Josiah Rhinehart Sypher.

School history of Pennsylvania, from the earliest settlements to the present time online

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8. This sudden change in the throne proved highly un-
favorable to the interests of Penn. Because King James
had been his friend, he was treated as an enemy to the new
reign. This, together with the report of the petty quarrels
going on in the Province, gave Pennsylvania and its pro-
prietary a bad reputation in Europe, and almost wholly
arrested immigration.

9. The enemies of Penn seized upon this unfortunate op-
portunity to prefer charges against him, and against the gov-
ernment of his Province. He was accused, falsely, of holding
a treasonable correspondence with the fugitive King James,
and was arrested. The executive authority of Pennsylvania
was taken from him by the king, and was transferred to Ben-
jamin Fletcher, governor of New York, by a commission
dated October 21, 1G92. Governor Fletcher notified Thomas
Lloyd, then deputy governor of Pennsylvania, that he in-
tended to assume the government of that Province, and, in
the spring of 1693, he entered the city of Philadelphia at-
tended by a military retinue.

10. Fletcher disregarded the provisions of the charter,
the laws, and rights of the people. He summoned the
members of the Assemblies from the Province and the

8. How did this change affect Penn ?

9. What did the enemies of Penn do? What happened to his
Province ? When was Fletcher governor ? "When did the governor
of New York enter Philadelphia?

10. How did Fletcher conduct his administration? What changes
did he make ? What did he demand ?


Territories to meet him in Philadelphia. He reunited Dela-
ware and Pennsylvania; changed the time and form of hold-
ing elections; reduced the number of representatives, and
made a requisition on the Province for men and money, to aid
New York in the defense of the northwestern frontier against
the French and Indians.

11. The Assembly and the people sternly protested against
this violation of their chartered rights, and the exercise of
unrestricted sovereignty over them. The Quakers, who con-
trolled the legislature, were conscientiously opposed to war,
and hence reluctantly consented to appropriate money for
military purposes, more especially when the money was to
be used beyond the limits of their own Province. But when
Fletcher threatened to annex Pennsylvania to New York,
the required sum was granted.

12. The Assembly, at this extra session, passed a school
law, which provided for the education of the youth in every
county; also, an act establishing a post-office in Philadel-
phia. Fletcher, having appointed William Markham deputy
governor of Pennsylvania, returned to New York.

13. The harsh treatment, experienced by the colonists,
taught them to hold their own generous and affectionate pro-
prietor in very high esteem. When, therefore, the report
reached the Province that the government of Pennsylvania
had, in August, 1694, been restored to William Penn, there
was great rejoicing among all the people.

11. What did the Assembly and the people do? What did the
Quakers do? What did Fletcher threaten to do?

12. What important laws were passed at the extra session of the
legislature? Who did Fletcher appoint deputy governor?

13. What effect had Fletcher's administration on the people?
When was the government restored to Penn ?


14. Though Penn was anxious to go to America, immediate] j
after the restoration of the Province, he was detained by the
death of his wife, and also by pecuniary embarrassment.
His trusted friend, Thomas Lloyd, having died, he appointed
William Markham deputy governor.*

15. Under Markham's administration a new constitution
was formed, and the laws of the Province were thoroughly
revised. The Council was reduced to two members from
each count}^, to be chosen biennially, and the Assembly to
four members, chosen annually. The powers and duties of
the legislative bodies and of the executive ofiBcers were more
accurately defined, and the rights and privileges of the citi-
zens more fully guaranteed. The people, feeling that their
government was again securely established, and under the
direction of the founder of the Province, were contented, and
hence diligently applied themselves to the improvement of the

16. It was art this period of our history that the buccaneers
and pirates, who had been driven from European waters,
took refuge in the bays and inlets on the American coast.
Many of them frequented the Delaware, and thus gave Penn's
enemies in England, always ready to bring him and his

* By the death of Governor Lloyd, the proprietary lost a true
friend and able counselor, and the Province a wise and honorable
magistrate. He was a native of Wales, had received a liberal educa-
tion, and came to Pennsylvania with the first settlers under Penn;
he was continued in office from the foundation of the Colony till he
died, in 1694, at the age of forty-five years.

14. What prevented Penn from visiting Pennsylvania? Who did
Penn appoint governor ?

15. What occurred under Markham's administration? What
eflect had the restoration of the government on the people?


Province into disfavor, opportunity to charge the crimes of
these foreign marauders upon the quiet and hxw-abiding
people of Pennsylvania. The governor and Councils, with-
out delay, published a proclamation, wherein they denied the
false accusations brought against their own citizens, and ex-
plained the origin of the report, by informing the British
ministry that the depredations on the American w^aters were
the work of the Spanish pirates.

16. Who took refuge on the American coast? How was this used
by the enemies of Penn?






Penii's Second Visit to Pennsylvania.

1. Fifteen years had now elapsed since William Penn
had left his Colony. During this period, he had often prom-
ised the people to return to them ; but his troubles in court,
first, to resist the claims of Lord Baltimore to a large por-
tion of his territory, and after that, to repel the persecutions
of jealous and unscrupulous enemies, had long detained him.
The want of money to defray expenses, and lastly, the death
of his wife Gulielma, and of his son Springett, added to his
embarrassments and misfortunes, and delayed his departure
from England.

2. In 1696, three 3"ears after the death of his first wife, he

Chapter YIII. — 1. How long had Penn now boon absent from
his Province ? Why had he remained so long in Europe ?


married Hannah Callowhill, and having at length surmounted
all difficulties, he embarked, with his family, in August, 1G99,
and set sail for Pennsylvania, where he arrived on the last
day of November. The yellow fever, that most dreadful
disease, which had carried off many of the inhabitants of
Philadelphia, and had cast a painful gloom over the city in
the year 1G99, had just ceased. The long looked-for arrival
of the beloved founder of the Province was therefore most
opportune ; nothing could have been more effective in dis-
pelling the depression of spirit that pervaded the com-
munity. The people were at once cheered by his presence
and encouraged by his counsel. He summoned the legisla-
ture to meet in Philadelphia, and entered upon the work of
revising and extending the constitution and laws.

3. The Dutch traders who had carried the first negro slaves
to Virginia, also introduced slavery into the settlements on
the Delaware. When Penn came to his new Province, in
1682, he found this institution established among the people
of all classes. His own mind had not yet been awakened
to the injustice of the system. He recommended the em-
ployment of slaves upon his own place, at Pennsbury, and
countenanced the buying and selling of negroes by the people
of his own sect. The German settlers at Germantown had
very early entered a most earnest protest ag-ainst the
"iniquity" of the institution. But the English Quakers
were not yet prepared for so great a reform, and hence, in

2. "When did he embark for America? What dreadful disease
raged in Phihidelphia that year? What did the arrival of Penn do?

3. How had shivery been introduced into the settlements on the
Delaware? What were Penn's views of slavery? Who had pro-
tested against the institution? How did the English Quakers receive
this protest? What was done with it?


their quarterly and yearly meetings in 1688, were not willing
to take action on the protest of the German Friends. The
matter was laid over ; but the language of the protest was so
forcible and pointed, that it could not be forgotten. It was
agitated at other meetings, and in 1696 steps were taken to
arrest the further importation of negroes.

4. When Penn arrived, in 1699, he found a strong party in
the Province in favor of the emancipation of all the slaves and
the total abolition of the system of involuntary servitude. The
question had already been made the subject of legislation,
and now required the attention of the proprietary. Two
bills were submitted to the Assembly: one regulating mar-
riages among negroes, providing for the protection of the
family, and the respect of domestic ties ; the other, providing
for the trial and punishment of slaves, and substituting the
judgment of the law for the will of the master. The former
of these bills was rejected, but the latter received the sanction
of the legislature.

5. Drunkenness, which destroys health, dethrones reason
and makes men mad, had become so prevalent among the
Indians, that Penn endeavored to prohibit the sale of intox-
icating liquors to any of the tribes within his Province. In
this he was not successful. He induced the Quakers to dis-
countenance the practice ; but mercenary traders, who cared
more for personal gains than fot the good of their fellow-men,
were unwilling to abandon a traffic that afforded them large
profits. Failing in his efforts to restrain his own people,
either by law or by moral suasion, he appealed to the Indians

4. TThat did Penn find? VV hat important bills were passed?
What became of these ? What j-ear was this ?

5. What did Penn endeavor to prohibit? Why did he not succeed?
What did the Indians acknowledge ?


to abstain from the use of a beverage so fraught with evil,
and to refuse to buy from those who profited by their ruin.
The poor sons of the forest humbly acknowledged the terri-
ble Avoes induced by drunkenness, and the debauchery of their
tribes by the use of strong drinks, but frankly confessed that
they were wholly unable to conquer their thirst for the fiery

6. The founder of the Province had publicly declared his
intention to reside permanently in Pennsylvania. A mansion
had been erected for his use in Pennsbury Manor, -on the banks
of the Delaware, about twenty-five miles above Philadelphia.
He moved his family to this mansion early in the year 1700,
previous to which time he had resided in the ''slate-roof
house " in the city.

t. While the proprietary was deeply engaged in the work
of revising his government, renewing treaties with the na-
tives, extending the boundaries of his settlements by pur-
chasing additional tracts from the Indians, and doing what-
ever seemed necessary to make the people contented, pros-
perous, and happy, he received the unwelcome news from
England, that there was a bill pending in Parliament, to annex
to the crown all the proprietary governments in America.

8. The royal authority had already become jealous of the
growing strength of the Colonies, and an effort was being
made to place the settlers in America under the immediate
control of the crown. In a crisis like this, Penn could not
trust the interests of his Province and the destiny of his
people to any one less able to defend them than himself. He,
therefore, resolved to hasten back to the British court, once

6. Where did Penn reside?

7. What unwelcome news was received?

8. What did Penn resolve to do ?


more to struggle for the rights of the people against the en-
croachments of royalty.

9. A new Assembly was called, which met in Philadelphia
on the 15th of September, 1701. Many embarra^ing ques-
tions were brought before the legislature at this session, and
its deliberations were not always harmonious and dignified.
The representatives of the people again resisted, stoutly, the
demands from the king for money to be used in building forts
in New York for defense against the Indians ; and the pro-
prietary was finally compelled to abandon the effort to obtain
an appropriation for this purpose.

10. In his speech at the opening of the session, Penn pro-
posed to make a revision of the laws, and promised to present
a new charter of privileges to the people. The Assembly in-
sisted that the new charter should grant an increase of power
to the representatives of the freemen, and make a correspond-
ing restriction of the proprietary's authority. These demands
were so strongly maintained that Penn was forced to yield.

11. The new constitution was delivered to the Assembly
on the 25th of October, ITOl. By a supplementary article,
permission was granted to the Province and Territories to dis-
solve their union. This provision was speedily acted upon,
and in 1702 the final separation took place, and Delaware
became an independent Province. In another section of the
charter, Philadelphia was made a corporate city. Edward Ship-
pen was inaugurated as mayor, and presided at the organiza-

9. "When did the Assembly meet? What did the representatives
resist ?

10. What did Penn promise? What did the Assembly insist
upon ?

11. When was the new constitution delivered to the Assembly?
What permission was given in this constitution ? W^hen did the scpa-


tion of the city government. This was the last charter of
rights granted to the people by the proprietary, and was the
fundamental law of the Colony until after the Revolution,
when a new constitution was framed in accordance with the
requirements of the free commonwealth.

12. The proprietary appointed a "Council of State," com-
posed of ten members, to assist the executive in administering
the government. He commissioned Andrew Hamilton deputy
governor, and James Logan provincial secretary and clerk of
the Council. To Logan he intrusted his private affairs, rely-
ing on him for correct information and trustworthy reports
concerning the condition of the people and the Province.

13. Having thus completed the work of reconstruction,
Penn embarked for England on the first day of November,
1701. His influence, joined with that of other proprietary
governors, defeated the attempt to annex the Province to the
crown. King William III. died on the 23d of February, 1702,
and was succeeded by Princess Anne, daughter of James II.;
Penn was a favorite at the queen's court, and therefore easily
placed his interests in America above the power of party

14. At about this time the Episcopalians, who had estab-
lished themselves in Pennsylvania in 1695, began to show
considerable strength. They were called the ** Church of
England party," and were considered hostile to the Quakers.
The first dispute between the two sects arose on the question

ration take place? What change was made in Philadelphia? Who
was the first mayor ? How long was this constitution in force ?

12. What appointments were made by the proprietary?

13. When did Penn embark for England? Did he again visit his
Province? What changes occurred in England?

14. When did the Episcopalians establish themselves in Pennsyl-


of military defense. A war, known in history as Queen
Anne's Avar, was raging betAveen France and England, and
the French settlers in Canada had joined with the northern
and western tribes of Indians to make war on the English
colonies. The Church of England party, joined by the Scotch-
Irish, Germans, and other settlers who were not conscien-
tiously opposed to bearing arms, were in favor of organizing
military companies, and providing means for the defense of
the Province.

15. The Quakers resisted every proposition to spend money
for war purposes, and used all their power in the Assembly
and among the people to defeat the efforts of the other party
to raise troops and materials for defense. The non-resistants
had the majority in the Assembly, and the Council Was almost
wholly composed of men whose religion was one of absolute
peace ; they were, therefore, always able to defeat the meas-
ures of the war party.

16. Governor Hamilton attempted to provide for the de-
fense of the settlements by the creation of a provincial militia.
One company was recruited in Philadelphia, and George
Lowther, a lawyer, was appointed captain. This was the
first company of soldiers organized in Pennsylvania. The
Assembly and the peace party at once arrayed themselves
against Governor Hamilton and made his administration one
of continued strife. The death of the governor, on the 20th
of April, lt03, gave a temporary advantage to the opposition.

vania? "What were they called? "What disputes arose? "What war
was now raging ? "What parties were formed in Pennsylvania.

15. What did the Quakers do?

16. What did Governor Hamilton do? In what year was the first
military company organized in Pennsylvania? What gave temporary
advantage to the peace party?



li: iVLSJi ALARM."


Early Political Disputes.

1. John Evans- was appointed governor, to succeed Ham-
ilton in 1Y04. He was a young Welshman, then twenty-six
years old. By Penn's instructions he was directed to reunite
the Province and Territories under one government, if it
could be accomplished in a wa}^ that would not oppress the
people. The efforts of the 3^oung governor failed, but pro-
voked a strong opposition which embarrassed his whole

2. The death of Governor Hamilton did not settle the dis-
pute on the question of defense. Governor Evans renewed
the attempt to organize a militia force from the citizens not

Chapter IX. — 1. When was John Evans appointed governor?
What was he directed to do? What was the result of his efforts?
2. What did Governor Evans attempt to do ?



averse to bearing arms. This immediately revived the old

3. A bitter dispute between the Assembly and the execu-
tive Council had, at the same time, attained its cHmax. The
Assembly held that the last charter received from the pro-
prietary gave them authority to convene at their own call,
and to adjourn at their own pleasure. The constitution of
1696 gave authority to the executive to prorogue, but not to
dissolve the Assembly ; the new constitution simply empow-
ered the Assembly to meet and adjourn. It was claimed that
this provision 'abolished the power of the executive to pro-
rogue; but the Council insisted that the right to prorogue the
Assembly still remained with the executive. Both parties
maintained their opinions with such obstinacy that all legis-
lative business was arrested ; and both appealed to the pro-
prietary for relief.

4. The inhabitants participating in the dispute were soon
distinctly divided into two parties. The governor and secre-
tary led the party in the interest of the proprietary ; David
Lloyd was leader of the people's party. The majority of
Council, the judges, and other oflfioers appointed by the pro-
prietary, and the Quakers sided with the executive ; in the
opposition were the people of all religious denominations, not
Quakers, including many of the most respectable citizens,
and a united Assembly.

5. These parties stood out firmly against each other ; the
governor refused to sign the bills passed by the Assembly,
and the Assembly in nowise respected communications from
the governor. Finally, a letter was received from William

3. On what did the Assembly and Council differ ?

4. How were the people divided?

5. How did this quarrel alfect legislation ? How was the dispute
settled ?


Penn, bearing a straightforward rebuke to the intriguers
against tlie proprietary's interests, and the disturbers of order
and peace in the Province. He appealed to the honest and
right-minded landholders to consider the liberality of the char-
ter and the laws granted by the proprietary, and reminded
them that by dissensions in the colony he might be made
powerless to defend and continue these high privileges.

6. This appeal was well received, and produced a great and
good eifect in the Province. The people had not forgotten
the virtues and services of the proprietary. The gross attack
made upon him by the opposition party roused the public in-
dignation against the authors of it. The enemies of Penn
were defeated at the polls, and an Assembly composed of his
friends was elected, including many of the ablest men in the

Y. The new Assembly did not condescend to meddle in the
disgraceful quarrels that had consumed the time of the two
preceding sessions. The members, with one accord, gave
their whole attention to public business. They remodeled
the laws, and passed a bill to prohibit the sale of Indians into
slavery — an iniquitous traffic, that had often threatened th,e
peace of the Province.

8. There was now an opportunity to restore good feeling
between the governor and the Assembly, and thereby preserve
harmony among the antagonistic elements of the government.
Governor Evans, however, was a vain man and an unwise
ruler ; he had little respect for the religious convictions of his
people ; was fond of military display ; despised the peaceful
firmness of the Quakers, and imagined that their opposition

6. How was Penn's letter received? What was the result of the

7. How did the new Assembly act?


to war measures would be suddenly overcome by the cer-
tainty of danger. He therefore devised a base scheme, by
which he hoped to disgrace the people and force them to fly
to arms.

9. On the day of the annual fair in Philadelphia, when the
inhabitants of the surrounding country thronged the streets
of the city, a messenger arrived in great haste from the fort
at New Castle, with a report that Spanish ships were in the
Delaware and would soon attack the city. Governor Evans
mounted a horse, and with sword in hand rode through the
streets, commanding all men to arm for defense, A general
panic seized the people. The shipping was hurried away up
the river and into small creeks; articles of value were hidden,
and for a few hours the whole city was in confusion.

10. A few men, who disbelieved the report, labored to
quiet the women and children, and to restore order in the
streets. Before night, news was received that the report was
false ; and the heartless wretches who had originated it were
then forced to seek safety by concealing themselves from the
incensed people. The shameful experiment utterly failed in
Us object. The Quakers, at the time of the alarm, were as-
sembled for worship in their meeting-house ; and, amid all the
tumult, they continued their religious exercises as if nothing
unusual had taken place.

11. Governor Evans and his administration, by this and
other foolish attempts to force the Quakers to take up arms,
were made exceedingly obnoxious. The Assembly, which

8. What was now presented? What was the character of Governor
Evans? What did he devise?

9. What was this base scheme? What was done?

10. How did the false alarm end? What eifect had it on the
Quakers ?


had acted both wisely and ablj in providing for the wants of
the Province, thereafter refused to entertain any proposition
from the governor to provide for the public defense; and in
reply to his request for a militia law, advised him to arrest
and punish the authors of the false alarm that had disgraced
his government and caused great loss of property to many

12. The election in October, 1706, again resulted in the
choice of an Assembly from the popular party, bitterly op-
posed to the governor. The old quarrels were therefore
maintained, and continued with great violence until 1709,
when William Penn removed Evans, and appointed Colonel
Charles Gookin governor of the Province.

11. How did this affect Governor Evans and his administration?

12. How did the election in 1706 result? "When was Evans re-

Online LibraryJosiah Rhinehart SypherSchool history of Pennsylvania, from the earliest settlements to the present time → online text (page 4 of 24)