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Rose : — " No, ye untruly report me, and are in no wise able to prove that
which ye have spoken : so that your words appear to proceed altogether of
malice, which I have not deserved at your hands. But in this I well perceive
ye are made an instrument to utter other men's malice, conceived of old."

Chancellor ;— " What say you to the real presence in the sacrament ?"

Rose : — " I wist right well ye were made an instrument to seek innocent



586 THE TllOUBLE OF THOMAS ROSE.

sfary. blood : Well, ye may have it, if God permit ; it is present at hand, for I have not

— come hither to lie, but to die (if God see it good), in defence of that which I

_ ^- have said. Wherefore ye may begin when ye shall think good, for I have said

^•^^^' nothing but the truth, and that which in those days was of all men allowed for

truth, and against the which ye at that time durst not once whisper, although

ye now brag never so much."

" Well, father Rose," said the bishop, " whatsoever hath been done in
times past, shall not now be called in question, so that ye now submit your-
self. For not only you, but all the whole realm hath been out of the right
way, both high and low, spiritual and tem])oral : but all, notwithstanding, have
submitted themselves, and acknowledged their faith. Wherefore, if ye will be
accounted for an Englishman, ye must likewise submit yourself"
How Eose : — " My lord, I am an Englishman born, and do most humbly require

Rosr'** of the christian congregation of England, to be counted as a particular member
submit- of the same, and with all due reverence submit myself as in the form and
leth him- manner following : That whatsoever law or laws shall be set forth in the same,
for the establishment of Christ's true religion, and that according to the faith
and doctrine of the holy patriarchs and prophets, Jesus Christ, and his holy
apostles, with the faithful fathers of Christ's primitive church. I do not only
hold it anJ believe it, but also most reverently obey it." At which my asser-
tion, the bishop seemed to be greatly rejoiced, and said, " Well, then we
shall soon be at a point. But," said he, " you shall take this for no day of
examination, but rather of communication, so that ye shall now depart and
pause yourself, until we call for you again." And so ended our first meeting.

The Third Examination of Thomas Rose.

On the Friday following, I was called again into Christ's-church within their
Lady's chapel (as they termed it), where was gathered a great part of the whole
city of Norwich. And after I was by my keeper presented, the bishop began
with a great protestation ; and after many words, demanded of me, whether
according to my former promise, I would submit myself or no. I answered as
before I had done, that according to my former protestation, I would most
gladly obey. Then said the chancellor (to utter his gentleness), " I think you do
but feign."

" The fault then," said I, " shall be in yourself, and not in me. For if ye
burden me with nothing but Scriptures, and the fathers of Christ's primitive
church, then, as I said before, so I say again, I shall most gladly obey."

Chancellor : — " Well then, seeing you challenge to be a member of the
church of England, your mother here, for a trial of obedience, provoketh you,
as mothers are wont to allure you, to receive this little gift at her hand."

" Forsooth," said I, "if she ofler it me as received of God my Father, I shall
gladly receive it, as from the hand of my very true and ghostly mother."
Auricular Chancellor .- — " What say you to ear-confession ? Is it not a law ecclesiastical,
confes- and necessary for the church of England?"

'''°"- Rose : — " Some ways it might be permitted, and some ways not ; and that

because it had not its original of God and his blessed word. And yet I deny
not, but that a man being troubled in his conscience, and resorting to a discreet,
sober, and christian learned man, for the quieting of his mind, might well be
permitted. But to bind a man under pain of damnation, once every year, to
number his sins into the ears of a filthy lecherous priest, is not of God, neither
can be approved by his word."

Bishop : — " Ah, sirrah ! ye will admit nothing but Scripture, I see well."
Nothing Jtose : — " No truly, my lord, I admit nothing but Scripture for the regiment
but Scrip- of tijg gojii . for ^vhy, faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God ;
admitted^ and where the word of God is not, there ought no belief to be given. For
for the whatsoever is not of faith is sin." And here they left off speaking any more of
offh"^'"' that matter. »- . 5 /

soul. But then master chancellor began to whet his teeth at me, saying, " Yea, but

you have preached, that the real, natural, and substantial presence of Christ is
not in the sacrament of the altar : what say ye to that ?"

Rose : — " Verily, I say, that you are a bloody man, and seek to quench your
thirst with the blood of an innocent ; and therefore, to satisfy you in that behalf,
I say verily unto you, that even so I have here preached. And altliough, con-



HIS TALK WITH THE EARL OF SUSSEX, ETC. 587

trary to law, you charge me with the same, yet will I in no wise deny it, though Mary
justly I might do it, but stand thereunto, even to seal it with my blood, desiring



all that be here present, to testify the same, and believe it as the only truth." A. D.

Bishop : — " I charge you all to believe it not." ^558.

" Yea, but my lord," said I, " if ye will needs have credence given you, you
must bring God's word to maintain your sayings."

Bishop : — " Why, doth not Christ say, ' This is my body?' and can there be
any plainer words spoken?"

Bose : — " It is true, my lord, the words be as plain as can be, and even so be
these, where it is said, I am a door, a vine. And Christ is called a stone, a lion,
and yet is he naturally none of these : for they be all figurative speeches, as both
the Scriptures and fathers do sufficiently prove."

At which my saying, the bishop would have had me stay, saying, I should
have another day, wherein I might take better advisement.

" Not so, my lord," said I, "for I am at a full point with myself in that Transub-
matter, and am right well able to prove both your transubstantiation, with the ^tantia-
real presence, to be against the Scriptures and the ancient fathers of the primi- real pre-
tive church. For Justin, which is one of the ancientest writers that ever wrote sence
upon the sacraments, writeth in his second Apology, that the bread, water, and the'scrip-
wine in the sacrament, are not to be taken as other meats and drinks, but be tures and
meats purposely ordained to give thanks unto God, and therefore be called *'?^ ^"'
eucharistia, and also have the names of the body and blood of Christ ; and that fathers of
it is not lawful for any man to eat and drink of them, but such as profess the theprimi-
religion of Christ, and live also according to their profession. And yet (saith he) church
the same bread and drink is changed into our flesh and blood, and nourisheth
our bodies. By which saying it is evident that Justin meant, that the bread
and wine remain still, or else they could not have been turned into our flesh and
blood, and nourish our bodies." At which my saying they were not a little
troubled, but enforced themselves to have denied the doctor, and would suffer
me to speak no more, but straightway was I carried away unto my lodging.
And so ended the second day of mine appearance, which was the Friday in
VVhitsun-week ; and then was I appointed to appear again on the Monday fol-
lowing. Howbeit, upon what occasion I know not, it was deferred unto the
Wednesday, which was Corpus-Christi-even.

His Talk with the Earl of Sussex, Sir William Woodhouse, and the
Bishop's Chaplains.

In the mean time the bishop sent two of his chaplains to me, with whom I The

had communication about the real presence : and after long reasoning to and PIP"'^'* ^
/■ • .1 • • . . 1 ,1 T 1 .1 , . . " , P , ainrm the

iro, concernmg this pomt, at length 1 drave them to this issue : whether they real body

did confess that Christ, in the selfsame body which was conceived of the Virgin "^ Christ
Mary, and wherein he suffered and rose again, doth, in the selfsame body, natu- [he^'Lcra-
rally, substantially, and really, sit at the right hand of God the Father, without ment, but
return from thence, until the day of the general judgment, or not ? Whereunto tlieyknow
they answered, " Yes, truly," said they, " we confess it, hold it, and believe it."
Then I again demanded of them, whether they did affirm, after the words pro-
nounced by the minister, there to remain flesh, blood, bones, hair, nails, as is
wont most grossly to be preached, or not? And they with great deliberation
answered, that they did not only abhor the teaching of such gross doctrine, but
also would detest themselves, if they should so think.

At which two principal points, wherein they fully confirmed my doctrine
which I ever taught, I was not a little comforted and rejoiced, but marvellously
encouraged. Whereupon I demanded again of them, what manner of body they
then affirmed to be in the sacrament ? " Forsooth," said they, " not a visible,
palpable, or circumscriptable body, for that is always at the Father's right hand :
but in the sacrament it is invisible, and can neither be felt, seen, nor occupy
any place, but is there by the omnipotency of God's word they know not how.
And for this they brought in St. Augustine, although of them not truly under-
stood, yet would they admit none other sense than their own, but would take
upon them to confirm it with Martin Luther, Melancthon, Bucer, and Calvin :
so that I, perceiving their obstinacy in that behalf, gave them over for that time,
and afterward talked with Dr. Barret, whom I also found of the same judgment



)S8 THE TROUBLE OF THOMAS ROSE.

Mary, in that behalf: "for," said he, "if ye should dissent from the fathers of the
primitive cluirch in this behalf, of which St. Augustine is one, ye shall be
IV^* counted to die out of the favour of God." Well, all this their obstinacy and
^^ "• blasphemous errors imprinted and deeply weighed in my mind, I gave them all
over. And the more quietly to bring them to confess that openly, which they
imto me had granted privately, I granted them according to the Scriptures, and
my former protestation, a presence, although not as they supposed.

After all this, came there unto me the honourable carl of Sussex, and that
gentle knight, sir William Woodhouse, with great persuasions: unto whom I
said, after long talk, that I would do all that I might, saving my conscience,
which I would in no wise pollute ; and no more I have, as knoweth God by
whom all men must be judged.

His Last Appearance before the Bishop.

Now, to come to my last appearance, after I was before the bishop presented,
he forthwith demanded of me, whether 1 were resolved, as he had heard say.
To whom I answered, that even as always I had said before, even so I was
now. Unto whom, by low bowing my knee, I gave my due reverence, and the
rather for that the honourable earl of Sussex was there; wherewith some which
Avould be counted great gospellers, were (contrary to all Christianity) sore
offended. Then I said, that whatsoever laws were set forth for the establish-
ment of Christ's true religion, and that according to the doctrine of Christ's
holy apostles, and the faithful fathers of the primitive church, I did not only
obey tlism, but must earnestly embrace and believe them. Yea, and yet to the
further blinding of their eyes, I said, that if any thing could justly be proved by
God's holy word, by me heretofore preached, or taught untruly, either for lack
of learning, slide of tongue, or of ignorance; yet by better knowledge when it
shall justly be tried and examined by the same, I shall not refuse (the thing
perfectly approved) to revoke the same: provided always, the word of God
herein to be judge.

All this spake I (as God knoweth) to keep them from suspecting that which
I went about, and that they should have none occasion to JMdge me of obstinacy.
Then said I moreover, " All you must of force confess, that the doctrine by me
heretofore preached, had, besides the authority of God's eternal verity, the
authority of two most noble and mighty princes, with the advice and counsel of
all the nobility and clergy of the same, and that with great deliberation from
time to time, with open disputations in both the imiversities, enacted also by
))arliament with the consent of the whole body and commons of the same, and
that without any resistance or gainsaying established, as a religion most pure
and perfect, most earnestly and sincerely preached by the principal bishops and
doctors, and that before the king's majesty's person. And 1, as one being
called to that office, did the like with all the rest, and, in the zeal of God and
with a pure conscience, did set forth the same, as the only and absolute truth
of God, and the just and most true proceedings of my sovereign lord and king.
And I had then my head, at that present, even where it now standeth, betwixt
mine ears, altogether applying the same, to apprehend with all diligence that
which then was established and taught, as the only and absolute truth, and a
tiling imto me most desirable, and well liking, without any desire to hear the
contrary, till now, through this iny captivity, 1 am compelled to hear the con-
trary part speak, who are even here present, and which my lord sent imto me.

" Of whom, after long disputations privately to and fro before this time had
betwixt us, at length I have heard of them a contrary doctrine, which I never
before had heard ; and therefore must confess mine own ignorance in the same.
For," quoth I, " after I had enforced these men here present" (meaning the bishop's
two chaplains) " to confess Jesus Christ's natural body with his full comj)Iete
members in due order and proportion of a perfect man's body to be present at
the right hand of God the Father, and that withovit return from thence, until
the last judgment, and also that after the words pronounced by the priest,
there remaineth no such gross presence of flesh, blood, bones, hair, and nails,
as was wont to be preached ; but that after I had demanded of them what
manner of body they affirmed to be present, they said, ' A body invisible by
the onmipotency of God's word, which neither can be felt nor seen, nor that
hath any distinction of members, but such a body as occupieth no place, but is



HIS LAST APPEARANCK BEFORE THE BISHOP. 589

there they know not how.' Necessity compelled me to confess mine ignorance Mary.
ill that behalf, although in very deed they perceived not my meaning therein, — — — -
neither was it in my thought they should so do. For by this their confession, y^ ^^
and my silence, afterward 1 perceived their horrible blasphemies. ^"^^^^

" And methought in this 1 had well discharged at that time my conscience,
in causing them in open audience to confess the same; and so I granted a pre-
sence, but not as they supposed. For only I said, that Christ, after the words
pronounced, is present in the lawful use and right distribution of his holy ^p^','.i,j.^
supper; which thing 1 never denied, or any godly man that ever I heard of.
For, said I, Eusebius Emissenus, a man of singular fame and learning, about
three hundred years after Christ's ascension, saith, that the conversion of the
visible creatures of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ, is like
unto our conversion in baptism, where nothing is outwardly changed, but all
the ciiange is inwardly, by the mighty working of the Holy Ghost, which
fashioneth and frameth Christ in the heart and mind of man, as by the example
of Peter preaching to the people,' by which lie so pierced their consciences,
that they openly, with most earnest repentance, confessed their sins, saying,
' Men and brethren, what shall we do ? Repent, and be baptized every one of
you,' said Peter, 'in the name of Jesus Chi-ist.' So that at this sermon there
were turned unto Christ three thousand persons ; in whom Christ was so
fashioned and framed, as that he did dwell in every one of them, and they in him.
And after the like manner (said I) is Christ present in the lawful use and right
distribution of his holy supper, and not otherwise. For although I said,
according to the truth, that Christ dwelt in eveiy one of these persons rehearsed,
yet meant I nothing less, than that he in them should have a gross, carnal, or How
fleshly dwelling. And no more meant I (as God knoweth) him carnally or Christ is
naturally to be in the sacrament, but according to the Sci-iptures, and my {'hrsacVa"
former protestation, that is, to the spiritual nourishment of all such as worthily ment.
come unto that holy supper, receiving it according to his holy institution."
And thus I ended ; which the papists most maliciously and slanderously named
a recantation ; which I never meant, nor thought (as God knoweth).

Now, after I had thus concluded my speech, the bishop taking me by the
hand, said, " Father Rose, you may be a worthy instrument in God's church,
and we will see to you at our coming home :" for he was about to take his journey
in visitation of his diocese ; and they feared much at this very time, lest queen
Mary should have miscarried in child-travail, which was looked for, being then
accounted very great with child, so that they were not so fierce as they had
been, and doubted very much of some stir, if I should have suffered ; and
therefore were glad to be rid of me, so that by any colourable means for their
own discharge it might be : so, the night following, was I only committed to
mine own lodging.

On the morrow, when the bishop was ready to ride forth in visitation, he
called me before him, and perceiving that sir William Woodhouse did bear me
great favour, said, he was sorry for me and my expenses ; and tlierefore wished
that I were somewhere, where I might spend no more money, till his return.
" Why, my lord," quoth sir William Woodhouse, "he shall have meat, and
drink, and lodging, with me, till you return again, seeing you now break up
liouse." And hereupon I went home with sir William, that good knight, who
most gently entertained nie, and I had great liberty. Upon tiiis, the papistical Popish
priests of the college of Christ's-church in Norwich, for that they saw me at f"*^"*!^
liberty in sir William's absence (who also was then from home a fortnight), bjazi.
blazed it abroad that sir William was bounden for me in body and lands. At abroiid
his coming home, therefore, I asked sir W^illiam if he were so bounden for me ; '^^•
and he denied it. Then said 1, " Sir, but for the reverence I bear to you, I
might have been a hundred miles from you ere this. But I trust now, sir,
seeing you be not bound for me, I may go visit my friends." " Go where you
will," said sir William; "for," quoth he, " I told the bishop I would not be his
jailer, but promised only meat, drink, and lodging for you." Shortly after,
upon the device of some friends, 1 was closely conveyed to a friend's house,
where almost a month I was secretly kept, till rumours were over : for at the
bishop's return, searching was for me ; insomuch as all houses, where it was
known I had been acquainted, were searched, and the ships at Yarmouth.



590 god''s providexce in presehving dr. sands



Mary. At length the bishop sent to a conjuror, to know of him wliich way I was

gone, and he answered, tliat I was gone over a water, and in tlie keeping of a

A. D. woman. And in verj' deed I was j)assed over a small water, and was hid by a
l'^^°- blessed woman and godly woman, which lived in a poor cottage, the space of
three weeks, till all the great heat was over.

Then was I conveyed to London, and from thence passed over the seas, where
I lived till the death of queen Mary, and till that it pleased God, for the comfort
of his church, and restoring of all poor exiles and prisoners for his name's sake,
to bless this realm with the government of our noble queen, whom God, to the
glory of his own name, and the defence of his church, according to his good
will and pleasure, long preserve and continue over us.



A BIIIKF DISCOURSE CONCERNING THE TROUBLES AND HAPPY

DELIVERANCE OF THE REVEREND FATHER IN GOD,

DR. SANDS,' FIRST, BISHOP OF WORCESTER, NEXT

OF LONDON, AND NOW ARCHBISHOP OF YORK.

King Edward dead, the world being unworthy of him, the duke of
Northumberland came down to Cambridge with an army of men,
having commission to proclaim lady Jane queen, and by power to
suppress lady Mary, who took upon her that dignity, and was pro-
claimed queen in Norfolk. The duke sent for Dr. Sands, being
vice-chancellor, for Dr. Parker, for Dr. Bill, and master Leaver, to
sup with him. Amongst other speeches, he said, " Masters, pray
for us, that we speed w ell : if not, you shall be made bishops, and we
deacons." And even so it came to pass, Dr. Parker and Dr. Sands
were made bishops, and he and sir John Gates, who was then at the
table, were made deacons, ere it was long after, on the Tower-hill.
Dr. Sands, being vice-chancellor, was required to preach on the
morrow. The warning was short for such an auditory, and to speak
of such a matter ; yet he refused not the thing, but went into his
chamber, and so to bed. He rose at three of the clock in the morn-
ing, took his Bible in his hand, and, after that he had prayed a good
space, he shut his eyes, and holding his Bible before him, earnestly
prayed to God, that it might fill open where a most fit text should
be, for him to entreat of. The Bible, as God would have it, fell open
upon the first chapter of Joshua, where he found so convenient a
piece of Scripture for that time, that the like he could not have
chosen in all the Bible. His text was this : " Rcsponderuntque
Josuse atque dixerunt. Omnia qusB prtccepisti nobis faciemus, et
quocunquc miscris ibimus : sicut obedivimus in cunctis IMosi, ita
obcdiemus et tibi, tantum sit Dominus Deus tuus tecum sicut fuit
cum Mose : qui contradixerit ori tuo, et non obedicrit cunctis ser-
monibus quos prseceperis ei, moriatur ; tu tantum confortare et viri-
liter age.''* Who shall consider what was concluded by such as
named themselves the state, and withal, the auditory, the time, and
other circumstances, he shall easily see that this text most fitly served
for the purpose. And as God gave the text, so gave he him such
order and utterance, as pulled many tears out of the eye of the
biggest of them.

(1) More properly spelt "Sandys." — Ed.

(2) "And they answered Joshua, saying. All that thou commandest us we will do, and whither
soever thou sendest us we will go. According as we hearkened unto Moses in all things, so will
we hearken unto Ihee : only tlie Lord thy God be with thee, as he was with Moses. Whosoever he
be that doth rebel against thy commandment, and will not hearken unto thy words in all that
thou cumiuanUest him, he shall be put to death : only be strong and of a good courage."— Ed.



IN QUEEN Mary's days. 591

In the time of his sermon one of the guard lifted up to him into Mary.
the pulpit a mass-book and a grail, which sir George Haward, with . r*
certain of the guard, had taken that night in master Hurlestone''s isss'.

house, where lady Mary had been a little before, and there had mass.

The duke, with the rest of the nobility, required Dr. Sands to put
his sermon in writing, and appointed master Leaver to go to London
with it, and to put it in print. Dr. Sands required one day and a
half for writing of it. At the time appointed he had made it ready,
and master Leaver was ready booted to receive it at his hands, and
carry it to London, As he was delivering of it, one of the beadles,
named master Adams, came weeping to him, and prayed him to shift
for himself, for the duke was retired, and queen Mary proclaimed.

Dr. Sands was not troubled herewithal, but gave the sermon written
to master Layfield. Master Leaver departed home, and he went to
dinner to one master More's, a beadle, his great friend. At the dinner
mistress More, seeing him merry and pleasant (for he had ever a man's
courage, and could not be terrified), drank unto him, saying : " Master
vice-chancellor, I drink unto you, for this is the last time that ever I shall
see you." And so it was ; for she was dead before Dr. Sands returned
out of Germany. The duke that night retired to Cambridge, and sent
for Dr. Sands to go witli him to the market-place, to proclaim queen



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