall not onely loose our colledge, but also goe to prison, whiche maister Doctor
Weston threateneth sore. But if I can escape with loosinge of my Colledge,
he shal assoone cut of* my right hand, as to make me subscribe.
On the 18. daye of Apryll, Latimer came into the diuinitie scholes, at the LaMmir
same houre : and after the same maner that the other came before, and he disputeth.
refused to dispute, deliuerynge the Quenes maiesties visitours the declaration
of his minde in Latin, alleging that disputations required a stedfast memorye,
and that his by age and other infirmities fayled, and therfore he would content
himself with the declaration of his conscience. And when Doctor Weston
vrged him to aunswere, he denyed, syngynge styll one song: yet for all that,
they woulde nedes dispute with hym, and maister Smitiie of Oriall Colledge,
Doctor Scot, and maister Burman were set to oppose hym, which went still to
APPENDIX TO VOL. VI.
the Doctors: tlien tolde lie them, that thei promised him to proue it by the
scriptures with which said Doctor Weston being moued : maister Latimer on
Saterday last past you said you could not finde in the testament no mary,
sinowes, nor bones of the masse, and therefore nowe you shall haue bread to
the mary : and so asked him whether he would haue all thinges kept, that
Christ did at his last supper. Maister Latimer aunswered, he would have the
instytution of Christ kept, but not all thyngs. Then saide Doctor Weston, if you
wil haue al thinges kept, then must Priestes wash their feete, whiche doe com-
municate and be hanged themselues the morowe after. And J pray you (sayd
he) where (maister Latimer) haue you in al the newe testament that euer any
woman did communicate? Then did maister Latimer desire licence to speake,
and that obtained, put on hys spectacles and turned to the xi. chapter of the
first to the Corinthians, where Paule sayeth : Prol)et seipsum homo, et sic de
pane illo edat, et calice bibat. That is : Let a man examine himself and so let
him eate of the bread and drink of the cup. After that he asked Doctor
Weston : Cuius generis homo est, what gender manne is. He aunswered :
Communis generis : ergo sayde maister Latimer, there is mention made that a
woman should receiue the communion by the scriptures. And Doctor- Weston
replied by reprehending the translation, that it had homo for vir, and brought
this argument, that Paul gaue that same that Christe gaue to his discyples, but
Christ gaue the communion to no woman, therefore the same scriptures oughte
not to be so largely vnderstanded. Ke denyed hys minor, saying that Christ
gaue it to his xii. Apostles, whiche did represent the church, wherin wer women,
as wel as men. Doctor Smith also replying, sayde: it was in the text, probet
seipsum homo, which did make as it wer against communis generis naturam,
declaryng that it ought to be vnderstande of the man only : and at the very
same time of the Doctors replying, there stoode a boy by me, whiche sayd to
two or thre that stode by him, it may be very well seipsum, and yet it may
stande both for man and woman, for the Masculine gendre is more worthy
then the Feminine. Latimer as I suppose heard it not, there spake so many
at once. Then sayd Doctor Weston, your communion is not onely euyll, but
you haue geuen an euyll name to the sacrament, calling it tlie Lordes supper,
it 'is not the Lordes supper, but a beuer or drynkyng after supper. He is a
very poorelord (saide he) that hath no more to his supper then a pece of bread,
and a cup of wine : To that Latimer answered, that ludaica ccena peracta,
qua pascha sabbato comedebant, dominica ccena incepta est. The iudaical
supper being past, in whiche on the Sabboth day they dyd eate, the Lordes
supper is begonne, not that it shoulde be no supper at al. Ye see verely it
must nedes be the wordes of the scriptures. Then Doctor Weston made a
digression or falling awaye from this to another matter. In the communion
booke is a saying : This take, eate, and bee thankeful. On these wordes (said
Doctor Weston) it is a worthy saying to say : this take, eat, and be thankefull.
Mary syr I thanke you, I praye you be mery as I may saye. Then sa3'de
Doctor Weston agayne : maister Latimer, ye can neyther finde in the scripture
that a Woman should receiue the communion, nor your Oyster borde, nor yet
lofe bread, nor your bare bread, and therefore ye are lyke to eate youre mary
bones without bread, and then may they chaunce to choke you : And when
maister Latimer aunswered them of their Doctors, he recited the sentence of
Melanthon : Commodius senserunt doctores nonnunquam, quam locuti sunt.
The Doctors did thynke often tymes better then they did speake. He sayde
also Augustine was a reasonable man, that required vs not tobeleue him farther,
then the scripture dyd allowe, or that he brought scripture for himself. After
this Doctor Cartwrite declared in open audience, that he had bene in errours,
and was come home agayne to the church, wylling him to do the same. Lati-
mer aunswered, that the losse of goodes and possessions, putting out of favour,
hinderaunce from promotions, fcare of imprisonment and burning,- semed to
some an inuincible argument, and had blanked manye, iudgyng Doctor Cart-
write to bee one of them. Then sayde Doctor Weston, you haue sayde Masse
many a tyme (maister Latimer) whiche he graunted: but holding vp his hands
and lifting vp his eyes, sayd : I cry God hartely mercy for it.
Then Doctor Weston asked hym whether he thought it wel done,, to take
out of the church the crosse of Christ, and to leaue there the signe of the Gal-
lowes : He aunswered it was ryghte wel doone : for tlie Gallowes is a necessary-
monument of Justice to be obserued, and the crosse was a monument of Idolae
APPENDIX TO VOL. VI.
trye to be committed. Finally Doctor Weston exhorted him to leaue his
Heresies, saying it would do hym no good, to see his beard burned with a fagot,
and so ended wednisdayes worke. It semed to me and a number more, that
ihey caused hym to bee brought foorth for nothing els, but to laugh at hym and
iiiocke hym : suche was their behauiour in the scholes that daye. Uppon
Thursdaye, at the accustomed houre did Mayster Harpsfield aimswere in the
same questyons, sua forma, for liis forme, for his grace to be Doctour. Doctour
Weston did oppose iiim with Peter Martirs argumentes. In like maner
dyd Doctor Cranmer oppose, tyll Doctor Weston saide : Haec tibi sufRciant,
ynoughe for you syr. For truely he passed al mennes expectation in doyng
ihe same. I myselfe whiche dyd euer thynke that he was better learned, than
many reported he was, yet would I haue thought he could not haue done so
well, nor would not haue beleued it, yf I had not heard hym my selfe. They
disputed de corpore quantitatiuo, which they said was ther sine momento
quantitatiuo : but he proued the contrary, in so muche they wer madde with
him for asking whether there were in the naturall bodye of Christ proportio,
spatium, ac distantia inter membrum et membrum, that is, a proportion, space
or distaunce betwixt member and member. One aunswered one thyng, an-
other another thyng. At length stoode vp maister Ward, and would proue it
ex predicamento quantitatis of a predicament of quantitie. The Byshop sayde
Ego etiam legi prsedicamenta Aristotelis, nunquam tamen potui inuenire talem
quantitatem, qualem vos hie ponitis : I also haue red the predicamentes of
Aristotle, neuer for all that coulde I fynde suche a quantitye, as you dooe putte
foorth. And then was mayster Warde vp with his positio per actum etposicio
loci and matliematicali, Metaphisicall positions, whiche farre passed my ca-
pacitie, and I thinke few or none vnderstoode hym, in all the diuinitye scholes :
but he coulde not deceive him in al the predicamentes. Then dyd they dispute,
whether Impii, that is the wicked, do receue the body of Clirist or no, of v.'hiche
he reasoned wonderfull learnedly out of the sixt of John. After these argu-
mentes Doctor Weston tooke the matter in hand, and continued tyll twelue of
Doctor Ridley came not forth to oppose, and I cannot tell the cause why,
but I thynke he woulde haue bene to good for them. Uppon Friday the Com-
missioners sate in sainte Maries churche, as they dyd the Saterday-before, and
Doctor Weston vsed particularly dissuations with euery of them, and would not
suffer them to aunswer in any wyse, but directly and peremptorily (as his wordes
wer) to saye whether they would subscribe or no. And fyrst to the Bishop of
Canterbury, he sayde he was ouercom in disputations : whom the B. answered,
that whereas Doctor Weston sayde he hadde answered and opposed, and could
neither mayntayn his own errors, nor impugne the verity, al that he said was
false. For he was not suffered to oppose as he would, nor could answer as was
required, vnlesse he woulde haue brawled with them : so thycke theyr reasons
came one after another. Euer foure orfyue dyd interrupte hym, that he coulde
not speake. Mayster Ridley, and Maister Latimer wer asked what they Avould
doe, they sayde they would stande to that they had sayd : then were they all
called together, and sentence red ouer them, that the}' were no members of the
Churche. And therefore they, their fautouis, and patrones were ccndempned
as heretikes : and in readyng of it, they were asked whether they would turne
or no, and they badde them read on in the name of God. for they were rot
mynded to turne. So were they condemned all three. After they sayd some
wiiat eueryche one of them.
The Bishop of Canterbury fyrste speaketh.
From this your iudgement and sentence, I appeale to the iust iudgement of
god almighty, trusting to be present with him in heauen, for whose presence in
the altar, I am thus condemned.
Although I be not of your company, yet dout not I, but my name is written
in an other place, whether this sentence will sende us sooner, then we should
by the course of nature haue come.
I thanke God most hartely, that he hath prolonged my lyfe to this ende, that
I may in this case glorify God by that kinde of death.
APPENDIX TO VOL. VI.
Doctor Westons answere vnto Latimer.
If you goe to heauen in this faith, then wyll I neuer come thether, as I am
After the sentence pronounced, they were separated one from the other :
videlicet, My lord of Canterbury was put in Bocardo, D. Ridley was caricd to
maister Shriues house, maister Latimer in maister Bailifs. On Saterday we
liad Masse with ora pro nobis, with great solemnitie. Dr. Cranmer was caused
to beholdeit out of Bocardo. Doctor Ridley, out of the sheriues bouse. Latimer
also being brought to see that, from the Baylifes house, thoughte that he should
haue gone to burning, and spake to one Augustine Cooper, a Catchpole, to
make a quicke fier. But when he came to Karfox, and sawe the matter, he
ranne as faste as his olde bones woulde carye hym. to one Spensers shop, and
would not looke towardes it. Laste of all. Doctor Weston caryed the sacrament
and foure Doctors caried the Canipe ouer him.
TRANSLATION OF RIDLEY'S PREFACE TO HIS REPORT OF
HIS DISPUTATION AT OXFORD, IN 1554.
(See Note in Appendix on page 532 of this Volume.)
From the Edition of 1563, p. 956.
Nicolas Ridley to the Christian Reader.
I NEUER yet sithens I was borne, sawe or heard any thyng doone, or handled
more vaynelye or tumultuouslye, then the disputation whiche was had with me
in the scholes at Oxforde. Yea verely, I could neuer haue thought, that it had
bene possible to haue found among men of any knowlege, and learnyng in
this realme, any so brasen faced and shameles, which could haue abidden, much
lesse then, whiche coulde haue had pleasure in suche Robynhoode pastimes, as
that disputation had plenty of.
The Sorbonicall clamours whiche at Paris (when Popery most reygned ^) I in
tymes past haue seen, myght bee worthely thought (in comparison of this
Thrasonicall ostentation) to haue had muche modestye. Howe be it, it was
not to be wondred at, for that they which should ther haue bene Moderatours,