Josiah T Marshall.

The farmers and emigrants complete guide : or, A hand book, with copious hints, recipes, and tables designed for the farmer and emigrant online

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quite dry, this will take the water-colors very kindly.

When we reflect upon the great importance of cleanliness
in our dwellings, the value of painting, both in oil and in
distemper, should appear striking.



424 THE FARMER'S AND

SUBSTITUTE FOR SIZE.

A veiy good substitute for size can be prepared from
potatoes. Make starch from the potatoes in the usual
manner, mix the whiting and water to the proper consist-
ence, and add the starch. This has the advantage of
being wholly without smell, and is also beautifully
white. It forms an excellent material for whitening ceil-
ings. It may be observed that, as whiting is only washed
chalk, the latter, pounded very fine, may be made shift
with, when whiting cannot be procured.

MILK PAINT.

A paint has been used in Europe with success, made
from milk and lime, that dries quicker than oil paint, and
has no smell. It is made in the following manner : Take
fresh curds, and bruise the lumps on a grinding-stone, or
in an earthen pan, or mortar, with a spatula or strong spoon.
Then put them into a pot with an equal quantity of lime,
well slacked with water, to make it just thick enough to
be kneaded. Stir this mixture without adding more water,
and a white-colored fluid will soon be obtained, which will
serve as a paint. It may be laid on with a brush with as
much ease as varnish, and it dries very speedily. It must
however be used the same day it is made, for if kept till
next day it will be too thick : consequently no more must
be mixed up atone time than can be laid on in a day. If
any color be required, any of the ochres, as yellow ochre,
or red ochre, or umber, may be mixed with it in any pro-
portion. Prussian blue would be changed by the lime.
Two coats of this paint will be sufficient, and when quite
dry, it may be polished with a piece of woollen cloth, or
similar substance, and it will become as bright as varnish.
It will only do for inside work ; but it will last longer if
varnished over with white of egg after it has been polished.



425

The following recipe for milk paint is given in " Smith's
A.rt of House-painting." Take of skim-milk, nearly
two quarts ; of fresh-slacked lime, about six ounces and
a half; of linseed oil four ounces, and of whiting three
pounds ; put the lime into a stone vessel, and pour upon
it a sufficient quantity ofmilktoform a mixture resembling
thin cream ; then add the oil, a little at a time, stirring it
with a small spatula ; the remaining milk is then to be
added, and lastly the whiting. The milk must on no ac-
count be sour. Slake the lime by dipping the pieces in
water, out of which it is to be immediately taken, and left
to slack in the air. For fine white paint, the oil of cara-
away is the best, because colorless ; but with ochres, the
commonest oils maybe used. The oil, when mixed with
the milk and lime, entirely disappears, and is totally dis-
solved by the lime, forming a calcareous soap. The
whiting or ochre is to be gently crumbled on the surface
of the fluid, which it gradually imbibes, and at last sinks :
at this period it must be well stirred in. This paint may
be colored like distemper, or size-color, with levigated
charcoal, yellow ochre, etc., and used in the same manner.
The quantity here prescribed is sufficient to cover twenty
square yards with the first coat, and will cost about three,
half- pence a yard. The same paint will do for out-door
work, by the addition of two ounces of slacked lime, two
ounces of linseed oil, and two ounces of white Burgundy
pitch : the pitch to be melted in a gentle heat with the oil,
and then added to the smooth mixture of the milk and lime.
In cold weather it must be mixed warm, to facilitate its
incorporation with the milk.

MENDING CHINA.

When holes are required to be drilled in china or earth-
enware for the purpose of riveting it when broken, procure
a three-cornered file, and harden it completely by making



426 THE FARMER'S AND

the end red-hot, and plunging it into cold water ; then
grind the point quite sharp on a grindstone, and afterward
on an oil stone. Then, with the point of this tool, pick
repeatedly on the spot to be bored, taking care not to use
too much violence, lest the object should break. In a
short time, or in a few minutes, by a continuance of the
operation, a small conical piece will be forced out, not
bigger than a pin's head, and the hole may afterward be
widened, by introducing the point, and working the file
round.

The best cement for broken china or glass, is that sold
under the name of the diamond cement, which is color-
less, and resists moisture. This is made by soaking
isinglass in water till it is soft, and then dissolving it in
proof spirit. Add to this a little gum ammoniac, or gal-
banum and mastic, both dissolved in as little alcohol as
possible. When the cement is to be used, it must be
gently liquefied, by placing the phial containing it in
boiling water. The phial must be well closed by^a good
cork, not by a glass stopper, as this may become fixed.
It is applied to the broken edges with a camel's-hair pencil.

When the objects are not to be exposed to moisture,
white of egg alone, or mixed with finely-sifted quicklime
will answer pretty well. Shell-lac, dissolved in spirits of
wine, is better.

A very strong cement for earthenware is made by boil-
ing slices of skim-milk cheese with water, into a paste,
and then grinding it with quicklime in a marble mortar,
or on a slab with a mallet.

CUTTING GLASS.

Panes, or flat pieces of glass, may be divided, when a
glazier's diamond is not at hand, by making a notch with
a file, and carrying a piece of hot charcoal in the line in
which it is wished the fracture should proceed. The



427

charcoal must be kept alive with the breath. A red-hot
iron will also do.

VARIETIES OF CHEESE.

Cheshire Cheese. This cheese is famous for its rich
quality and fine piquant flavor. It is made of entire new
milk, the cream not being taken off. The cheeses are
generally of very large size, usually about sixty pounds
weight, and some have been made of one, or even two,
hundred weight. Each cheese is usually made of the
produce of one day's milking, from herds of from one to
two hundred cows, who feed in rich pastures on some of
the finest land in England. Their excellence must be
attributed to the goodness of the milk, their size and age,
and the skill employed in their manufacture. The color
is not entirely natural ; but a yellow tint is given by
arnotto, marigolds, or carrots. It is said, that some in-
crease the richness and mellowness of the cheese by add-
ing beef-suet, or any other wholesome and sweet fat well
clarified, which is poured into and mixed with the curd.

Gloucester Cheese is much milder in its taste than the
Cheshire. There are two kinds of Gloucester cheese,
single and double. Single Gloucester is made of skim-
milk, or of the milk deprived of half the cream ; ofcou^s
it is not very rich, but is often of good flavor. Double
Gloucester is a cheese that pleases almost every palate ;
it is made of the whole milk and cream, and is a fat cheese,
usually the kind employed for toasting, though the single
often toasts very well. These cheeses are made of vari-
ous sizes, the single generally eight to the cwt., and very
thin, and the double four to the cwt., and at least twice as
thick. As the two kinds sometimes resemble each other
considerably, some honest farmers stamp the figure of a
heart upon the single Gloucester, to distinguish it from the
double. The true characteristics of Gloucester cheese



428 THE FARMER'S AND

consist in its great richness, together with the mildness of
its flavor, and that smooth, waxy texture which makes it
cut, even in thin slices, without crumbing as Cheshire
cheese is apt to do. Its oily matter is retained in toasting,
by softening without being burned.

Stilton Cheese. This, from its peculiar richness and
flavor, has been called the Parmesan of England. Its
name is derived from having been the first made at Stilton
in Leicestershire, though it is now manufactured very
generally throughout the counties of Cambridge, Hun-
tingdon, Rutland, and Northampton. It is made by adding
the cream of one day to the entire milk of the next. The
cheeses are all of a size, from six to eight pounds weight,
and are of a cylindrical form, made in a deep vat, and are
not considered to be sufficiently mellow until they are two
years old, nor ripe until they exhibit spots of blue in the
interior, marking the commencement of decay. It is said
that some keep them in warm damp cellars to accelerate
the ripening. The blue part is of a peculiar nature, dif
ferent, it is said, from the common blue mould of cheese.
The decay should not be advanced beyond a certain point.
A variety of Stilton, but not so rich or of so fine a flavoi
as the last, is made in a net, and of the form of a pine
cone, the net impressing lines on its surface.

Cottenham Cheese, made near a town of that name in
Cambridgeshire, is a thicker kind of cream cheese than
Stilton. Its superior delicacy and flavor are attributed to
the fragant herbage on the commons where the cows are
pastured.

Sage Cheese, called also green cheese, is made chiefly
in the vales of Gloucester and Wiltshire, by coloring
some curd with bruised sage, marigold leaves and parsley,
and mixing this with some uncolored curd ; the whole is
then made into a cheese, which, of course, exhibits a mot-
tled appearance.



429

Among the Romans, it was a practice to flavor cheese
with thyme and other sweet herbs ; and this custom was
continued during the middle ages. We are told, that the
Emperor Charlemange, arriving at a bishop's palace on a
fast day, could get nothing but bread and cheese. The
prelate, observing the king picking out with his knife small
specks, which he mistook for impurities in the cheese, in-
formed his guest that they were parsley seeds. The mon-
arch tasted them and liked them so much, that he requested
the prelate to send him an annual supply of cheese pre-
pared in this manner.

Chedder Cheese is not exclusively made at the village
of Chedder, in the Mendip Hills, Somersetshire. A great
deal of the same kind is also made round Bridgewater,
and in the marshes round Glastonbury. The cheese is
peculiar, much resembling Parmesan ; it has a very
agreeable taste and flavor, and has a spongy appearance,
the eyes being filled with a limpid and rich, but not ran-
cid, oil. The cheeses are generally large. But little of
the prime Chedder cheese is made, that generally sold
for it not being genuine, and is inferior.

Brickbat Cheese. There is nothing remarkable in this
except its form. It is made by turning with rennet a
mixture of cream and new milk. The curd is put into a
wooden vessel, the shape of a brick, and is then pressed
and dried the usual way. It is best made in September,
and is ready in six months.

Dunlop Cheese is famous in Scotland : it is so called
from the parish of Dunlop in Ayrshire, where it was first
or best made, and where the pastures are very rich ; but
it is now manufactured in other parts of Ayrshire. The
best is made entirely from new milk, and it has a pecul-
iarly mild and rich taste ; but there is nothing remarkable
in the manner of making it.

In some parts of England they never churn the milk,



430

but only the cream ; consequently they make little but-
ter-milk, because the servants will not eat this, though
they have no objection to skim-milk. In Scotland and
Ireland, on the contrary, they churn all the milk, and
have of course much butter-milk, which is much relished
there.

In the Highlands of Scotland, they make a cheese for
the table of a very high gout, an almost Tartarian pre-
paration, by allowing the milk to become sour, and to
coagulate of itself, which gives a flavor even more pun-
gent than that of goat's-milk cheese.

What is called in London new cheese, is made chiefly in
Lincolnshire, and is either made all of cream, or, like the
Stilton, by adding the cream of one day's milking to the
milk that comes immediately from the cow : they are ex-
tremely thin, and are compressed gently two or three
times, turned for a few days, and then sent to be disposed
of to be eaten new with radishes, salad, etc. It may be
made in the following manner : Warm some cream, add
rennet in the proportion of a spoonful to a pint, or more
if necessary. Put the curd into a sieve, having a cloth
at the bottom ; when it has remained twenty- four hours,
transfer it to a cheese vat, and cover it with a wet cloth
and board ; in about two hours it may be used.

Skim-mi/k Cheese. Cheese made from curd of skim-
milk, when all the cream has been separated, has in
it no butyraceous matter, but is the caseous substance
in a pure state, resembling very nearly white of eggs, or
albumen, or perhaps more nearly the gluton of wheat.
This cheese from skim-milk only, is made in th^se dis-
tricts of England where butter is the chief object of the
dairy-man, as in Essex and Suffolk. What is made in
England of this kind has scarcely any flavor, and dries
almost as hard as a horn, but it is as digestible as the
softer cheese, though not very palatable. It is, however,



THE EMIGRANT'S HAND-BOOK. 431

useful as part of ship stores, being less liable to spoil on
a sea voyage than richer cheese, particularly in a warm
climate ; on the subject of skim-milk cheese Dr. Anderson,
celebrated for his writings on agriculture, observes, that it
is an erroneous idea to suppose that the agreeable taste of
cheese depends solely upon the quantity of oily or fat mat-
ter it may contain. Parmesan cheese is made of skim-
milk ; so are the Dutch cheeses, which many consider as
very pleasant tasted. He has seen cheese made of skim-
milk, that ate exactly like the finest cream cheese ;
and he considers that what is called richness in cheese,
depends as much upon the particular mode in which they
are manufactured, as upon the materials of which cheese
consists. In confirmation of this opinion he remarks, that
though the taste of Double Gloucester differs so much
from Cheshire cheese, yet they are both made from the
same kind of milk.

Parmesan Cheese. This most celebrated of all cheese
is made in the duchy of Parma and Piacenza, and in va-
rious parts of Lombard y : at present, the district of Lpdi
is in high repute for it. It was formerly supposed to be
made from goat's milk, and the high flavor which it has,
is supposed by some to be owing to the rich herbage of
the meadows of the Po, where the cows are pastured ; and
by others, solely to the process by which it is manufac-
tured, a particular account of which may be seen in
Cadell's "Journey in Italy, 1818." Half the milk has
stood sixteen or seventeen hours, and the other half has
stood only six. The milk is heated and coagulated in a
cauldron ; and without being taken out of the cauldron,
the curd is broken very small by an implement consisting
of a stick with cross wires ; it is again heated, or rather
scalded, till the curd, now a deposition from the whey,
has attained a considerable degree of firmness ; it is then
taken out, drained, salted, and pressed ; and in forty days



432

it is fit to put into the cheese loft. The Parmesan is kept
for three or four years, and none is carried to market till
it is at least six months old. Another account of the
manner of making it is to be found in the seventh vol. of
the Bath Society's papers, and in the second vol. of Mr.
Arthur Young's " Travels in France."

Dutch Cheese. In Holland they coagulate their milk
with muriatic acid instead of rennet, which occasions that
pungent taste peculiar to this cheese, and preserves it
from mites. The Gonda is most celebrated, which is
made with extraordinary care. A detailed description of
the mode of making it is in the Jour. Agri. des Pays
Bas ; and is quoted in the excellent work by Margaret
Dodds. The best Dutch cheese is made in the environs
of Leyden, at Eidam and Friezland, where also a very
lage quantity is manufactured for England, of skim-
milk, chiefly for sea stores. In the Texel, they make
cheese from ewes' milk ; a good deal of Dutch cheese,
of a round form, comes now to London ; it is of a low
price, and frequently of very good quality.

Swiss Cheese. Switzerland has been long celebrated
for its cheese : several varieties of cheese are produced
there, and although made of skim milk, or partially
skim-milk, yet are they remarkable for their fine flavor,
which is partly owing to the herbage of the mountain
pastures. That denominated from Gruyere, a bailiwick
in the canton of Fribourg, is best known in England.
This is flavored by the dried herb of melilotos ojicinalis,
in powder. The cheeses weigh from forty to sixty
pounds each, and require to be kept in a damp place, and
washed frequently with white wine to preserve it from
the depredations of insects. Until of late, the manufac-
ture of this cheese was limited to a few wealthy persons :
as it is necessary for its quality that the cheese should be
very large, and that the milk should be coagulated on the



THE EMIGRANT'S HAND-BOOK. 483

day that it was taken from the cow, it was only by keep-
ing a large number of cows that the manufacture could
be carried on ; and the owner of a few cows only was una-
ble to succeed. At present, however, it appears that cheese
dairies have been established by the poor peasantry join,
ing together, and thus competing with the more wealthy.
Another excellent cheese is made at Neufchatel. The
Schabziegar cheese is made by the mountaineers of the
canton of Glarus. It has a marbled appearance and aro-
matic flavor, from the bruised leaves of the melilot. The
milk is exposed to the temperature of 46 for five or six
days, when the cream is completely formed, and is taken
off. The skim-milk is coagulated by sour milk, and
not by rennet, and the curd thus obtained is pressed
strongly in bags, and when sufficiently pressed and dried,
it is ground to powder, salted and mixed with the bruised
flowers or seeds of the melilotos officinalis, and afterward
again pressed into cheese. The entire separation of the
cream, or unctuous part of the milk, is essential. Some
Swiss is also manufactured from a mixture of ewe-milk
with that of the cow.

Westphalia Cheese is a skim-milk cheese, and is a re-
markable instance of how much the quality of the cheese
depends upon the manufacture. It is described by some
as being preferable to the Dutch, Swiss, and even Par-
mesan, cheese. The cream is allowed to remain till the
milk beneath is sub-acid ; it is then removed, and the
milk placed near a fire to coagulate. The whey is next
expressed from the curd, which is dried and crumbled be-
tween the hands. It remains for several days, until the
putrid fermentation commences ; but this is stopped by
kneading it into balls with caraways, salt, butter, pound-
ed pepper, and cloves. Sometimes these balls, or little
cheeses, are hung up in the smoke of a wood fire.

Cheese from milk and potatoes, is manufactured in
19



434

Thuiingia and Saxony. The best potatoes are half
dressed in steam, peeled, and reduced to a pulp. Five
pounds of this are mixed with from one to ten pounds of
sweet curd, and kneaded together, some salt being added :
after lying for a few days, this is again kneaded, and
then pressed into little baskets, where the superfluous
moisture drains off; the cheese is then formed into balls,
and then dried in the shade. These cheeses keep well
in the dry, and their quality improves with age, with the
advantage that they generate no vermin ; their taste is
said to exceed the best cheese made in Holland.

Cream cheese, although so called is not properly cheese,
but is nothing more than cream dried sufficiently to be
cut with a knife. To make it, a quantity of good sweet
cream is put into a cheese vat, with green rushes sewed
together on purpose, at the bottom of the vat, which must
have a sufficient number of holes to let the whey which
drains off, pass freely away. On the top of this cheese
are likewise laid rushes, or long grass of the Indian corn,
in the same manner as at the bottom, in order to allow it
to be turned without being handled. It is usual to make
these cheeses from one inch, to one inch and a half in
thickness. The thinner they are made, the sooner they
are ready. It is kept in a warm place to sweat and ri-
pen ; but extremes of heat or cold are injurious, and some
judgment must be used in managing it.

SAGE.

There are several sorts, as the red, the green, the small
leaved, and the broad-loaved balsamic. Its chief use in
cookery is in stuffings and sauces, to correct the too great
lusciousness of strong meats, as goose, duck, or pork : its
taste is warm, bitterish and aromatic, qualities which de-
pend upon an essential oil. The red has the most agreeable
and fullest flavor for this purpose ; the green is the next;



.VARSITY



THE EMIGRANT'S HAND BOOK. 435

the two last are used in medicine. Sage has had great
reputation formerly, on account of its medicinal qualities;
but at present, these do not appear to be much regarded.
It possesses, however, some aromatic and astringent pow-
ers ; and a decoction, or sage tea, is found serviceable in
debility of the stomach, and in nervous cases. The Chinese
sometiti.es prefer it, it is said, to their own tea. It is useful
as a gargle in sore throat, and it is grateful and cooling.
The broad-leaved balsamic species is the most effiacious
for its medical qualities, and as a tea herb. It is also in-
troduced into cheese.

MINT.

There are several species of mint that grow wild, found
chiefly in low moist situations, and they are likewise cul-
tivated. They are all distinguished by a well known and
peculiar aromatic flavor, and some are employed in culi-
nary preparations, others yield a highly odoriferous and
pungent essential oil by distillation. None of them are
in the least poisonous ; but they are very different both in
appearance and their uses.

Spearmint. This is the common mint cultivated in our
gardens, and employed in different processes of cookery,
as having the most agreeable flavor ; the leaves are
sometimes boiled in certain dishes, and afterward with-
drawn. They likewise form an ingredient in soups, and
are sometimes used in spring salads. They are also
dried for the winter, and in this manner lose none of their
flavor. Mint is stomachic and antispasmodic, and is use-
ful in flatulencies ; these qualities probably led, independ-
ently of its agreeable flavor, to its universal use in pea
soup, in which it is a valuable ingredient.

Peppermint. This is cultivated entirely for the essen-
tial oil distilled from it. Its taste is stronger, warmer,
and more pungent than spearmint, and leaves a sort of



436 THE FARMEH'S AND

coolness on the tongue after tasting it. It yields a little
camphor, to which its taste is partly owing, and its medi-
cinal uses are well known.

Pennyroyal mint, has a warm pungent flavor, but less
agreeable than common mint. It is employed in some
particular dishes in cookery, and formerly chiefly for
medical purposes, but is now little used.

MARJORAM.

There are several species of marjoram, but that which
is preferred for cookery, and which is cultivated in our
gardens for this purpose, is the sweet marjoram, also call-
ed knotted marjoram. The leaves are dried as a season-
ing herb, having an agreeable flavor. There is also a
winter sweet marjoram, used for the same purposes. Pot
marjoram, common or wild marjoram, is found growing in
our fields. This has nearly the same flavor, but is in-
ferior, and is only used when the others are not at hand.
All these are favorite ingredients in soups, stuffings, etc.

TANSY.

Tansy grows wild, and is cultivated in gardens. Its
leaves, having a powerful aromatic bitter, are sometimes
chopped or bruised, to put into certain puddings, or the
juice alone is so employed : its use is very ancient. There
are three varieties ; the plain and curled leaved, and the
variegated

SAFFRON.

It is now chiefly employed as a coloring matter for
cheese and butter. When good saffron has a beautiful '
yellow color, and an agreeable odor, it yields its active
principle, an essential oil, to water and spirit. Dr. A. T.
Thomson, in his Materia Medica states, that it excites the



437

the nerves of the stomach, and it is in some degree nar-
cotic ; its incautious use has sometimes been attended
with dangerous consequences. It is sometimes adultera-
ted with safflower and marigolds ; but the adulteration is



Online LibraryJosiah T MarshallThe farmers and emigrants complete guide : or, A hand book, with copious hints, recipes, and tables designed for the farmer and emigrant → online text (page 27 of 33)