Josiah Rhinehart Sypher.

School history of Pennsylvania, from the earliest settlements to the present time online

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Franklin say?

4. What did the Assembly do ?

5. What was the character and result of the campaign of 1757?


the expedition, led by the same tardy officers who had failed
the year before, was destined to defeat; and another summer
of disaster was added to the two already noted.

6. The British government, after three years of blunder
and failure, became fully aroused; the ministry now saw
that greater vigor must be infused into the campaigns in
America, or the colonies must be abandoned to the enemy.
The provincial forces were not discouraged by the strength
of the foe, but were heartily sick of the gross mismanagement
inflicted upon them by the British ministry. The American
officers and people felt themselves fully able, if left to their
own resources, to defend their homes against the French and
Indians; but the arrogance of the English officers, added to
their utter unskillfulness in conducting campaigns, had greatly
oppressed and embarrassed the colonists.

t. In this hour of gloom, William Pitt, by far the ablest
statesman in England, was called to the control of public
affairs. He came into power, as prime minister, in June, lt5t.
Energy and sound judgment wcr.e at once infused into every
department of the government. Loudon, the tardy com-
mander in America, was recalled, and Abercrombie was ap-
pointed general-in-chief; 12,000 English troops, and a large
fleet under the command of Admiral Boscawen, were sent
over to aid the provincial forces. Pitt addressed stirring
letters to the several colonies, and asked them to raise
20,000 men, promising, in the name of the British govern-
ment, to supply arms, tents, a'nd provisions; he also promised
to repay the money that would be expended in recruiting
and clothing the troops.

6. What was the feeling in England? What in America?

7. Who was made Prime Minister ? What was Pitt ? What was
done? How many troops were raised?


8. The vigorous policy foreshadowed, and the liberal offers
transmitted through these letters, electrified every heart and
roused the people in every colony to the greatest activity.
New England immediately raised 15,000 men; New York,
2700; New Jersey, 1000; Pennsylvania, 3000; and Vir-
ginia, 2000; other colonies in the South reported smaller
numbers; but so great was the excitement, that, in May, 1758,
when Abercrombie took command of the army, he found over
50,000 troops ready to obey his orders.

9. The plan of the campaign was also comprehensive.
Louisburg, Ticonderoga and Fort Du Quesne were the prin-
cipal points against which powerful expeditions were to be
sent. The first blow was directed against Louisburg, a place
so strong that it had been styled the Gibraltar of America.
Forty armed vessels and a land force of 12,000 men in-
vested the town early in June, and, after a siege of
almost fifty days, during which all the French shipping in
the harbor had been destroyed, compelled the enemy to

10. The expedition against Ticonderoga did not succeed in
taking the fort, but inflicted severe punishment on the French
by defeating them in a vigorous battle, and by capturing their
naval station and depot of supplies at Frontenac.

11. The army in Pennsylvania, sent against Fort Du
Quesne, was commanded by General Forbes, and was com-

8. How did this policy affect the colonists ?

9. What was the plan of campaign ? "Where was the first blow
directed ? "What was the result ?

10. What did the expedition against Ticonderoga do ?

11. What campaign was undertaken in Pennsylvania? Who com-
manded ? How many troops had General Forbes ? How were the
troops recruited, and what was done to insure success?


posed of 3050 Pennsylvanians, 2600 Yirginians, 1200 High-
landers from the British army, and 1000 teamsters, sutlers,
and camp followers. Animated by the letter from Pitt, the
Assembly and people of the Province had entered actively
upon preparations for this campaign. To encourage enlist-
ments a bounty of five pounds was paid to recruits, and one
pound to the recruiting officer. Wagons were provided for
the troops; the roads were improved; a battalion of cavalry
was organized and equipped, and the sum of £100,000 was
appropriated to defray the expenses of establishing quarters
and providing supplies for the army.

12. General Forbes collected his army at Carlisle, and
began his march westward about the middle of July, 1758.
As soon as the main army reached Raystown, Colonel
Bouquet marched forward, with a force of 5500 men, a dis-
tance of fifty miles, to Loyalhanna. The remainder of the
army was detained until September, waiting for the arrival
of the Virginia troops, and for military stores.

13. Colonel Bouquet, who remained at Loyalhanna, sent
out a detachment of 800 men, under Major Grant, to recon-'
noiter the country towards the French fort. While resting
on a hill, now named Grant's Hill, on the 14th of Sep-
tember, the party was suddenly surrounded and attacked by
the enemy. A sharp battle was fought, wherein about 300
men were lost, and Major Grant himself was taken prisoner.
The remainder of the detachment fled back to the camp in
great haste and confusion.

14. Nearly a month after this, on the 11th of October, a

12. "Where did Forbes collect his army? When did he begin his
march ? How did the army march ?

13. What battle was fought?

14. What occurred a month later?


force of 1200 French a.nd 200 Indians, commanded b}^ De
Yetri, assailed Colonel Bouquet in bis camp. Tbey found
tbe colonel and bis men prepared to receive them ; a severe
battle ensued, which lasted four hours, when the enemy was
repulsed and compelled to withdraw, having suffered great
loss. The attack was renewed in the night, and the assail-
ants were again defeated 5 after which they returned to their

15. On the 23d, General Forbes, with the main force, left
Raystown, and on the 8th of November reached Loyalhanna.
The ill health, pride, and want of skill in the commander
caused delays and embarrassments that almost proved fatal
to the expedition. The approach of winter and the dis-
couragement of the troops finally alarmed the general, and
he called a council of war in order to decide whether the
expedition should be abandoned. Fortunately, on the 12th
of the month, Colonel Washington, who was out with a
scouting party, encountered a small body of the enemy, which
he attacked and dispersed, killing one man and capturing
three. From the prisoners he learned that the Indian allies
of the French had gone home, and that the garrison at Fort
Du Quesne did not exceed 500 men.

16. This information induced General Forbes to advance
immediately upon the enemy. Against the advice of Wash-
ington and other provincial officers, he neglected the road cut
by Braddock, and delayed the progress of his army to con-
struct new roads in more difficult mountain passes, and
thereby still further endangered the success of the campaign.

15. When did General Forbes advance ? What delayed the expe-
dition ? What fortunate circumstances occurred ? When before this
had Washington distinguished himself?

16. How did this information affect the campaign? What blunder
was committed?


IT. When the army arrived within a few days' march of
the fort, Washington advanced rapidly with his regiment,
while the army followed more slowly. The garrison having
been demoralized by the disasters to the French on the north-
ern frontier, and by the exaggerated accounts of the Indian
scouts, was unwilling to withstand the assault of the ap-
proaching army; therefore, on the 24th of November, the
men set fire to the fort and the buildings within and about it,
and fled down the Ohio river.

18. The Virginia troops, under Washington, took posses-
sion on the following day. The British flag was hoisted over
the ruins ; orders were given to rebuild the fort, larger and
stronger than it had been, and to name it Fort Pitt, in honor
of the distinguished English statesman by whose vigorous
policy the enemy had been expelled from his strongholds in

19. While the colonics wore prosecuting the war against
the foreign enemies with great vigor, they were also zealous
in their efforts to re-establish peaceful relations with the In-
dians. In October, 1758, a convention was held at Easton,
which lasted twenty-one days. The governors of Pennsyl-
vania and New Jersey, attended by members of their legis-
latures and many citizens, mostly Quakers, were present to
represent the interests of the settlers; the Indians were
represented by chiefs and deputies from fifteen different
tribes, accompanied by many warriors with their women and
children. After a long and full discussion of all matters in

17. How was the advance conducted? What did the garrison do?
When was Fort Du Quesne destroyed ?

18. What occurred after the evacuation by the French ? What
year was this ?

19. What Indian council was held this year ? What year of the
war was this ? How did it end ?


dispute, the points of diiference were satisfactorily settled,
and a treaty of peace was agreed upon and signed by the
delegates. Thus, at the end of the fourth year of the war,
the English armies were victorious in the field, and the power
of diplomacy was triumphant in the Assembly.

20. After these exciting and successful campaigns, Penn-
S3dvania enjoyed comparative quiet. Franklin, who had been
sent to London to represent the cause of the people against
the assumptions of the proprietaries, had made known, by peti'
tions and through the public journals, the true condition ol
affairs in the Province ; he had justly pointed out the mis-
takes of the proprietary government, and had recited the
grievances of the people. After much delay and tedious dis-
cussion, he obtained the royal sanction to a bill taxing the
proprietary estates, and granting and confirming all that the
Assembly had claimed as the just rights of the people. Gov-
ernor Denny had been forced to submit to the popular will, •
and to sanction bills objectionable to the proprietaries, and
thereby incurred their displeasure, and was superseded, in
October, 1759, by James Hamilton, who had once before
been governor of the Province.

21. The success of the military campaign in the north*

* The British ministry, led on by the energetic spirit of Pitt, sent
powerful armies into Canada early in the spring of 1759. The French
capitals and strongholds, Quebec and Montreal, were besieged, and
the forts at Niagara and on Lake Champlain were attacked by ar-
mies confident of victory. At the close of the campaign, Montreal
alone remained in the possession of the French ; Quebec and all the

20. What did Franklin obtain? "\Yho was appointed governor?
"When had Hamilton been governor?

21. What brought peace to Pennsylvania? What was the cam-
paign in the north ? What war was thus ended ?



brought peace and safety to Pennsylvania. The fugitive
farmers, who had been robbed and driven from their homes,
now returned to their work, and by skillful industry soon
re-established themselves in comfortable dwellings, and from
their well-cultivated fields again gathered rich harvests.

22. At the close of the war, when the people were strug-
gling under heavy taxes and suffering from the loss of prop-
erty, the Assembly, with the hearty approval of their generous
constituents, sent, from the exhausted treasury, £1500 to the
unfortunate inhabitants of Boston, in Massachusetts, who
had lost their property in a great fire, w^iich had destroyed a
considerable portion of the town.

forts on the lakes had fallen. In the spring of 17G0 the work of
conquest was resumed, and in September of that year, Montreal was
forced to capitulate, and with it all the fortifications, ships, and mu-
nitions of war in Canada were surrendered to the English. This
was the last cruirhing blow of the series of successes that demolished
the power of Trance on the Western continent. Thus ended the
French and Indian war. Three years later, a treaty, signed at Paris,
ceded to Great Britain all that portion of North America that once
belonged to the French, excepting only a portion of Louisiana, which
was ceded to Spain.

22. AYhat incident illustrates the benevolence of the people of Penn-
sylvania ?




Indian Conspiracy to exterminate the Setttements west of
the Atleghanies.

1. The soldiers in the French and Indian war had scarcely
received their discharges from service, when England, having
declared war against Spain, in January, 1762, again forced
the colonies to call out troops for their own defense. The
legislature of Pennsylvania appropriated money, and pro-
vided for the erection of batteries on the Delaware. A fort
was built on Mud Island, at the confluence of the Delaware
and Schuylkill rivers; but fortunately the war ended in
November of the same year, and the troops of the Province
were not called into service.

2. The people of Pennsylvania were now in the enjoyment
of peace. The Indians within the territory of the Province

Chapter XX. — 1. "What war again disturbed the colonies? What
military preparations where then made ?

2. What was the condition of affairs in the Province? What was
the character of the Indians ?


had been controlled by a mild and generous policy until,
deluded by the French, they began their savage warfare, and
thereby invoked harsh treatment. When the war had ceased,
and all the French posts had been surrendered, the Indians
were easily won back to their peaceful and friendly relations.
But the cunning savages did not forget that after every dis-
turbance of the public peace, came a convention, a treaty,
and valuable presents; and that even by threatening hostili-
ties they often forced money, blankets, and trinkets from the
peace-loving inhabitants. It therefore required slight induce-
ment to convert these fickle friends into subtle enemies.

3. In It 63, the tribes that had been the allies of the
French, joined by the Shawauese of Pennsylvania, formed a
conspiracy to drive the English settlers from the country
west of the Alleghanies. The confederation was led by
Pontiac, a sagacious and defiant chief of the Ottawas. He
laid his plans, and conducted his movements with so much
secrecy, that the commandant of the western forts had no
suspicion of his hostile purposes until the first blow had been
struck. So sudden and powerful was the attack, that in. less
than two weeks all the posts west of the mountains, except
Fort Pitt, Niagara, and Detroit, had fallen into the hands of
the enemy.

4. The forts and trading posts in Pennsylvania, in the
security of peace, were garrisoned by small parties, ineffi-
ciently armed, and wholly unprepared to make effectual re-
sistance against the vigorous assaults of an enemy. The
traders at the outposts Avere plundered and massacred; forts

3. "What conspiracy was formed? "Who was the leader? How did
he conduct his movements? What occurred ?

4. What was the condition of the military stations in Pennsyl-
vania? What took place ? ^


Le Boeuf, Yeiiango, and Presque Isle were captured and their
garrisons murdered, and the whole frontier of the Province
was overrun by scalping parties, leaving death and destruc-
tion wherever they went.

5. Fort Pitt was entirely surrounded and cut off from com-
munication with the government, and the whole country west
of Shippensburg was devastated by the fierce barbarians.
The Indians set fire to houses, barns, stacks of hay and
grain, and everything that was combustible. The wretched
inhabitants, in their beds at night, or in their fields and work-
shops, or quietly taking their meals, were suddenly captured,
and massacred with the most savage cruelty. Others fled
to the wilderness,, where they endured untold hardships.
Overwhelmed by sorrow, without shelter or proper clothing,
or means of transportation, the men were borne down by
fainting women and weeping children, all hurrying away,
under the most distressing difficulties, to find some place of

6. The inhabitants of Shippensburg and Carlisle generously
opened their houses, and supplied food to their afflicted
brethren. The streets of these towns were filled with mis-
erable refugees, who had been suddenly reduced to beggary
and despair. Along the Susquehanna, for many miles on
both sides of the river, families, with their cattle and their
goods, sought shelter in the woods, the towns being already
overcrowded. The citizens of Philadelphia, and of all the
towns and counties out of the reach of the enem}^, collected
money and provisions and sent them to the suffering people.

7. The military force of the Province had been reduced to

5. Describe the condition of the country west of Shippensburg?
"Where is Shippensburg?

6. "What did the people do to relieve their afflicted neighbors?



a very small number during the short reign of peace ; but
when the fearful report of the sudden and savage attacks on
the frontier settlements flew from post to post and from vil-
lage to village, the most intense excitement filled every com-
munity. The people rushed to arms, formed companies, and
organized squads of men for aggressive campaigns and for
home protection.

8. In August, a company of volunteers set out from Lan-
caster, and while marching up the Susquehanna met a party
of Indians at Muncy creek, who were approaching the fron-
tier. The Lancaster men gave battle, and after a sharp fight
of half an hour compelled the savages to fly. The Indians
were reinforced next day, and twice renewed the battle,
but were again defeated. Colonel Armstrong organized a
strong force at Shippensburg, and on the 30th of September
marched out from Fort Shirley in search of the enemy. He
came suddenly upon the Indian village Myonaghquia, which
he destroyed ; the inhabitants fled, leaving everything to the
captors — even their dinners, hot on their wooden plates. Col-
onel Armstrong proceeded to Great Island, in the Susque-
hanna, where he also destroyed a large quantity of grain and
other provisions belonging to the Indians.

9. The warriors in the west laid siege to Fort Pitt; post-
ing themselves under the banks of the Alleghany and Monon-
gahela rivers, they poured upon the garrison an incessant
shower of musketry and fire arrows. But the garrison, com-
manded by Captain Ewyer, was both patient and courageous,

7. "What was the condition of the military organization?

8. "What troops marched against the Indians, and what occurred?

9. What did the warriors in the west do? Who was sent to relieve
Fort Pitt? W^hat do you know of Colonel Bouquet? When and
where did he begin his march?


and made a heroic and resolute defense. Colonel Bouquet,
who had accompanied General Forbes against Fort Du
Quesne, was now sent with an army to relieve Fort Pitt.
He began his march in July, but was detained at Carhsle,
awaiting provisions and transportation, which, in the confu-
sion and terror that prevailed on the border, were collected
slowly and with great difficulty.

10. Fort Ligonier, situated beyond the Alleghany mount-
ains, contained a large supply of military stores, guarded by
a weak garrison. Colonel Bouquet's first object was to re-
lieve this post, which was also besieged. For this purpose,
he sent out a party of 30 men, which reached the garrison
after a slight skirmish with the enemy, who discovered the
troops just as they were entering the fort. They threw them-
selves behind the stockades, and then, joined by their friends,
successfully repulsed the assailants.

11. The little army under Colonel Bouquet, numbering
only about 500 men, having left the wagons and heavy stores
at Ligonier, proceeded westward, carrying its provisions on
pack horses. Before it, at Turtle creek, lay a dangerous de-
file several miles in length, guarded on both sides by high
and craggy hills. The commander intended to go through
this narrow pass by a forced march, on the night of the 14th
of August. The enemy, who had closely watched his move-
ments, abandoned the siege of Fort Pitt, and marched east-
ward to meet and attack the advancing troops.

12. When Colonel Bouquet's army arrived within half a

10. "What was Bouquet's first object? Sow did he do this? "Where
is Ligonier?

11. What was the strength of Bouquet's army ? How did it march ?
What was before it ? How did the commander intend to pass this
defile? What did the enemy do ?


mile of the defile, the advance guard was attacked, but being
firmly supported, beat back the enemy. Other bodies of
Indians showed themselves, and a general and vigorous en-
gagement began. The Indians came in on both flanks, and
speedily surrounded the little army on every side, pouring
down a destructive fire from every point of attack. Bouquet's
troops were veterans, and stood firm under the most trying
circumstances; by successive charges they drove the savages
from place to place, but gained no decisive advantage ; for as
fast as the enemy was dislodged from one position he ap-
peared in another; and thus, when night came, though the
Indians had been driven from post to post by fixed bayonets,
they still surrounded the camp.

13. The troops bivouacked on the battle-ground; placing
their supplies and their wounded in the center, they formed
themselves in a circle surrounding these, and in this manner
passed a wakeful and anxious night. At early dawn they
were aroused by the shouts and yells of the foes, who, not
500 yards distant, encircled the camp and endeavored to
terrify the men by their numbers and ferocity. At daylight
the battle was renewed, and waged more savagely than be-
fore, but without definite advantage on either side. The
troops were suffering severely from the want of water, but
they were unable to obtain it. A change of position without
abandoning their Avounded comrades and their provisions
was impossible.

14. Fortunately for the heroic defenders, they were com-
manded by a courageous and an accomplished soldier. Colonel

12. What occurred? How was the battle conducted?

13. How did the troops pass the night? What took place in the
morning? What was the condition of the troops?

14. What did Bouquet know? What did he resolve?


Bouquet knew that if he attempted to retreat his army would
be cut to pieces ; and if he continued the battle under an un-
ceasing showier of bullets and arrows from a concealed enemy,
his little force must soon melt away. He resolved, therefore,
to bring the foe to a close and mortal combat, from which he
could not escape to renew at pleasure. For this purpose he
contrived the following stratagem:

15. The troops were still formed in a circle as they had
passed the night. He ordered two companies to fall back
within the circle, and sent other troops to fill their places by
opening the line on the right and left.

"A company of infantry and one of grenadiers were placed
in ambush, to support the two that moved on a feigned
retreat. The Indians fell into the snare. Mistaking these
movements for a real retreat, they abandoned the woods
which covered them, advancing intrepidly, but without order,
pouring in a galling fire as they came. At the moment
when they sent up the savage yell, as a signal of victory,
the retreating companies suddenly turned upon them from a
part of the hill where they had been concealed, and fell
furiously on the enemy's right flank. The Indians resolutely
resisted, but on the second charge, unable to sustain them-
selves, against disciplined veterans, gave way and fled, leav-
ing many dead upon the ground. At this instant the troops
in ambush gave their full fire, and the four companies united
in the pursuit until the enemy was totally dispersed; the
victory was complete, and thereafter the road to Fort Pitt
w^as unobstructed."

16. One of the main objects of the expedition, however,

15. How were the troops formed? What order was given? "What
followed ?


was defeated by the destruction of so many horses and
wagons, that it was impossible to carry forward the supplies
for the garrison. A large quantity of provisions was there-

Online LibraryJosiah Rhinehart SypherSchool history of Pennsylvania, from the earliest settlements to the present time → online text (page 9 of 24)