Josiah Rhinehart Sypher.

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would shed on his name, than of the means whereby the vic-
tory might be won. He crossed the Monongahela seven
miles above the enemy's fort, and while marching along,
too proud to take advice and too self-confident to be cautious,
he rode heedlessly on, until his progress was suddenly arrested
by a deadly fire on the front and left flank of his vanguard.

12. No enemy was seen, though it was clear noonday; but
the smoke rising from behind every tree and bush, the rattle
of musketry, the sharp crack of the rifle, the falling soldiers,
and the confusion in the advance column, revealed the pres-
ence of a powerful and deadly foe.

13. Washington, seeing the great danger into which they
had been led, proposed to fight the enemy according to the
American custom, by skirmishing and firing from the shelter
of trees, rocks, and underbrush; but this the arrogant com-
mander refused. He ordered his troops to form, and to fire
in platoons. For three hours, the concealed enemy kept up
a destructive fire on the British line; the ground was soon
covered with the fallen men; every mounted officer but
Washington was killed or disabled, and finally the brave
Braddock himself was mortally wounded.

14. When the regular soldiers saw their commander fall,
they fled from the field; Washington, though two horses had
been killed under him, and four balls had passed through his

12. How did the enemy fight? What was the result?

13. What did Washington propose? How was this suggestion
received? What was the result?

14. How did the death of Braddock afiect the soldiers ? What did
Washington do? *"


clothes, was unhurt, and now assuming command, rallied the
provincial troops, and formed a rear guard of such strength
that the enemy feared to follow.

15. The defeated army retreated rapidly, leaving all stores,
baggage, and cannon, even the private instructions, and the
money in the camp-chest of the commander-in-chief, in the
hands of the enemy. The regulars fled, in haste and terror,
back to Dunbar's camp, at Little Meadows, where the rem-
nants of the broken companies were speedily collected; the
large cannon were buried, and everything not absolutely
necessary for the troops was immediately destroyed. Dunbar
then marched to Shippensburg with the remainder of the
British troops, whence, after a short dela}-, they went to
Philadelphia. Washington led the provincial forces back to

16. The report of Braddock's defeat spread rapidly through-
out the whole country, and in Pennsylvania, more than else-
w^here, terrified the people. The retreat of Dunbar left the
whole western frontier unprotected. The inhabitants were
unarmed, undisciplined, and without organization; yet they
were compelled to adopt measures immediately for the de-
fense of their homes.

•It. The Assembly, having been summoned by Governor
Morris, without delay voted £50,000 to the king's use, to be
raised by a tax levied on all real and personal property in
the Province. The governor refused to sign this bill because
it did not exempt the property of the proprietaries from taxa-

15. How did the army retreat? Where did the troops concentrate?
What was done at Little Meadows ?

16. What was the effect of Braddock's defeat? What was the
condition of the inhabitants?

17. What action did the government take?



tion. A bitter quarrel ensued between the executive and the
Assembly, which for a time completely overshadowed the
public danger, and effectually arrested public business.

18. The demands of the people, threatened with imme-
diate massacre, could not long be delayed. The frontier set-
tlers insisted upon instantaneous relief, and the Assembly,
once more aroused to a sense of duty, forgot their own quarrel
long enough to place in the hands of a special committee
£1000 to be expended for arms and ammunition for the in-
habitants of the western counties, and then adjourned until

19. In the September session, money was appropriated to
buy clothing and provisions for the provincial troops in New
York and the Eastern States. This aid to the sister colonies
was gratefully acknowledged by Governor Shirley, of Massa-
chusetts, who, upon the death of Braddock, had become com-
mander-in-chief of all the forces in America.

20. For some time the enemy west of the Alleghany
mountains was awed by the exhibition of strength in Brad-
dock's defeated expedition, and did not dare to attempt hos-
tilities against the inhabitants; but, after awhile, finding the
whole frontier unprotected, parties of marauders crossed the
mountains and roamed unmolested over the western setde-
ments of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia.

21. The inhabitants of Cumberland county were the first
to receive the furious attacks of the savage foe. The settlers
living two or three miles apart were captured, or forced to

18. What did the frontier settlers demand? How was this demand

19. What was done at the September session?

20. What was now the situation on the frontier?

21. What occurred in Cumberland county and other places?


flee in terror to the stronger settlements. Their cattle were
killed, their grain and provisions carried away or destroyed,
and their dwellings burned to the ground. In some places
the whole country was laid waste with murder and fire, as
far east as the Susquehanna. The thriving settlements at
the Great Cove, in Cumberland county, a few miles above
Ilarrisburg, were totally destroyed, and many of the inhabit-
ants slaughtered or made captives. The same terrible fate
befell the settlements at Tulpehocken, Mahanoy, the Moravian
Missionary stations at Mahoning, and at Gnadenhutten, on
the Lehigh.

22. In the midst of these terrors, the newly elected As-
sembly was convened. Petitions from all parts of the country
were thrown in upon the members, praying for arms, ammu-
nition, and means for public defense. Astounding as it may
seem, the Assembly and the governor reopened their old
quarrel, and criminally spent weeks in foolish wranglings,
while a deadly foe was overrunning the Province, devastating
the fields, and murdering the inhabitants.

23. The patience of the quiet Germans was finally ex-
hausted. Those residing near Philadelphia, to the number of
about four hundred, marched in one body into the city, un-
armed, and in the most orderly manner, and implored their
rulers to postpone their unreasonable quarrels, that they
might provide, immediately, for the public safety.

24. They first called on the governor and laid their peti-
tions before him; and then, crowding into the halls of the
Assembly, these sturdy citizens demanded of their repre-

22. What action did the Assembly take?

23. What did the Germans do ?

24. On whom did these Germans call? What eflect had this
action ?


sentatives, that ample provision should be speedily made for
the protection of the property and the safety of the people.
These demands, added to the great number of written petitions
that were sent to the Assembly, could not be resisted; for-
tunately, about this time also, an order was received from the
proprietaries, appropriating £5000 to the use of the Colony.
To this the Assembly added a liberal sum, and passed a
militia bill which authorized the enUstment of men, and the
organization of military companies for service in the Province.
25. The expedition against Fort Niagara, and also that
against Crown Point, were unsuccessful. Neither of these
experienced such fearful disaster as befell Braddock's army,
but both failed to achieve the objects for which they had been
organized. Thus, in all parts of America, the campaign
of 1755 terminated unfavorably for the English and provincial

25. How did the military campaign of 1755 terminate?





Preparations for Defense. — Indian Outrages. — Destruction
of Kittanning.

1. Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts, commancler-in,
chief, called a convention of the governors of the northern
and middle colonies, to meet at Albany, for the purpose of
devising a plan for the military campaign of 1756. This
council of governors resolved to organize four expeditions:
10,000 men were to attack Crown Point; 6000 were to
march against Fort Niagara; 3000 against Fort Du Quesne;
and 2000 men were to march across the country into Canada
to alarm and harass the settlements of the enemy.

2. Pennsylvania furnished 1500 men for this campaign.

Chapter XYIII. — 1. "What convention was called? What did
the council of governors resolve to do ?

2. How many troops did Pennsylvania furnish ? What did Frank-
lin publish ?


Great efforts were made to enlist these troops and prepare
them for the field early in the spring. Benjamin Franklin
published a dialogue, in which he stated the popular objec-
tions to militia laws and military operations for public de>
fense ; he gave such ingenious and satisfactory answers to
the objections made, that the opposition to preparations for
War was completely silenced.

3. Governor Morris prevailed on Franklin to take sole
charge of the protection of the frontier, and gave him full
power to organize companies and regiments, to commission
officers, to build forts, and to do all that was necessary to
protect the settlements in the western and northern border.
In this work Franklin was- aided by his son, who had served
in the army that had been sent against Canada. He speedily
collected 500 men at Bethlehem, whence he marched up the
Lehigh to Gnadenhutten, now Weisport, where he established-
a military post for the protection of the inhabitants of the
Lehigh valley.

4. The Moravians, who had hitherto professed the peace
doctrine of the Quakers, now gave themselves earnestly to
works of defense. They surrounded Bethlehem by a strong
stockade, procured a large supply of arms and ammunition ;
and even collected stones in their houses for the women to
throw upon the heads of assailants.

5. Neither the presence of the enemy nor the inclemency
of the season could interpose insurmountable obstacles to the
deliberate purposes of Franklin. In the beginning of January,

3. What was he prevailed on to do ? Who aided Franklin? How
did he aid his father?

4. What action did the Moravians take?

5. How did Franklin defend the froncier? How did this chain of
forts affect the enemy ?


amid frost and rain, he began to establish his posts and to
erect forts and block-houses along the Kittatinny mountains.
The marauding parties of the French and Indians, who had
hovered on the frontier during the winter, murdering the un-
armed inhabitants and destroying the unprotected settlements,
watched in amazement the vigorous operations of Franklin's
men; and as the chain of forts, starting on the Delaware, was
drawn out around the western edge of the settled country
toward the boundary line of Maryland, the enemy sullenly
slunk away from the outposts he dared not attack, and thus
for a short time the inhabitants were relieved from the daily
fear of death.

6. The military organization of the Province grew rapidly
in numbers and strength. Franklin was sent for, and urged
to return from the outposts to aid the Assembly in framing
laws and providing for the support of the militia; having
transferred his command to Colonel Clapham, a New Eng-
land officer, who had learned by experience how to fight In-
dians, he proceeded to Philadelphia. Twelve hundred men,
recruited in the city, were organized into a regiment, with a
battery of artillery, and Franklin was elected colonel. Vol-
unteer companies were formed in every settlement, which
were supplied with arms and ammunition, so that in a short
time Pennsylvania was in a state of better defense than any
of the other colonies. The frontier was defended by a hue
of forts well garrisoned; companies in every county were
ready to respond to the call of the governor, and the treasury
was provided with means to pay the expenses of a vigorous

6. What was the condition of the military? What was Franklin
isked to do ? Who commanded on the frontier ?


t. Notwithstanding these ample preparations, the leading
Quakers put forth earnest efforts to restore peace between the
Indians and the white people. Israel Pemberton and some
other Quakers invited a few friendly Indians to their houses,
and entered into free conversation about the condition of the
Province and the great distress brought upon the inhabitants
by war. The Quakers persuaded the Indians to go out
among their own people, and into the hostile tribes, and tell
them how earnestly their old friends, the brethren of the
Great Penn, wished them to return to their early affections
for the white people, that they might live together in peace
and happiness as in times past. These labors of mercy were
crowned with success; the Delaware and Shawanese Indians
promised to refrain from further hostilities, and the governor
revoked his declaration of war against these tribes.

8. Though hostile campaigns had been carried on for nearly
two years between the English and French settlers in Amer-
ica, a formal declaration of war between England and France
was not made until May, lt56. About the same time, also,
the British Parliament passed an act giving authority to the
German and Swiss settlers in Pennsylvania to organize a
regiment, to be commanded by officers chosen from their own
people. This was called the Royal American Regiment, and
consisted of 4000 men, divided into four battalions.

9. The British government, unfortunately, sent to America
incompetent officers to command the expeditions that had
been determined upon for the year 1*756. The enthusiasm of

7. How did the leading Quakers act? What effect had their
lahors ?

8. When was war declared between England and France? What
war was this? What act was passed by Parliament?

9. What was the character of the British officers sent to America?
How did these conduct the campaigns ? What was the result ?


the people of the colonies was met by a cold superciliousness
that destroyed it. This, added to the tardy execution of
plans, brought ignominious defeat, and ended the campaign
of the second year of the war in disgraceful disaster to the
English arms.

10. During these two years of bad management, Pennsyl-
vania, in common with other colonies, suffered many and
terrible calamities. After Braddock's defeat, the whole fron-
tier was overrun with parties of French and Indians, who
committed fearful ravages upon the defenseless inhabitants.

11. On the 18th of October, 1755, a party of French and
Indians massacred and scalped a number of inhabitants on
the Mahanoy creek, near the Great Fork of the Susquehanna,
carried off about twenty-five prisoners, and burned the settle-
ment. Upon hearing of the outrage, John Harris, and about
forty-five persons from Paxton creek, proceeded to the place,
where they found fourteen bodies shockingly mutilated.
They then went to Shamokin to inquire of the Delaware
Indians residing there who had committed the fearful mas^
sacre. Upon their return, they were fired on by a party of
Indians in ambush; four of Harris's men were killed, and
four drowned in the Susquehanna, in the attempt to escape.

12. On the 2d of November, the enemy began his work of
destruction and death at the Great Cove, Conolloways, and
Tulpehocken. The people in the Great Cove were in the
greatest distress — their houses burned, their cattle killed, and
themselves compelled to fly, without food or clothing to de-

10. How did these disasters affect the colonies?

11. What Indian outrages can you mention? When did these
occur ?

12. Where is the Great Cove? What occurred there? What other
Indian depredations can yon name ?



fend them from the cold. On the 18th, the savages extended
their depredations into Berks county, murdering and burning
all before them. On the 25th of November, the Moravian
mission station on Mahoning creek, about half a mile from
Gnadenhutten, was attacked by a party of Delaware Indians,
and the missionaries were massacred. Seven men, three
women, and one child were killed; two men, one woman,
and a boy escaped by leaping from a burning building and
hiding in the woods.

13. In December a party of 200 savages broke into North-
ampton county, beyond the Blue mountains, and murdered
upwards of a hundred of the inhabitants, burned their dwell-
ings and threatened to exterminate the Moravian settlements.
This part of the county was now in a dreadful condition, —
horror and desolation on every side ; settlements abandoned,
villages burned, men, women, and children murdered, and
their reeking bodies left unburied in the fields and woods.
Above Easton the country was nearly deserted, the people
having fled, carrying off their cattle, grain, and best house-
hold goods. The savages made few prisoners, but murdered
nearly all who fell into their hands. On the 1st of January
the village of Gnadenhutten, on the Lehigh, was attacked
and burned to ashes. It was occupied at the time by a com-
pany of "rangers;" the inhabitants having fled when the set-
tlement on the Mahoning was destroyed.

14. On the 2tth of January the savages committed several
murders along the Juniata. During the next three months
they continued their aggressions in Berks, Northampton, and
Cumberland counties ; families were murdered and their
houses and barns laid in ashes. About the 4th of April, 1 756,

13. What took place in Northampton county?

14. What occurred in the Juniata and Cumberland valleys?


McCord's fort in Conococheague was burned, twenty-seven
persons killed, and many captives taken and carried off. On
the 30th of July Fort Granville w^as attacked by a party of
French and Indians, and the garrison was forced to sur-
render. In August murders were committed in Cumberland
county, and most of the terrified inhabitants deserted their
homes. About the 20th of August a number of persons who
were attending a funeral, near the mouth of Conococheague
creek, were attacked by the savages and fifteen were killed
and scalped, and many others were wounded. On the same
day other murders were committed in the vicinity ; scouting
parties w^ere attacked, and when any of their men were cap-
tured they were killed; and thus terror and confusion filled
the whole country.

15. The settlements west of the Susquehanna had thus
been laid waste by frequent incursions of hostile Indians,
whose chief village was Kittanning, on the Alleghany river,
twenty-five miles above Fort Du Quesne. Defensive measures
had not been successful ; the settlements that had numbered
over 3000 men fit to bear arms had been totally destroyed,
and the people had been murdered, captured, or driven to the
east side of the Susquehanna.

16. Some of the Delaware chiefs who had been most favored
b}^ the white people, and had received many valuable presents,
were now the most savage enemies, and refused to join with
their tribe in the treaty of peace negotiated by the Quakers.
They attached themselves to the western Indians, under the
influence of the French, and were the most active and brutal

15. Wliat was the condition of the settlements west of the Susque-
hanna? Where was the principal village of the hostile Indians?

16. Who joilied the enemy? What did Governor Morris resolve
to do?


savages in the Province. Against these hostile bands, Gov-
ernor Morris resolved to wage aggressive war in order to try
the effect of severe chastisement on such as would not be
moved by acts of peace.

lY. On the 30th of August, Colonel Armstrong, with a
force of 300 men, was sent out to destroy the Indian settle-
ment at Kittanning. He marched from Fort Shirley, and,
early on the morning of the 8th of September, guided by the
whoop of the Indians in a war-dance, the troops came within
Bight of the village. At the close of the dance many of the
warriors laid down to sleep in a cornfield on the border of
the village. As soon as it was light enough to take aim, the
battle began; first in the cornfield, where many of the enemy
fell before they knew the character of their assailants. Colonel
Armstrong pushed forward rapidly into the village, where the
chief, Captain Jacobs, had summoned his warriors to arms
by sounding the war-whoop of the tribe.

18. There the wild savages gathered about their leader,
resolved to die rather than be captured. They took shelter in
their wigwams, defended themselves through the doors and
loopholes, and fought with fearful desperation. In the midst
of the conflict. Colonel Armstrong was severely wounded in
the shoulder; he ordered his men to set fire to the village,
and to shoot down all who refused to surrender.

19. The whole village was soon Avrapped in a sheet of
flame, but the savage warriors still kept up the fight; the
unused rifles stored in their wigwams were discharged by
the heat, and the large quantities of powder hid away in their

17. What expedition was sent against Kittanning? When did
Colonel Armstrong reach the village? How did the attack begin?

18. How did the Indians fight?

19. How was the battle conducted, and how did it end?


buildings frequently exploded, throwing the bodies of the
slain high into the air. Soon, however, the village w^as in
ashes and the last of the enemy had fallen or fled. The work
of destruction was complete, and this terrible disaster to the
boldest and most warlike band of marauders, so alarmed the
hostile Indians in the Province, that most of them fled west-
ward beyond the Ohio, and for a long time none dared renew
their depredations upon the settlements.





Capture of Fort Du Quesne. — Erection of Fort Pitt.-
Treaty at Easton.


1. In the midst of the campaign of 1756, and just when
Colonel Armstrong was about to march against the Indians
at Kittanning, Governor Morris was superseded by the arrival
of WilliaQi Denny, who had been appointed governor of Penn-
sylvania. The Assembly hailed the removal of Morris with
joy, and gave the new governor a cordial reception; invited
him to a public entertainment at the State House, and voted
him the sum of £600 to pay his personal expenses.

2. The exultations of the Assembly and the people, how-
ever, soon subsided. Governor Denny came to the Province
as the special custodian of the proprietary interests, and was

Chapter XIX. — 1. Who now became governor? How was this
change received?

2, What were Governor Denny's instructions?


instructed to veto all legislation that imposed taxes on, or in
any way assessed the proprietary estates, or diminished the
revenue, or curtailed the power and privileges of the pro-
prietaries. No money was to be raised by tax, excise, or
otherwise, in the disbursement of which, the governor was
not given equal authority with the Assembly; the paper
money was not to be increased, nor the existing issues con-
firmed, unless provision was made for the payment of the
proprietary rents in sterling money.

3. The members of the Assembly were astonished at the
language and spirit of these instructions, and inquired of the
governor whether he would enforce them. Governor Denny
replied frankly, that he could not violate them without loss
of honor and fortune. This declaration arrayed the legis-
lature and the private citizens of the Province against the
proprietaries and their deputies and agents in Pennsylvania.
The whole winter was spent in fruitless discussion. Frank-
lin, chairman of the committee of the Assembly, to whom
the subject had been referred, reviewed the new policy of the
proprietaries with great force; declaring that, under its
operation, the Colony must perish, or the people be reduced
to a state of vassalage.

4. Upon the opening of spring, the Assembly waived what
it considered the just rights of the people, and made provision
for the support of the Pennsylvania troops already in the
field, and also for the equipment of new levies.

5. The campaign of 1157 was confined to the single object
of the capture of Louisburg. Ample force was at hand, but

3. "What action was taken by the Assembly and people? What did

Online LibraryJosiah Rhinehart SypherSchool history of Pennsylvania, from the earliest settlements to the present time → online text (page 8 of 24)