Josiah Rhinehart Sypher.

School history of Pennsylvania, from the earliest settlements to the present time online

. (page 1 of 24)
Online LibraryJosiah Rhinehart SypherSchool history of Pennsylvania, from the earliest settlements to the present time → online text (page 1 of 24)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook




p E :^ :^ s T lta::^! A









Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, by


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States in
and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania,


It is both interesting and instructive to study the
history of our ancestors; to understand by what toils,
through what difficulties, over what obstacles they,
from a feeble colony planted in an unexplored wil-
derness, struggled up to a position of wealth and
power; in what manner they constructed this Com-
monwealth, which, with its public works, its manu-
factories, its churches, its noble charities, its common
school system, its enterprise and wealth, unexcelled
in any other State, is transmitted to this generation.
This book was written to place concisely and clearly
before every youth and citizen an account of the
growth of the population, the development of the
resources, and the upbuilding of the institutions that
give character and stability to the State. Though
nothing that is essential is omitted, much that is in-
teresting is necessarily excluded in order to bring
the work within the limits of a practical school-
book. A few incidents illustrative of some general
movement or popular sentiment are cited; these are
in no case selected with a view to attract local atten-
tion, but always as examples of what was wide-spread
and characteristic.



The questions at the foot of the pages are not de-
signed to aid the pupil in guessing at answers, but to
guide the teacher, who will readily multiply them to
meet the wants of his class and to give local interest
to the subject treated in each chapter. Frequent
reference to a map of the State, and the explanation of
national epochs and general movements, will contrib-
ute much valuable information and give additional in-
terest to the study of these chapters ; for the author,
presupposing a knowledge of geography in his read-
ers, has given no space to descriptions w^hich properly
belong to other works.

The tables in the Appendix are for general refer-
ence. They epitomize the history of the State.

J. R. S.
Philadelphia, September 12, 1868.




Early Settlements on the Delaware 9

William Penn 17

The Province of Pennsylvania founded 20

Government established. — Philadelphia laid out. — The Great
Treaty 27

The First Legislature and Laws 35

German and Welsh Settlements. — Penn returns to England 41


Conflict of Authority. — The Governor of New York sent to rule
Pennsylvania. — The Province restored to Penn 47

Penn's Second Yisit to Pennsylvania 54

Early Political Disputes 61


A Struggle fbr Liberty of Conscience 66

1^ (v)




Large Immigration of Germans. — Fears of the Quakers. — Tax

on Foreigners. — Paper Money 71


Lancaster County formed. — Border War. — The One Hundredth

Year of the Settlement 77


Political Excitement. — Election Riot. — Military organized 83

The Counties of York and Cumberland settled 91

The Counties of Berks and Northampton settled 96

The First Expedition against the French and Indians on the

Western Frontier 102


Braddock's Defeat. — Frontier Settlements destroyed by Indians.. 108


Prepar'-.tions for Defense. — Indian Outrages. — Destruction of
Kittanning 117

Capture of Fort Du Quesne. — Erection of Fort Pitt. — Indian

Treaty at Easton 126

Indian Conspiracy to exterminate the Settlements west of the

Alleghanies 135


"Taxation without Representation is Tyranny" 146




Preparations for "War. — The Pirst Battles of the Eevolution. —

Declaration of Independence 158

The Military Campaign of 1776 165


The British Army in Pennsylvania. — Battle of Brandywine. —

Occupation of Philadelphia 171


The Battle of Germantown. — Winter Quarters at Valley Forge.. 179


Campaign of 1778. — Destruction of Wyoming Settlement 184

The close of the Kevolutionary War 193

The Constitution of the United States adopted 197

The State Government organized. — Administration of the Su-
preme Executive Council 202

The Constitution of Pennsylvania 206


Great Land Purchases. — Northumberland and Lycoming Coun-
ties organized. — Pioneer Settlements west of the Alleghany
Mountains. — Burning of Hannastown 211


Organization of Countie?. — Development of the Country west of

the Mountains.— Whisky Kebellion.— Pittsburg 220

Counties organized Northwest of the Alleghany Kiver. — The Oil

Region 227




War of 1812-14.— The Enlistment of Troops.— The War on Lake

Erie 236


Important Legislation. — Slavery abolished. — Public Improve-
ments 241

Education 251


Coal Fields. — Anthracite. — Bituminous. — Iron Ore 269


The Growth of Manufactures. — Anthracite Iron. — Bituminous

Iron. — Charcoal Iron 278


The Eebellion. — Invasion of Pennsylvania. — Battle of Gettys-
burg. — Burning of Chambersburg. — Soldiers' Orphans 293

Table I. — Counties in Pennsylvania 315

II. — Table of the Governors of the Colonies on the Dela-
ware, of the Province and of the State 317

III. — Table of the Principal Officers of the United States
from Pennsylvania, since the Adoption of the
Constitution 319

TV. — Universities and Colleges in Pennsylvania 321

V. — Statement of the number of troops furnished by

Pennsylvania during the Eebellion 322

VI. — Eailroads in Pennsylvania 324

VII. — Canals in Pennsylvania 326

VIII. — A Chronological Table of Important Events in the
History of Pennsylvania, from the Discovery of
the Delaware in 1609 until 1868 327



Early Settlements on the Delaware.

ed on the east by New York,
New Jersey, and Delaware ;
on the west by West Vh'-
ginia, Ohio, and Lake Erie ;
on the north by New York
and Lake Erie; and on
the south by Delaware,
Maryland, and West Vir-
ginia. The greatest length
of the State is 302 miles
104 perches; and greatest
breadth 175 miles and 192
perches. The average length
is 280-39 miles; and the
general breadth is 158*05

miles; giving an area of nearly 4^,000 square miles.

2. This territory, at the time of the discovery of America by

Columbus, was inhabited by Indians, who were divided into

Chapter I. — 1. Bound Pennsylvania ; state its dimensions.
2. Who were the first inhabitants of this territory ? What were
the tribes called ?



distinct tribes, spoke different dialects of a common language,
and lived principally by hunting and fishing. Those who
dwelt in the country between the Delaware river and the
Blue Mountains, were the least warlike of all the tribes, and
were called Delaware Indians by the first white settlers ; by
that name they have ever since been known. The Monseys,
or Wolf tribes, inhabited the mountainous country along the
Susquehanna. The tribes of the Six Nations inhabited the
northern border of the State, from the Delaware to Lake Erie,
and were called Mingoes by the natives, and Iroquois by the

3. The Indians of the Six Nations were a brave and power-
ful people. By an early alliance with the Dutch settlers on
the Hudson river, they procured for themselves arms and
munitions of war. These superior advantages enabled them
to repel invasion, and, in aggressive war, to reduce the neigh-
boring tribes to a state of vassalage. The Delawares and
some of the tribes in the interior of the territory — w^hich
afterward became the State of Pennsylvania — were under
the power of the Mingoes, to whom they paid tribute at
the time the first white people from Europe visited this coun-
try. In all treaties, therefore, made with the early settlers
by the tribes in this territory, it was necessary to obtain the
consent of the Council of the Six Nations.

4. The shores of the Delaware were first visited by Euro-
pean mariners in 1609, when Captain Henry Hudson, sailing
on an exploring expedition to America under the patronage
of the Dutch East India Company, touched at the mouth of
the bay, but, finding shoal water, withdrew ; and sailing
northward, entered the mouth of the great river which is

3. "What was the character of the Six Nations ?

4. When did white men first visit the Delaware ? What European


now called Hudson, in honor of the discoverer. Hudson's
men established a trading-post on Manhattan Island, which
they maintained until 1621; it was then transferred to the
West India Company of the United Netherlands, a corpora-
tion formed in Holland to monopolize trade in America, In
1623 this company took possession of the whole country dis-
covered by Captain Hudson, which included all the territory
lying between Delaware bay, called South River, and the
Hudson, called North River. The possessions of the com-
pany were named the "New Netherlands."

5. A colony arrived in 1623, built New Amsterdam on
Manhattan Island, and sent Captain Cornelius Jacobus May,
with a party of adventurers, to the " South" River, under in-
structions to form a settlement and to explore the country on
the borders of the river. The commander of this expedition
sailed into the Delaware, gave his own name to Cape May,
and the southern cape he called Cornelius; which name it
bore until the arrival of the Swedes, when it was named
Cape Henlopen. He erected Fort Nassau near where Glou-
cester, New Jersey, now stands, a few miles below Philadel-
phia, which was the first settlement made by Europeans on
the shores of the Delaware. This fort was afterward aban-
doned, and in 1631 Captain David Pieterscn De Yries arrived
in the bay with two ships and about thirty colonists. He
was associated with wealthy Dutch patrons in the enterprise
of establishing in America plantations for the cultivation of
tobacco and grain, and prosecuting the whale and seal fish-
nation established the first settlement on Manhattan Island ? "Where
is Manhattan Island ? What company was then formed in HoUand,
and for what purpose ?

5. When and by whom were the first attempts made to plant a
settlement on the Delaware ?


eries in and near the Delaware bay. He built Fort Oplandt
near where Lewistown, Delaware, now stands, and extended
around it his little settlement of Swanendael.

0. De Yries returned to Holland, and upon revisiting the
place of his colony a year later, found the fields of the plan-
tation strewed with the bones of his countrymen. The
founder of the settlement afterward learned from the natives
that the commander of the post had elevated upon a pillar a
piece of tin, on which was emblazoned the arms of Holland.
An Indian, covetous of the glittering shield, stole it to make
a tobacco-box. The Dutch officer took offense, made it the
cause of a quarrel with the Indians, which ended in the
butchery of the whole colou}^ while at work in the fields.
De Yries, learning the melancholy story, made peace with
the Indians ; after which he sailed up the bay to Fort Nas-
sau, which he also found deserted; he then returned, and left
the Delaware in discouragment.

*r. The success of the Dutch in the colony at New Amster-
dam stimulated the authorities of the Swedish Government
to attempt to plant a colony in America. Accordingly they
sent two vessels with colonists, provisions, merchandise for
traffic, and ammunition for defense, which arrived in the
Delaware from Gottcnburg in 1638; a permanent settlement
was established, and the foundation of the communities of
the States of Delaware and Pennsylvania was laid in the
unbroken forest.

8. The expedition was commanded by Captain Peter

6. What happened to De Yries' colony?

7. By whom and when was the first colony permanently estab-
lished on the east bank of the Delaware ?

8. Where did the Swedes first settle ? What did these pioneers
bring with them ? When and where was the first church built?


Minuit, formerly Governor of New Amsterdam. The com-
pany of adventurers landed upon th.e southern cape of the
Delaware, which they called Henlopen ; they were so charmed
with the appearance of the country that they named it Para-
dise. A settlement was established near the mouth of
Brandywine creek. Others were located near Chester and
Darby creeks; and, in 1642, Governor Printz took possession
of Tinicum Island, built his mansion there, and made it the seat
of government for the colony. A town called Upland was sub-
sequently laid out on Chester creek. These were the pioneer
settlements — the small beginnings from which this great State
has grown. These Swedish settlers brought with them their
religion and their clergymen ; and among their earliest labors
was the erection of a place of worship. In 1646 a comfortable
wooden church was erected near the governor's mansion on
Tinicum Island, which was consecrated to the worship of God
by the chaplain, Eev. John Campanius Holm. This was the
first church edifice built within the boundaries of Pennsylvania.
9. Emigrants continued to arrive from Sweden, and the set-
tlement extended northward along the banks of the Delaware,
until little hamlets occupied the most favorable sites as far
north as where the city of Philadelphia now stands. These
settlements were usually defended by small forts or strong
log-houses, constructed of hard wood, for protection against
the Indians. The sturdy pioneers who first settled the south-
eastern portion of this State, however, were devout Christians,
and relied not so much on log-houses and forts of wood and
earth, as on the Providence of God, to save them from de-
struction in a wilderness inhabited by wild beasts and unciv-
ilized men.

9. How were the settlers protected ? "What was their character ?



10. From the beginning Captain Minuit had cultivated
peace with the natives, and had been successful in establishing
friendly relations with the neighboring tribes. This eminently
wise and Christian policy w^as scrupulously maintained and
judiciously extended both by the governors who succeeded
Minuit, and by all the people, who valued peace and quiet
more than unlawful gain.

11. By instructions from the Swedish Government to
Colonel John Printz, appointed governor in 1G42, the right
of soil was acknowledged to be in the aborigines, and he was
directed to confirm the contracts made by Captain Minuit for
the lands on the Delaware from Cape Henlopen to the falls
of the river, extending inland as far as the necessities of the
settlers should require; to refrain from every species of in-
jury to the natives, and to cultivate their favor by a just and
reciprocal commerce; supplying them with articles suitable
for their wants, and to employ all friendly means to civilize
and win them to the Christian faith.

12. Colonel Printz honestly obeyed his instructions, which
were also faithfully observed by his successors, and thus hos-
tilities between the settlers and the Indians were entirely
avoided. It is remarkable that during the whole period of
the Swedish dominion on the Delaware there is no evi-
dence that a single human being lost his life in strife, either
between the Swedes and their European neighbors, or be-
tween them and the Indians. The conduct of the Swedish
colonists was in strict keeping with the requirements of

10. How did Captain Minuit treat the Indians ?

11. What did the Swedish government instruct the governors
to do?

12. How were these instructions obeyed? What was the result of
this treatment?


truth and justice, and of a wise and enlightened policy.
Their honesty, kindness, and friendly deportment won the
confidence of the Indians, and in this happy state the
colonists found a rich reward for their noble behavior
toward the uncivilized natives. Instead of a life of terror
and alarm, of war and all its horrors, the honest Swede
could pursue his daily labor in peace, and after the toils of
the day lie down to rest in quietness, fearless of a midnight
attack, the tomahawk and scalping knife.

13. The Dutch from New Amsterdam, who had settled on
the northeast side of the Delaware, and the Swedes on the
southwest side, were frequently involved in disputes about
their claims to the country, and finally resorted to open war.
Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Amsterdam, in 1655
came up the Delaware with seven ships and about six hun-
dred men, captured all the Swedish forts, and assumed juris-
diption of the colony. The liberty and property of private
citizens were respected, and the Swedes being offered honor-
able terms, remained on their lands and were protected in
their rights. Thus the colony remained Swedish, though it
was governed by the Dutch. The ministers of religion and
the school teachers came from Sweden; Swedish manners
and language prevailed, and were in common use for many

14. In 1656 the Swedish ship Mercurius arrived with
colonists. Peace had not yet been fully established with the
Dutch, and hence the enemy endeavored to prevent the ship
from passing up the bay ; but the Indians, who had always

13. What disputes arose, and when and how was the government
on the Delaware changed?

14. What incident shows the friendship of the Indians for the
Swedes? Who were on the Mercurius ?


been friendly to the Swedes, interfered in behalf of the
colonists, and the vessel was permitted to sail up the river.
In this ship were some af the first settlers of Philadelphia.

15. The Dutch and the Swedes continued to occupy the
country on the Delaware for nine years; the Dutch being the
rulers and the Swedes giving character and prosperity to the

16. In 1664 the English conquered the whole country of
New Netherland, and Sir Robert Carr sailed up the Delaware
and took possession of the fort at New Castle. In 1672 the
country was retaken by the Dutch, who held it two years,
when upon the restoration of peace between Holland and
England it was restored to English rule.

IT. In 1610 Lord De la War (Delaware), an English noble-
man, sailing to Virginia, discovered the mouth of the bay
which Hudson had visited the year before, and gave to it his
own name. The Dutch called it the South River, and the
Swedes the New Swedeland River, but when the country
came into the possession of the English, the bay and the river
were named Delaware.

15. What was the state of things after the conquest by the Dutch?

16. When and how was the government again changed?

17. What circumstance gave Delaware river its name? What
other names had been applied to it ?




William Penn.

1. The Kew Netherlands, including the country on both
sides of the Delaware, wer^ conveyed by the King of Eng-
land to the Duke of York; and. in 1681, a charter was given
to William Penn for that part of the territory which after-
ward became Pennsylvania and Delaware.

2. William Penn was the son of Sir William Penn, a distin-
guished admiral in the English navy, who had won high
reputation in constant and active service by defending the
honor of the kingdom in many engagements on the high
seas. William was born on the 14th of October, 1644, in
London. He was reared and educated in court society, and
at an early age gave proof of the possession of those superior
qualities of heart and intellect, for which in after-life he
became justly celebrated.

3. It was the desire of his father that he should enter

Chapter II. — 1. How were the lands on the Delaware disposed of
by the King of England ?

2. Who was William Penn ?

3. What did his father wish him to become? Why did he not
enter the army?



the army, though later, and after he had espoused the doc-
trines of the Quakers, the old admiral refused to allow a
commission to be issued to him, but preferred that the young
man should go to Ireland, to manage the estates of the
family near Cork, where be proved himself an exact and
faithful man of business.

4. While a student at Oxford, William Penn had been
deeply affected by the preaching of Thomas Loe, and soon
after his arrival in Ireland, he learned that his old friend
was to preach at the ''Friends' meeting" in Cork, and re-
solved to hear him. The preacher discoursed of true faith
which overcomes the world. Penn's conscience was smitten,
and his principles fixed in the doctrines with which he was
ever afterward identified. Persecution followed rapidly upon
profession. He with other Friends was arrested and sent
to prison; but was unconditionally released upon his own
application to the Lord President of Munster.

5. The rumor rapidly spread throughout the kingdom that
"young Penn had become a Quaker, "and his father summoned
him to England. The admiral endeavored to overcome the
resolution of his son; failing to persuade him, he exiled him
from home. During the period of this banishment he was
supported by an allowance secretly conveyed to him by his
mother. Soon thereafter he was arrested on a charge of
heresy, because of sentiments which he had published in a
pamphlet in a controversy with a Presbyterian clergyman.
He was confined in prison nine months. While in prison
he wrote another pamphlet explanatory of the first, and in
a short time after that was released; his father's influence

4. What religious belief did he espouse ? What followed ?
6. How was William Penn treated?


with the Duke of York having enlisted that nobleman in his

6. The most noteworthy result of this imprisotiment was
the reconciliation of the father, who was moved to high re-
spect for a son so self-sacrificing in manfully contending for
principles. The young man was again sent to Ireland to super-
intend the family estates; but returning to England in 16*70,
was arrested and thrown into prison. The influence of his
father, however, soon procured his release. In 1612 he mar-
ried Gulielma Maria Springett, and ten years later sailed to
America, the proprietor of a province bearing his own name.

*t. He remained in Pennsylvania two years, laboring dili-
gently to found a government whereof the cardinal princi-.
pies were liberty of conscience and equality of rights. How
well he succeeded in securing these great privileges to his
people, the history of his province and of the commonwealth
subsequently erected thereon will amply show. His first wife
having died, he married Hannah Callowhill, in 1696. He re-
visited America in 1699, intending to make his permanent
home in Pennsylvania; but, receiving information that an at-
tempt was being made in England to interfere with his gov-
ernment, he embarked, in It 01, and hastened to the court of
Charles II. to defend his chartered rights. In It 12 three
successive strokes of apoplexy so seriously impaired his
memory and understanding, that he was thereafter unable to
attend to public business. He died at Rushcomb, Bucking-
hamshire, England, on the 30th of July, 1718, at the age of
seventy-four years.

6. What reconciled Admiral Penn to his son ? "When and whom
did William Penn marry? When did he visit Pennsylvania?

7. How long did Penn remain in Pennsylvania? What were the
cardinal principles of his government? When did he revisit his
colony ? Why did he return to England ? When did he die ?



a - ^^^^|t

LA^1'I^^I uF l-r.iN> Al viir-ol^K.


The Province of Pennsylvania founded.

1, When Admiral Penn died he left to his son William a
claim against the English Government for the sum of sixteen
thousand pounds, partly for money advanced and partly

Online LibraryJosiah Rhinehart SypherSchool history of Pennsylvania, from the earliest settlements to the present time → online text (page 1 of 24)