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Ridley Master doctor Ridley, as he passed toward Bocardo, looked up

and Lati- ^y]jgj.(> master Cranmer did lie, hoping belike to have seen him at the



mer



brought glass-window, and to have spoken unto him. But then master Cran-
io the mer was busy with friar Soto and his fellows, disputing together, so
^^^^^' that he could not see him, through that occasion. Then master
Beha- Ridley, looking back, espied master Latimer coming after, unto whom
Ridley^ he said, " Oh, be ye there .?" " Yea," said master Latimer, " have
and Lati- after as fast as I can follow."" So he, following a pretty way off, at
the stake, length tlicv camc both to the stake, the one after the other, where
first Dr. Ridley entering the place, marvellous earnestly holding up
both his hands, looked towards heaven. Then shortly after espying
master Latimer, with a wonderous cheerful look he ran to him, em-
braced, and kissed him ; and, as they that stood near reported, com-
forted him, saying, " Be of good heart, brother, for God will either
assuage the fury of the flame, or else strengthen us to abide it."

With that went he to the stake, kneeled down by it, kissed it,
and most effectuously prayed, and behind him master Latimer kneeled,
as earnestly calling upon God as he. After they arose, the one talked
■with the other a little while, till they which were appointed to see
the execution, removed themselves out of the sun. What they said
I can learn of no man.
Dr. Smith Then Dr. Smith, of whose recantation in king Edward's time ye
preaching ]^^,,^j.j i^gfoj-g^ began his sermon to them upon this text of St. Paul,
of Ridie " ^^ ^ yield my body to the fire to be burnt, and have not charity,
and Lati- I shall gain nothing thereby."' Wherein he alleged that the goodness
of the cause, and not the order of death, maketh the holiness of the
person ; which he confirmed by the examples of Judas, and of a
woman in Oxford that of late hanged herself, for that they, and such
like as he recited, might then be adjudged righteous, which despe-
rately sundered their lives from their bodies, as he feared that those
Dr. Smith men that stood before him would do. But he cried still to the
agai^nst people to bcwarc of them, for they were heretics, and died out of
the^mar- ^]^g cliurch. And on the other side, he declared their diversity in
opinions, as Lutherans, CEcolampadians, Zuinglians, of which sect
they were, he said, and that was the worst : but the old church of
Christ's Christ, and the catholic fiiith believed far otherwise. At which place
tion''bur- they lifted up both their hands and eyes to heaven,, as it were calling
with di- God to witness of the truth : the which countenance they made in
■^'i'y "f many other places of his sermon, where as they thought he spake amiss.
He ended with a very short exhortation to them to recant, and come
home again to the church, and save their lives and souls, which else
were condemned. His sermon was scant ; in all, a quarter of an hour.
Dr. Ridley said to master Latimer, " Will you begin to answer the
sermon, or shall I .''" Master Latimer said, " Begin you first, I pray
you." " I will," said master Ridley.

(1) "Si corpus meum tradam igni, charitatem autem non baheam, nihil inde utilitatis capio."—
1 Cor. xiii.



vers



THE MARTYRDOM OF RIDLEY AND LATIMER. 549

Then, the wicked sermon being ended, Dr. Ridley and master Mary.
Latimer kneeled down upon their knees towards my lord Williams of ~T~n~
Thame, the vice-chancellor of Oxford, and divers other commissioners 1555*.

appointed for that purpose, who sat upon a form thereby ; unto whom ^j^^

master Ridley said, " I beseech you, my lord, even for Chrisfs sake, ready to
that I may speak but two or three words." And whilst my lord bent smuh-a
his head to the mayor and vice-chancellor, to know (as it appeared) bu'tTJt'
whether he might give him leave to speak, the bailiffs and l)r. Mar- suffered.
shall, vice-chancellor, ran hastily unto him, and with their hands ^c"''^*'
stopped his mouth, and said, " Master Ridley, if you will revoke your [^^^"f q"^
erroneous opinions, and recant the same, you shall not only have ford,
liberty so to do, but also the benefit of a subject ; that is, have your RidieyV
life." " Not otherwise .?" said master Ridley. " No," quoth Dr.
Marshal. " Therefore if you will not so do, then there is no remedy Rid'ey
but you must suffer for your deserts." " Well," quoth master Ridley, tethMs'
" so long as the breath is in my body, I will never deny my Lord cTd.^'"
Christ, and his known truth : God''s will be done in me !" And with Latimer's
that he rose up, and said with a loud voice, " Well then, I commit when he
our cause to Almighty God, which shall indifferently judge all." To be"uffer-
whose saying, master Latimer added his old posy, " Well ! there is edtoan-
nothing hid but it shall be opened." And he said, he could answer smith. '^'
Smith well enough, if he might be suffered.

Licontinently they were commanded to make them ready, which
they with all meekness obeyed. Master Ridley took his gown and
his tippet,^ and gave it to his brother-in-law master Shipside, who all
his time of imprisonment, although he might not be suffered to come
to him, lay there at his own charges to provide him necessaries, which
from time to time he sent him by the serjeant that kept him. Some
other of his apparel that was little worth, he gave away ; other the
bailiffs took.

He gave away besides, divers other small things to gentlemen Ridley
standing by, and divers of them pitifully weeping, as to sir Henry Lea fway'his
he Q-ave a new erroat : and to divers of my lord Williams''s gentle- ''PS^^f

1 . If- 1 • T 1 1 and Other

men some napkms, some nutmegs, and rases of gmger ; his dial, and gifts to
such other things as he had about him, to every one that stood next pil.^*^"
him. Some plucked the points off his hose. Happy was he that
might get any rag of him.

Master Latimer gave nothing, but very quietly suffered his keeper Latimer
to pull off his hose, and his other array, which to look unto was very stak'e^in
simple : and being stri])ped into his shroud, he seemed as comely a ^"s shirt.
person to them that were there present, as one should lightly see ;
and whereas in his clothes he appeared a withered and crooked silly
old man, he now stood bolt upright, as comely a father as one might
lightly behold.

Then master Ridley, standing as yet in his truss, said to his bro-
ther, " It were best for me to go in my truss still." " No," quoth
his brother, " it will put you to more pain : and the truss will do a Ridley
poor man good." Whereunto master Ridley said, " Be it, in the oo^d for
name of God ;" and so unlaced himself. Then, being in his shirt, he {"jJom,"
stood u])on the foresaid stone, and held up his hand and said, " O and pray-
heavenly Father, I give unto thee most hearty thanks, for that thou England.

(1) This was no popish tippet, but made only to keep his neck warm.



550 THE MARTYRDOM OF RIDLEY AKD LATIMER.

Mary, hast Called me to be a professor of tliee, even unto death, I beseech
'^ j3 thee, Lord God, take mercy upon this realm of England, and deliver
1555. the same from all her enemies."

Then the smith took a chain of iron, and brought the same about
both Dr. Ridley's, and master Latimer's middles : and, as he was
knocking in a staple, Dr. Ridley took the chain in his hand, and
shaked the same, for it did gird in his belly, and looking aside to
the smith, said, " Good fellow, knock it in hard, for the flesh will
Gunpow- have his course." Then his brother did bring him gunpowder in a
to^tifr^" bag, and would have tied the same about his neck. Master Ridley
•"='"^'"- asked, what it was. His brother said, " Gunpowder." " Then," said
he, " I take it to be sent of God ; therefore I will receive it as
sent of him. And have you any," said he, " for my brother ;" mean-
ing master Latimer. " Yea sir, that I have," quoth his brother.
" Then give it unto him," said he, " betime ; lest ye come too late."
So his brother went, and carried of the same gunpoAvder unto master
Latimer.
Ridley's In the mean time Dr. Ridley spake unto my lord Williams, and
lord olr ^ said, " My lord, I must be a suitor unto your lordship in the behalf
forl^at'es ^^ divcrs poor men, and especially in the cause of my poor sister : I
of poor have made a supplication to the queen's majesty in their behalfs.
Bonner I bcseecli your lordship for Christ's sake, to be a mean to her grace
taketh fgr them. My brother here hath the supplication, and will resort to

aWtlV the * rr~t

leases your lordship to certify you hereof. There is nothing in all the world

jompoor ^j^^j. ^pQ^|j]gj^}^ jjjy conscience, I praise God, this only excepted.

before by Whilst I was iu the see of London, divers poor men took leases of

Ridley, nic, and agi-eed with me for the same. Now I hear say the bishop

that now occupieth the same room, Avill not allow my grants unto

them made, but, contrary unto all law and conscience, hath taken from

them their livings, and will not suffer them to enjoy the same. I

beseech you, my lord, be a mean for them : you shall do a good deed,

and God will reward you."

The Then they brought a foggot, kindled with fire, and laid the same

lightened down at Dr. Ridley's feet. To whom master Latimer spake in this

manyr- i^ianner : " Be of good comfort, master Ridley, and play the man.

dom of We shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, in England,

as I trust shall never be put out."

And so the fire being given unto them, when Dr. Ridley saw the

fire flaming up towards him, he cried with a Avonderful loud voice,

" Li manus tuas, Domine, commendo spiritum meum : Domine

recipe spiritum meum." And after, repeated this latter part often in

English, " Lord, Lord, receive my spirit ;" master Latimer crying ns

Latimer's Vehemently on the other side, " Father of heaven, receive my soul !"

an'd mar- who rcccived the flame as it were embracing of it. After that he had

tyrdom. stroked his face with his hands, and as it were bathed them a little

in the fire, he soon died (as it appeareth) M'ith very little pain or none.

And thus much concerning the end of this old and blessed servant

of God, master Latimer, for whose laborious travails, fruitful life, and

constant death, the whole realm hath cause to give great thanks to

Almighty God.

But master Ridley, by reason of the evil making of the fire unto
him, because the wooden faggots were laid about the gorse, and over-



long
burniii"



THE MARTYRDOM OF RIDLEY AND LATIMKR. 551

hii]:li built, the fire burned first beneath, being kept down by the Mary.
woud ; which when he fijlt, he desired them for Christ''s sake to let _^
the fire come unto him. Which when his brother-in-law heard, but 1555'

not well understood, intending to rid him out of his pain (for the

which cause he gave attendance), as one in such sorrow not well ad-
vised what he did, heaped faggots upon him, so that he clean covered
him, which made the fire more vehement beneath, that it burned clean
all his nether parts, before it once touched the upper; and that made
him leap up and down vmder the faggots, and often desire them to let
the fire come unto him, saying, " I cannot burn." Which indeed Ridley
appeared well ; for, after his legs were consumed by reason of his
struggling through the pain (whereof he had no release, but only his
contentation in God), he showed that side toward us clean, shirt and
all untouched with flame. Yet in all this torment he forgot not to
call unto God still, having in his mouth, " Lord have mercy upon
me,"" intermingling his cry, " Let the fire come unto me, I cannot
burn." Li which pangs he laboured till one of the standcrs by with
his bill pulled off the faggots above, and where he saw the fire flame
up, he wrested himself unto that side. And when the flame touched The death
the gunpowder, he was seen to stir no more, but burned on the other tyrdom of
side, falling down at master Latinier"'s feet ; which, some said, hap- ^'diey.
pened by reason that the chain loosed ; others said, that he fell over
the chain by reason of the poise of his body, and the weakness of the
nether limbs.

Some said, that before he was like to fall from the stake, he desired The la-
them to hold him to it with their bills. However it was, surely it JJeansTf
moved hundreds to tears, in beholdino- the honible sifjht : for I think *^^ p^°-

o ' pie a.t tiiG

there was none that had not clean exiled all humanity and mercy, martyr-
which would not have lamented to behold the fury of the fire so to these°two
rage upon their bodies. Signs there were of sorrow on every side. ^^'"'5-
Some took it grievously to see their deaths, whose lives they held full
dear : some pitied their persons, that thought their souls had no need
thereof. His brother moved many men, seeing his miserable case,
seeing (I say) him compelled to such infelicity, that he thought then
to do him best service, when he hastened his end. Some cried out
of the fortune, to see his endeavour (who most dearly loved him, and
sought his release) turn to his greater vexation and increase of pain.
But whoso considered their preferments in time past, the places of
honour that they some time occupied in this commonwealth, the
favour they were in with their princes, and the opinion of learning
they had in the university where they studied, could not choose
but sorrow with tears, to see so great dignity, honour, and esti-
mation, so necessary members sometime accounted, so many godly
virtues, the study of so many years, such excellent learning, to be
put into the fire, and consumed in one moment. Well ! dead
they are, and the reward of this world they have already. What
reward remaineth for them in heaven, the day of the Lord's glory,
when he cometh with his saints, shall shortly, I trust, declare.



Albeit I have deferred and put over many treatises, letters, and
exhortations, belonging to the story of the martyrs, unto the latter
Appendix in the end of these volumes ; thinking also to have done the



Apiienaix.



552 A FAREWELL LETTER

Mary, like witli thesc farewells and exhortations following of bishop Ridley,
^ jj yet for certain purposes moving me thereunto, and especially consi-
1555. dering the fruitful admonitions, wholesome doctrine, and necessary
exhortations contained in the same, I thought best here to bestow,
and consequently to adjoin the said tractations of that learned pastor,
with the life and story of the author ; whereof the two first be in a
manner his farewells, the one to his kinsfolk, and generally to all the
faithful of the number of Christ's congregation : the other more
special to the prisoners and banished Christians in the gospeFs cause:
the third containeth a fruitful and a general admonition to the city
of London, and to all others, with necessary precepts of christian
office, as by the tenor of them here followeth in order to be seen,

A Treatise or Letter written by Dr. Ridley, instead of his last Fare-
well, to all his true and faithful Friends in God ; with a sharp
Admonition withal unto the Papists.

The first At the name of Jesus, let every knee bow, both of things in heaven, and
^f'^R^'ii^ things in earth, and things under the earth ; and let every tongue confess, that
to his Jesus Christ is the Lord, unto the glory of tJod the Father, Amen,
friends. As a man minding to take a far journey, and to depai-t from his familiar

friends, commonly and naturally hath a desire to bid his friends farewell before
his departure, so likewise now I, looking daily when I should be called to de-
part hence from you — Oh all ye, my dearly beloved brethren and sisters in our
Saviour Christ, that dwell here in this world — having like mind towards you
all — and blessed be God for such time and leisure, whereof I right heartily
thank his heavenly goodness — to bid you all, my dear brethren and sisters
(I say) in Christ, that dwell upon the earth, after such manner as I can,
farewell.
Gommen- Farewell, my dear brother George Shipside, whom I have ever found faith-
dation of ful, trusty, and loving in all states and conditions ; and now, in the time of my

^^."■"S.^ cross, over all others to me most friendly and steadfast, and that which liked

shipsiae, ' • /-. i- i

his bro- me best over ail other thmgs, m God s cause ever hearty.

ther-in- Farewell, my dear sister Ahce his wife. I am glad to hear of thee, that thou
dost take Christ's cross, which is laid now (blessed be God) both on thy back
and mine, in good part. Thank thou God, that hath given thee a godly and
loving husband : see thou honour him and obey him, according to God's law.
Honour thy mother-in-law his mother, and love all those that pertain unto him,
being ready to do them good, as it shall lie in thy power. As for tliy children,
I doubt not of thy husband, but that he which hath given him an heart to love
and fear God, and in God them that pertain unto him, shall also make him
friendly and beneficial unto thy children, even as if they had been gotten of his
own body.
To his Farewell, my dearly beloved brother John Ridley of the Waltoune, and you

brother jj^y gentle and loving sister Elizabeth, M'hom, besides the natural league of
Ridley, amity, your tender love, which you were said ever to bear towards me above the
rest of your brethren, doth bind me to love. My mind was to have acknow-
ledged this your loving alFection, and to have requited it with deeds, and not
with words alone. Your daughter Elizabeth I bid farewell, whom I love for
the meek and gentle spirit that God hath given her, which is a precious thing
in the sight of God.
To his p\'irewell, my beloved sister of Unthank, witli all your children, my nephews

law"f^" and nieces. Since the departin-e of my brother Hugh, my mind was to have been
Unthank, unto them instead of their f ither, but tlie Lord God must and will be their
!''*"""' . Father, if they would love and fear him, and live in the trade of his law.
brotiier. ■ Farewell, my well-beloved and worsliipful cousins, master Nicholas Ridley
To his of Willyniountswike, and your wife, and I thank you for all your kindness showed
cousin, both to me, and also to all your own kinsfolk and mine. Good cousin, as God
Rklley''' hath set you in oiu- stock and kindred (not for any respect of your person, but
of liis abundant grace and goodness), to be as it were the bell-wether to order



OF RIDLEY TO HIS FRIENDS.



and conduct the rest, and hath also indued you with his manifold gifts of grace Maru
both heavenly and worldly, above others : so I pray you, good cousin (as my



trust and hope is in you), continue and increase in the maintenance of the A. D.
truth, honesty, righteousness, and all true godliness; and to the uttermost of 1555.

your power, to withstand falsehood, untruth, unrighteousness, and all ungod-

liness, which is forbidden and condemned by the word and laws of God.

Farewell, my young cousin Ralph Whitfield. Oh ! your time was very short To his
with me. My mind was to have done you good, and yet you caught in that "^o^sin,
little time a loss : but I trust it shall be recompensed, as it shall please whUfield
Almighty God.

Farewell, all my whole kindred and countrymen; farewell in Christ altogether, to all his
The Lord, which is the searcher of secrets, knoweth that according to my heart's kindred.
desire, my hope was of late that I should have come among you, and to have |^;(j,g
brought with me abundance of Christ's blessed gospel, according to the duty of appointed
that office and ministry, whereunto among you I was chosen, named, and ap- \° '"^
pointed by the mouth of that our late peerless prince, king Edward, and so also Durham!
denounced openly in his court, by his pi"ivy council.

I warn you all, my well-beloved kinsfolk and countrymen, that ye be not Martyr-
amazed nor astonied at the kind of my departure or dissolution : for I ensure ''""V
you, I think it the most honour that ever I was called unto in all my life : and ^/^r and
therefore I thank my Lord God heartily for it, that it hath pleased him to call rare pro-
me of his great mercy unto this high honour, to suffer death willingly for his ""o''""-
sake and his cause ; unto the which honour he hath called the holy prophets,
and dearly beloved apostles, and his blessed chosen martyrs. For know ye
that I doubt no more, but that the causes wherefore I am put to death, are
God's causes, and the causes of the truth, than I doubt that the Gospel
which John wrote is the gospel of Christ, or that Paul's Epistles are the very
word of God. And to have a heart willing to abide, and stand in God's cause,
and in Christ's quarrel even unto death, I ensure thee, O man, it is an inesti-
mable and an honourable gift of God, given only to the true elect, and dearly
beloved children of God, and inheritors of the kingdom of heaven. For the
holy apostle and also martyr in Christ's cause, St. Peter, saith, " If ye suffer
rebuke in the name of Christ," (that is, in Christ's cause, and for his truth's
sake,) " then are ye happy and blessed, for the glory of the Spirit of God
resteth upon you."' If for rebuke's sake, suffered in Christ's name, a man is a blessed
pronounced by the mouth of that holy apostle blessed and happy : how much ti^'ng to
more happy and blessed is he that hath the grace to suffer death also ! Where- jg^fj^ j-^
fore, all ye that be my true lovers and friends, rejoice, and rejoice with me Christ.
again, and render with me hearty thanks to God our heavenly Father, that for
his Son's sake, my Saviour and Redeemer Christ, he hath vouchsafed to call
me, being else without his gracious goodness, in myself but a sinful and vile
wretch, to call me (I say) imto this high dignity of his true prophets, of his
faithful apostles, and of his holy elect and chosen martyrs ; that is, to die and
to spend this temporal life in the defence and maintenance of his eternal and
everlasting truth.

Ye know, that be my countrymen dwelling upon the borders, (where, alas! If it be a
the true man sufFereth oftentimes much wrong at the thief's hand,) if it chance ?°"uf°/'*
a man so to be slain of a thief, as it often chanceth there, which went out with friend to
nis neighbour to help him to rescue his goods again, that the more cruelly he be 'l>e «;ith
slain, and the more steadfastly he stuck by his neighbour in the fight against iJpo^"^'"''
the face of the thief, the more fjivour and friendship shall all his posterity have tiiiuves,
for the slain man's sake, of all them that be true, as long as the memory of his ["'' world-
fact, and his posterity doth endure : even so ye that be my kinsfolk and coun- how°° ^ '
trymen, know ye (howsoever the blind, ignorant, and wicked world hereafter much
shall rail upon my death, which tiling they cannot do worse than their fathers [""Jf •^''"
did, of the death of Christ our Saviour, of his holy prophets, apostles, and Christ's
martyrs) : know ye, I say, that both before God, and all them that be godly. Quarrel,
and that truly know, and follow the laws of God, ye have, and shall have by enemies
God's grace, ever cause to rejoice, and to thank God highly, and to think good of his
of it, and in God [to] rejoice of me, your flesh and blood, whom God of his '^^"■^'^'^^
goodness hath vouchsafed to associate unto the blessed company of his holy
martyrs iu heaven. And I doubt not in the infinite goodness of my Lord God,



554 A FAREWELL LETTER

Mary, nor in the faithful fellowship of his elect and chosen people, but at both their
— hands in my cause, ye shall rather find the more favour and grace : for the Lord
■^- ^- saith, that he will he both to them and theirs that love him, the more loving
1555. again in a thousand generations :' the Lord is so full of mercy to them (I say)
and theirs which do love him indeed. And Christ saith again, that no man can
show more love, than to give his life for his friend.-
To die in Now also know ye, all my true lovers in God, my kinsfolk and countrymen,
any right, ^]jj^{. ^j^p cause wherefore I am put to death, is even after the same sort and con-
ever it be, dition, but touching more near God's cause, and in more weighty matters, but in
is to die the general kind all one : for both is God's cause, both is in the maintenance of
caiise*^ ^ right, and both for the commonwealth, and both for the weal also of the christian
To (lie in brother, although yet there is in these two no small difference, both concerning the
the truth enemies, the goods stolen, and the manner of the fight. For, know ye all, that
thieves, like as there, when the poor true man is robbed by the thief of his own goods truly



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