Josiah Rhinehart Sypher.

School history of Pennsylvania, from the earliest settlements to the present time online

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invested was $2,617,400, and the production of iron for that
year was 58,6*70 tons; for the year 186t, it rose to 60,155
tons. To this must be added about 20,000 tons made in
forges and bloomeries.

36. The total production of pig iron, anthracite, bituminous
and charcoal, in Pennsylvania, in 1867, was 839,496 tons.|

* Charcoal furnaces east of the Alleghanies are distributed as fol-
lows: 11 in Blair county, 8 in Huntingdon, 7 in Center, 6 in Frank-
lin, 6 in Cumberland, 5 in Bedford, 4 in Lancaster, 3 in Lebanon, 3
in Mifflin, 2 in Union, 2 in Adams, 2 in York, 2 in Chester, 2 in
Dauphin, 2 in Tioga, 2 in Columbia, 1 in Clinton, 1 in Carbon, 1 in
Luzerne, 1 in Northumberland, and 1 in Snyder.

•j- The charcoal furnaces west of the Alleghanies are thus located : 17
in Clarion county, 10 in Yenango, 4 in Fayette, 4 in Butler, 4 in
Armstrong, 4 in Mercer, 2 in Indiana, 2 in Lawrence, 1 in Cambria,
and 1 in "Westmoreland.

X The total production of iron in the United States, in 18G7, was
1,497,426 tons.

85. What quantity of charcoal iron was produced in .1854? How
man}^ charcoal furnaces were there in the State in 1865, and how
were they located? How much capital was invested in 1867, and what
quantity of iron was produced?

36. What was the total production of iron in the State in 1867?
How does this compare with the quantity made in the United



3t. Pennsylvania is justly celebrated not only for the pro-
duction of iron and the manufacture of steel and glass, for
the construction of great thoroughfares and the early develop-
ment of mineral and agricultural resources, but also for many
other articles of manufacture, the introduction of useful arts
and the establishment of noble charities. In 1850, it pro-
duced eighty per cent, of the coal, one-half of the hosiery,
one-third of the iron and two-thirds of the perfumery in the
United States.* In Pennsylvania the first bank in America

Table of Manufactui^es, according to the Census of 1860.


Textile Fabrics $23,561,568 $1,323,568

Iron and Steel 14,775,213 11,127,567

Part " 2,930,733 463,182

Clothing and Apparel 21,415,701 2,236,721

Gold and Silver 4,030,380 18,650

Wood 6,153^715 1,160,676

Clay, Sand, and Earth 2,465,106 2,605,811

Paper 2,190,110 2,500

Printing, Binding, and Publishing.... 6,441,403 538,603

Liquors 4,384,974 735,807

Leather 3,804,356 951,609

Soap, Candles, and Oils 4,261,916 733,148

Chemicals 3,685,554 641,400

The production of these manufactures increased rapidly in all parts
of the State.

In 1861 the increase was 5 p. ct. on the production of the previous year.

u 1862 " " " " " "

" 1863 " 25 " " " " "

37. For what is Pennsylvania justly celebrated? What proportion
of staple Articles was produced in the State in 1850? What were first
established in Pennsylvania? What received a liberal support?
When was the first paper published in the Province?


and the first insurance office were established ; here the first
suspension bridge was built ; the world here too learned how
to supply a city with pure water. Here also the first institu-
tion for the blind and the first public hospital were erected ;
the printing-press and the monthly, weekly and daily news-
papers received a more liberal patronage here than else-
where on the continent. Pennsylvania was the second of
the English colonies to introduce the art of printing. Wil-
liam Bradford established a printing-press in Philadelphia,
and printed an almanac in 1687. The first newspaper pub-
lished in the Province was called The American Weekly
Mercury, and was issued, December 22, 1728.

38. In 1775, nine newspapers were published in Pennsyl-
vania;* seven of these were in Philadelphia, one in German-
town, and one in Lancaster. In 1810, there were seventy-

In 1864 the increase was 25p. ct. on the production of the previous year,
u 1865 " 10 " " " " "

u 1866 " 10 " " " " "

u 1867 " 10 " " " " "

." 1868 " 10 " " " " "

The increase in Pittsburg and the "Western counties exceed the
above ratio. The figures are exactly correct for Philadelphia and
vicinity, and a fair exhibit of the growth of manufactures in the

* In 1775 New Hampshire had 1 newspaper; Massachusetts, 7
Rhode Island, 2; Connecticut, 4; New York, 4; Pennsylvania. 9
Maryland, 2; Virginia, 2 ; North Carolina, 2; South Carolina, 2
Georgia, 1.

38. Howmany papers were published in 1775? In 1810? In 1860?
When was the first daily papty- published ?


one papers published in the State :* nine dailies, one tri-
weekly, three semi-weeklies and fifty-eight weeklies. The
first daily newspaper in America was The Pennsylvania
Packet and General Advertiser, which was published, as a
daily, on the 21st of September, 1184. In 1860, the number
of periodicals published in Pennsylvania was 310, of which 2t
were daily newspapers, 11 were literary publications, and
212 were weeklies.

* The 71 papers published in the State in 1810 were as follows:
in Philadelphia, 9 dailies, 1 tri-weekly, 3 semi- weeklies, 4 English,
and 1 German weekly; in Doylestown, 1; in Easton, 2 English
and 2 German weeklies; in Frankford, 1 German; in Norris-
town, 2; in West Chester, 1; in Downingtown, 1; in Eeading, 2
English and 2 German; in Lancaster, 2 English and 2 German; in
York, 2; in Gettysburg, 2; in Harrisburg, 3 English and 1 German;
in Carlisle 4; in Chambersburg, 2; in Northumberland, 2; in Lew-
istown, 1; in Wilkesbarre, 2; in Bedford, 1; in Huntingdon, 2; in
Greensburg, 1 ; in Pittsburg 2 English and 1 German ; in Meadville,
1 ; in Presque Isle, 1 ; in Brownsville, 2; in Beavertown, 1 ; in Wash-
ington, 3; in Union, 1. Total, 62 English and 9 German. The
largest number published in any other State at this time, was 66 in
New York.





TJie Rehellion. — Invasion of Fennsyluania. — Battle of Get-
tysburg. — Burning of Chambersburg. — Soldiers^ Oiyhans.

1. Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United
States in November, 1860. During the exciting political
campaign that preceded this event, leading men in the South
frequently threatened that, if defeated in the election, the
Southern States would secede from the Union.

2. South Carolina was the first to enter upon this suicidal
course, and on the 20th of December, 1860, a convention of
delegates, elected by the voters of that State, adopted an
"Ordinance of Secession," wherein the State was declared
to be no longer under the authority of the national govern-

Chapter XXXIX. — 1, When was Abraham Lincoln elected
President of the United States? What threats had been made?

2. Which State first seceded? W^ho was President at this time?
How many States seceded during Buchanan's administration "> W^hat
convention was held, and what action did it take?



ment. Other States followed, and before the end of the
administration of James Buchanan,* seven had seceded from
the Union. These States called a convention to meet at
Montgomery, in Alabama, for the purpose of establishing a
new government. Their delegates assembled, adopted a
constitution, appointed Jefferson Davis President, and Alex-
ander H. Stephens Vice-President; other oflBcers were ap-
pointed, and the government of the "Confederate States of
America" was fully organized.

3. President Buchanan made no vigorous efforts to sup-
press this rebellion; some of his cabinet officers were in
league with the conspirators, and permitted the rebels to

* James Buchanan was born of Scotch-Irish parents, in Franklin
county, April 22d, 1791. Graduated at Dickinson College in 1809,
and after completing a course of law studies, was admitted to the
bar at Lancaster, in 1812. As a legal practitioner he was very suc-
cessful, and within twenty years retired in possession of a fortune.
His name occurs in the "Reports " of cases in the Supreme Court of
Pennsylvania oftener than that of any other lawyer of his time.
Mr. Buchanan entered into politics at an early age, was elected a
member of the legislature in 1814, was re-elected the following year,
and in 1820 was chosen member of Congress from Lancaster, and
represented that district eleven years, when he voluntarily retired
and accepted the appointment of minister to Russia, under Jackson's
administration. On his return from Europe, in 1833, he was elected
to the United States Senate, and, by re-election, served until 1845,
when he was appointed, by President Polk, Secretary of State. Under
the administration of President Pierce, Mr. Buchanan was minister
to England ; he returned to this country in April, 1856, and in the
autumn of that year was elected President of the United States. At
the expiration of his term, March, 1861, he retired to his homestead,
at Wheatland, near Lancaster, where he died June 1st, 1868,

3. What was done to suppress the rebellion?


seize the mints, custom-houses, arsenals, navy-yards and
forts in the Southern States.

4. President Lincoln was inaugurated on the 4th of March,
1861 ; meanwhile the rebels had organized an army, and
on the 12th of April they began the bombardment of Fort
Sumter, in Charleston harbor. The garrison made a heroic
defense, lasting three days, and then, on the 15th, surren-
dered the fort to the enemy. The National Flag was
hauled down in dishonor and the rebel flag was hoisted in
its place.

5. The news of this attack on the national troops, and this
disgrace to the flag, created the most intense excitement
throughout the whole country.

6. On the 15th, the day on which the garrison at Fort
Sumter surrendered, President Lincoln issued a proclamation,
calling for 75,000 volunteer troops to defend the Union.
The people in the North laid aside all political disputes and,
with great unanimity, resolved to sustain the government.

t. The quota of troops for Pennsylvania was 14,000. The
call to arms was telegraphed throughout the State. Farmers,
mechanics, teachers, lawyers, preachers and men in every
condition of life, dropped their unfinished work and offered
their services to the country. Troops were put in motion
immediately, and five volunteer companies from Pennsyl-
vania, who arrived in Washington on the morning of the

4. "When was Lincoln inaugurated President? What had the
rebels done? When and where was the first attack made on the
national troops ? What was the result ?

6. How did the report of the surrender aifect the people?

6. What action did the President take? What did the people do?

7. AVhat number of troops was asked from Pennsylvania ? How
did the people respond to this call ?


18th of April, were the first to reach the capital after the
call for volunteers had been issued.

8. Such was the patriotic ardor of the people of this State,
that they not only filled the quota, but they also offered to
send forward more than half of the whole number of troops
the President had asked for.

9. Camp Curtin was established at Harrisburg on the 18th
of April, and all the organized militia in the State were
ordered to that place ; within ten days from the date of the
President's proclamation, twenty-five regiments from Penn-
sylvania, with arms, accoutrements, and perfect organizations,
numbering 25,915 men, were in the field.

10. The public men in this State were in advance of the
most zealous spirits in the country. They urged the national
government to organize powerful armies of loyal men, who
were freely offering their services, and to crush the rebellion
at a single blow. Simon Cameron,* Secretary of War, ex-

* Simon Cameron was born in Lancaster county, March 8th, 1799;
picked up his education by reading books from a library in Sunbury,
and in a printing-office. At the age of twenty-two years he became
editor of a paper in Doylestown, and afterward in Harrisburg; was
an earnest advocate of the great public improvements, and of the
Common School System, and has ever been the friend of young men
struggling up from poverty and ignorance to higher and nobler aims.
He was appointed Adjutant-General of Pennsylvania in 1823; was
for many years State printer, and a contractor on the public works;
was for twenty-five years a successful banker; in 1831, was appointed

8. What did the people offer ?

9. What camp was formed? How soon were the troops raised?
10. How did Pennsylvania's public men compare with leaders in

other States? What did they urge? What did Simon Cameron
propose? What did Thaddeus Stevens urge? What did Governor
Curtin do?


ceeded all other cabinet officers in energy, and proposed, at
the beginning, to call out 500,000 men, and to use every
element of strength within the reach of the government, in
order to speedily overthrow the power of the conspirators.
Thaddeus Stevens urged, as a measure necessary to preserve
the life of the nation, that the government should call into
the field an army of a million men, — proclaim freedom to
the slaves, and invite them to join the army of the Union.
Governor Curtin* labored with unsurpassed zeal to place the
State of Pennsylvania in a condition that should enable the

a visitor to "West Point, and in 1845 was elected, by the Democratic
party, a United States Senator. In 1856, Mr. Cameron supported
Fremont for the presidency, and in 1857, was sent to the United
States Senate for the term of six years by the Eepublicans ; he re-
signed the senatorship in 1861, to accept the office of Secretary of
War in President Lincoln's cabinet; but, in 1862, resigned the
secretaryship because of disagreement with the President on the
question of freeing and arming the slaves. Mr. Cameron, however,
accepted the position of minister to Eussia, and in presenting his
credentials to the emperor, at St. Petersburg, predicted the speedy
downfall of slavery in the United States. After a short residence at
the Kussian capital, he resigned his office and returned to America,
in order to assist his countrymen in the great struggle for national
life. He was again elected United States Senator in 1867, for a term
of six years.

* Andrew Gregg Curtin was born in Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, in
April, 1817; he was admitted to the bar in his native town in 1839;
was placed on the presidential electoral ticket in 1848, and in 1852.
In 1855, he was appointed Secretary of the Commonwealth by Gov-
ernor Pollock. He was elected governor in 1860, and was re-elected
in 1864. Governor Curtin was one of the most zealous and efficient
upholders of the national government during the war, and by his re-
peated visits to the army and the battlefields where Pennsylvania
troops marched and fought, and by his efibrts for the relief of the sick
and wounded, won the honorable title of "Soldier's Friend."


people to respond promptly and vigorously to every demand
for men and materials to prosecute the war. Two years
later, the policy that had been so persistently advocated by
Pennsylvania, through her wisest statesmen, was adopted by
the administration at Washington.

11. On the 15th of May, the State legislature, having
been convened in extra session, passed a bill providing for
the organization of a body of troops, to be called the " Reserve
Corps of the Commonwealth." The troops for this corps
were collected into camps of instruction at Harrisburg, Pitts-
burg, Easton and West Chester. George A. McCall* was ap-
pointed major-general of the corps, and John F. Reynolds,f

* General George A. McCall was born in Philadelphia, March 16th,
1802, and graduated at the Military Academy at West Point, in
1822. In 1831, he was appointed assistant adjutant-general on the staff
of Major-General Gaines; in 1836, was promoted to a captaincy in
the Fourth Kegiment United States Infantry ; served in the field
during the Seminole war, and also during the war with Mexico.
He was appointed, by President Taylor, Inspector-General of the
United States Army, with the rank of colonel of cavalry, and in 1861
was appointed, by Governor Curtin, major-general of the Pennsylvania
Keserve Corps. He died, near West Chester, February 25th, 1868.

f John Fulton Reynolds was born September, 1820, in Lancaster.
In 1837, he was appointed a cadet at West Point, and graduated from
the Military Academy in 1841. He served during the Mexican war,
and rose to the rank of major by his gallant conduct. In September,
1860, Major Reynolds was appointed commander of cadets at West
Point. In May, 1861, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the
Fourteenth Infantry ; was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers
in August, and was assigned to the command of the First Brigade of
the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps, and was one of the most distin-
guished soldiers in the war against the rebellion. He was killed,

11. What body of troops was organized? Who commanded the
Reserve Corps?



George G. Meade* and 0. E. C. Ord were appointed brig-

12. When ful]}^ organized, the Reserve Corps comprised
fifteen regiments, numbering nearly 16,000 men,— thirteen
regiments of infantry, one of cavalry and one of artillery.
These troops were called into the national service on the
21st of July, immediately after the battle of Bull Run, and
during three years in the field gained a world-wide reputation
for gallant behavior in the fiercest battles of the war.

13. During the first two years of the war, the part taken
by Pennsylvania conpisted in sending men into the field, in
feeding the soldiersf who passed through the State, on their

while gallantly leading his corps, at the battle of Gettysburg, on the
1st of July, 1863, and was buried in the Lancaster cemetery, Lan-
caster, on the 4tli of July.

* General George Gordon Meade was born in Cadiz, Spain, De-
cember, 1815, his father being at that time United States Consul at
that port. After the return of his father to Philadelphia, the son
was educated in the public schools. In 1831 he was appointed a cadet
in the Academy at West Point, and graduated in 1835. He entered the
army as brevet second lieutenant in the 3d Artillery, and was ordered
to Florida, where he served with distinction in the campaigns against
the Indians; in the Mexican war was promoted for meritorious
conduct in battle. In 1861, he was appointed a brigadier-general of
volunteers, and assigned to the command of the 2d Brigade of the
Pennsylvania Keserve Corps. He rose to the rank of major-general
in 1862, and on the 28th of June, 1863, was assigned to the command
of the Army of the Potomac, which position he held until the close
of the war,

t In the spring of 1861, when soldiers from the north, the east, and
the west were hurrying to the national capital, thousands of these

12. What was the strength of the Keserve Corps ? What became
of it?

13. What part did Pennsylvania take in the war?


way to and from the army, in caring for the sick and
wounded, and in giving money to defray the expenses of
the national government.

14. On the 10th of October, 1862, which was soon after
the battle of Antietam, the enemy made a cavalry raid through

patriotic men arrived in Philadelphia on their way to Washington,
hungry, thirsty, soiled, and fatigued by long travel ; the citizens at
first came from their houses with baskets of provisions and pots of
cotfee, which were distributed to the regiments standing in the streets.
On the 27th of May, the "Union Volunteer Refres.hment Saloon"
was opened, and soon thereafter the " Cooper-shop Volunteer Ee-
freshment Committee" was organized. The buildings were pro-
vided with ample convenience for the accommodation of the weary
traveler. Every regiment that arrived found clean towels, water
for washing and bathing, ink and paper to write letters, and an
abundance of well-cooked provisions. These saloons were kept
open during the war and expended $180,280.57, and fed 1,119,856
men. There was also a hospital for the sick, and many found relief
therein; and, finall}', a monument is being erected to the memory
of those who died there. These institutions were the free gifts
of the people of the City of Brotherly Love to the soldiers of the
Union, The President of the United States, the governors of the
Eastern and JSTorthern States, and many distinguished citizens,
formally expressed their thanks to the committees for their noble
liberality ; and in all the armies of the nation the praise of Phila-
delphia was above that of any other city. General Butler signifi-
cantly said: "In coming through New York city, we received a
military reception; but here, in Philadelphia, we received a more
substantial one, which does more to encourage and refresh the Union
soldier than any other that could be given."

Societies of "Patriot Daughters" were formed in the cities and
towns throughout the State to provide outfits for the soldiers leaving
home, and to relieve the wants of the sick and wounded on the field
and in the hospitals.

14. When did the first invasion of the State occur? When did the
second invasion occur ?


Franklin county, and burned the railroad depot at Chambers-
burg. In the Bummer of 1863, the whole rebel army in Vir-
ginia invaded the State, and made the hills around the village
of Gettysburg the scene of one of the greatest battles ever
fought on this continent.

15. On the 15th of June, General Lee, at the head of his
army, crossed the Potomac at Williamsport, Maryland, and
sent out small forces to occupy Carlisle, York, Wrightsville,
and Gettysburg, while the main army encamped near Cham-
bersburg. One of these detachments took possession of York
on the 27th of June, and on the next day seized Wrightsville
and caused the bridge across the Susquehanna to Columbia to
be burned. Carlisle was entered by another body of the enemy
on the same day. The railroads w^est of the Susquehanna
and south of Harrisburg were broken; bridges w^ere burned
and the track w^as torn up.

16. On the 30th of June, Lee marched eastw^ard from
Chambersburg, through South Mountain, on the Cashtown-
gap road; the detachments were called in and the whole
rebel army was ordered to concentrate at Gettysburg.

IT. On the 28th of June, the Army of the Potomac was
encamped at Frederick, Maryland, and on that day General
Meade was directed by President Lincoln to assume the
chief command.* As soon as Meade had ascertained the

* The Army of the Potomac at that time numbered about 95,000
effective men, and comprised seven Army Corps of infantry and one
of cavalry. The 1st Corps was commanded by General John F.

15. How did Lee enter Pennsylvania? What places were occu-
pied, and what was done by the enemy?

16. Describe the movements of the enemy?

17. Where was the Army of the Potomac? Who was appointed
to command the army? What did General Meade do?



position of the enemy, he resolved to drive him from the line
of the Susquehanna. The whole army was put in motion
on the roads leading toward Harrisburg, the commander
having determined to fight the enemy, wherever found, or
force him to retreat across the Potomac.

18. Early on the morning of the 1st of July, General
Meade received word from his scouts, that the enemy had
fallen back from the Susquehanna and was concentrating his
forces. He thereupon ordered General Reynolds to march
forward with the 1st and the 11th Army Corps to occupy

19. Reynolds moved out on the Baltimore turnpike, at
daylight on the morning of the 1st, and arrived near the
village at eleven o'clock in the forenoon. Two miles farther
west, he found Buford's cavalry skirmishing with the enemy.
Reynolds boldly pushed forward his troops to support the
cavalry. A general engagement took place on the hill near
Pennsylvania College. The battle opened with artillery, and
as General Reynolds rode to the front to change the position
of his batteries, he was shot through the neck and died on
the field.

20. An officer had been sent back to inform General Meade
of the presence of the enemy at Gettysburg. The messenger

Keynolds ; the 2d by General Winfield S. Hancock ; the 3d by Gen-
eral Daniel E. Sickles ; the 5th by General George Sykes ; the 6th by
General John Sedgewick; the 11th by General Oliver O. Howard;
and the 12th by General H. W. Slocum. The cavalry corps was
commanded by General Alfred Pleasonton.

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Online LibraryJosiah Rhinehart SypherSchool history of Pennsylvania, from the earliest settlements to the present time → online text (page 20 of 24)