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fluence exerted and faithful instruction given,
too much cannot be said. Gmduates of this
school, after four years' study (many of them
having become Christians), exert a most salu-
tary influence in their heathen homes. The
good they may do cannot be estimated. The
enlarged accommodations provide for sixty

Native Education. 257

girls, but there is room for substantial aid in
various departments, which would be money
well invested. The course of study pursued
is similar to that of Inanda, out-of-door employ-
ment included.

In addition to those already referred to, and
the daily schools at each station, there are
the kraal schools, so called on account of
their being within the native villages, and at
some distance from the mission stations. For-
merly native chiefs refused to have their
children educated. A change has come over
them. They now say, '' We are too old to learn,
but our children are not ; send us teachers."
In some cases they are willing to assist in
erecting a schoolhouse, and to assume the re-
sponsibility, in part, of paying the teacher.
An instance has lately occurred of a chief's
m.iking a law that all the children of his tribe
shall be taught, the fathers to be fined ten
shillings each if they refuse to send their off-
spring to the school, and a child one shilling
if absent purposely. It is pleasant to see a
well-made and convenient building with doors
and windows, provided with benches, slates,
blackboards, and other essentials, by the side
of a kraal in a locality far away from any
missionary. The children, it is true, learn
under difficulties. Girls whose business it is
to take care of babies bring them in leather
sacks, slung on their shoulders. Herd boys
drive their flocks of goats and cattle to a hill
opposite the school, where they can watch

258 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

them and study at the same time. The
teachers are usually graduates of the semi-
naries, some of whom conduct services on the
Sabbath. When fairly started with twenty-
five pupils, a little aid is afforded by the Natal
government. All these schools are under the
supervision of missionaries, and the truth made
known in them has frequently been blessed to
the conversion of souls.

The efforts of all missionary bodies for the
education of the Natal Zulus have invariably
met with sympathy from the English authori-
ties. Officials have declared that mission work
in isolated parts of the colony has helped ma-
terially in the government of the natives. Not
only in many instances are mission reserves laid
out of tlie native locations, each one including
six thousand or more acres, but grants from an
educational fund are made to station schools.
Doubtless one reason why the government has
indorsed the labors of missionaries is the fac!
that as much as possible they have abstained
from entering the arena of politics, rigidly ad-
hering to their own appropriate work. Mr.
Robert Plant, inspector of native education, a
man eminently adapted for his post, has pro-
posed to the Educational Council a scheme
which seems wise and feasible. It provides for
the establishment of small industrial schools in
the more thickly populated parts of the native
locations, each to supply the needs of two hun-
dred and fifty children with one European and
five native teachers. The expenditure for this

Pupils op the Ixanda Seminary.

Native Education. 259

enterprise he estimates at £8,000, and regular
instruction will be provided for six thousand

It is evident that European merchants in
Natal are the gainers as educational and Chris-
tian work progresses among the natives. Rev.
James Dalzell, :m.d., a scholarl}- and able Scotch
missionaiy, who reported at a late missionary
conference that he had seen, in two years, his
native adherents multiplied a hundredfold, com-
puted that while a native kraal required only
c£2 worth of imported goods, each mission na-
tive required X20. Reckoning the Zulu church
members in the colony at four thousand, their
commercial requirements aggregate X 80,000 per
annum. So much in a pecuniary point of view
are the Natal colonists indebted to Christian

The publications of the American Mission in
the Zulu language, from the beginning to the
present time, are : the Bible entire, dictionaries,
grammars, histories (one ecclesiastical), hymn
books, arithmetics, geographies, primers, cate-
chisms, a monthly newspaper, — The Morning
Star, — and a variety of tracts. Other societies
have published books for their schools and sta-
tions, but none to such an extent as the Amer-
ican. The Zulu Bible, printed by the Amer-
ican Bible Society, answers not only for
missionaries of the American Board of Com-
missioners for Foreign Missions, but for Nor-
wegian, German, and Swedish societies, as well
as the London Missionary Society among the
Matabele Zulus,



IN 1885 was celebrated the " Jubilee," or
semi-centennial anniversary of the Amer-
ican Zulu Mission. With one exception, the
pioneers had gone to their reward. There
were, however, some veteran laborers to mingle
with their younger brethren in the festivities of
the occasion. Jubilee Hall was then opened
by the governor of the colony, who, together
with leading colonists, expressed hearty sym-
pathy and interest. Rev. William Ireland read
a history of the mission's five decades, show-
ing a steady advance from the beginning.

Statistics from the mission at the close of
1889 show that there were sixteen churches,
with a membership of eleven hundred and
fifty-five ; under Sabbath-school instruction,
fourteen hundred and eighty ; missionaries,
thirtj'-eight ; native helpers, including teachers
and preachers, one hundred and sixty-seven ;
money contributed for church work, education,
and charitable purposes, during the year, over
one thousand dollars.

The East Central African Mission, a branch
of the one in Natal, was commenced by Rev.
W. Wilcox and wife in 1883. Its prospects
for a time were very encouraging. Messrs.


The Missionary Outlook. 261

Richards, Ousley, Bates, and their wives went
to that field ; the languages were mastered,
parts of the Bible printed, and everything
went on prosperously. But Mr. Wilcox left
the work and Messrs. Richards and Bates, on
account of fever, were obliged to leave. The
latter has joined the Natal Mission. Mr. Rich-
ards came to the United States and retired
from the service of the Board. Mr. Ousley
followed him, owing to serious illness, but hopes
to return shortl}'. This brother was a slave,
born on the plantation of Mr. Joseph Davis,
brother of Jefferson Davis, president of the
Confederate States. He was freed at the
time the slaves were emancipated by order of
President Lincoln. After studying at Fisk
University and Oberlin, he received appoint-
ment to the East Central African Mission,
whither he went with his wife, who is also a
graduate of Fisk University. These are the
first colored missionaries sent by the American
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions to
Southern Africa. Mr. Ousley believes that the
colored men from our southern states can
endure the malarial climate of Africa better
than white men. Neither he nor his wife has
suffered from fever as much in Africa as they
did in this country. Miss Jones, a colored
lady who went out to assist the Ousleys, does
not complain of the climate. If it is true that
our colored brethren and sisters can labor in
those malarial districts without succumbing as
do white missionaries, how important that they

262 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

be sent there ! Fe^Y more inviting fields are
to be found in the Dark Continent than this.

The force in the field at the present writing
is represented by Rev. John B. Bennet and wife
and Miss Jones; Rev. Mr. Bunker and wife are,
however, designated to it, and sailed in Feb-
ruary, 1890. Rev. Mr. Wilcox and wife also
returned in the same month.

In the foregoing pages, the work of the
American Zulu Mission has been chiefly con-
sidered. Let no one think that I am dis-
posed to underrate the labors of other evangel-
ical bodies. Noble men and women of various
sections of the Christian Church are toiling
faithfully for the good of the natives, and, so
far as I have observed, most harmoniously.
There is no clashing out there. If there is any
rivalry, it is tliat of brave soldiers, ambitious
to advance the glory of their heavenly King.
One should visit a foreign mission field to see
illustrated the remark Dr. Livingstone once
made : " All classes of Christians find that
sectarian rancor soon dies out when thev are
working together among and for the real

The Dutch in Natal have what is called a
Boer Farm Mission, of an interesting charac-
ter. One of the results of a late revival of
religion among the farmers was an earnest
desire to Christianize the natives living on
their farms, and it is pleasant to behold school-
houses, places of worship, and other proofs of
ev.'ingelistic enterprise in a field hitherto neg-

The MisBionary Outlook. 263

English Wesleyan Methodists, and Scotch
Presbyterians of the Free Church, confine
their h\bors principally to Natal, while the
Germans (Berlin and Hanoverian), Norwe-
gians, Swedes, and missionaries of the Church
of England have stations in Cape Colony and
in Zululand. Since the latter country has
come under British jurisdiction, happier results
from missionary efforts may be expected than
while it was under the reign of despotism.

Until quite recently, non-Protestant societies
have not made any strenuous effort to convert
the Zulus. There is, however, now in the field
an order of Benedictine monks, called Trappists,
who are manifesting extraordinary zeal. Their
chief monastery, Marianhill, is a few miles
from the seaport. The abbot, Francis Pfaner,
a German, who superintends the establishment,
is a gentleman of great shrewdness and intelli-
gence. When I visited the place he took me
about, and willingly explained his plans and
methods of labor. Evidently, in his opinion,
civilization is the primary step to be taken
in elevating the heathen. There were on the
ground one hundred and seventy monks and
one hundred and twenty nuns ; more were ex-
pected. Three hundred native boys and girls
were under instruction, chiefly industrial.
Twenty thousand acres of land have been
purchased, a large part of which is under
cultivation. All the workshops were full of
activity, but I noticed that the men did not
utter a word. Perpetual silence, it appears, is

264 Forty Years Amo7ig the Zulus.

imposed on all monks under the Benedictine
rule. To an Englishman who asked the abbot
the reason for this, the reply was : " There are
reasons spiritual and secular. Silence is spirit-
ually beneficial. It is secularly beneficial, inas-
much as there is no quarreling when there is no
talking, and there is much more work done."
Zulu lads, however, chatted and laughed ad lihl-
tum. They would not have been Zulus otherwise.

Various industries engage the Trappists,
among which is bee culture. Newspapers in
Polish, German, English, and Zulu are published
at the monastery. Pains are taken to extend
their influence among the natives. A brass band
consisting of thirty sandaled monks marches
occasionally through the streets of the nearest
town, playing as they go, and are followed by
Zulus clothed in dark fustian with polished
helmets on their heads.

To what this extraordinary Trappist move-
ment will grow, it is impossible to predict.

I trust it will appear from what has been
said that the outlook, so far at least as the
American Zulu Mission is concerned, is calcu-
lated to cheer, rather than to depress. News
from the field clearly indicates an advance
all along the line. Societies of Christian
Endeavor are springing up ; the cause of tem-
perance is gaining ground ; schools are well
attended ; Sabbath audiences are growing
larger ; " spirit doctors " are losing their hold
of the native mind ; the axe of the gospel is laid
at the root of polygamy and attendant evils;

The Miasionary Outlook. 265

Christianity, liand in hand with civilization, is
movinof on. Is the time far distant when those
qnalities of valor, obedience, and endurance
which the Zulus displayed when in a state of
barbarism v/ill be conspicuous in promoting
the Redeemer's glory? Has not God in his
providence sent his servants to Natal, spared
their lives, enabled them to master the native
lanofuagfe, translate the Bible and other books,
and put in operation the machinery of means,
preparatory to carrying the blessings of Chris-
tianity into Africa's dark interior ? What base
of operations could have been selected more
suitable for this object? What strategic point
could we have laid hold of on the southeast-
ern coast better than this ? Recruits from our
mission schools will doubtless go as mission-
aries to the Matabele and other Zulu-speaking
tribes. The way was opened last year when
Umcitwa and Yona, a man and his wife from
the Umzumbe station, joined the mission to the
Matabele tribe. On their journey, Umcitwa
took a severe cold which resulted in his death
soon after reaching his destination. Who can
tell, however, what results may follow his
example ?

Though I have spoken hopefully respecting
the Zulu Mission and its importance with ref-
erence to the future regeneration of Africa,
I am compelled to add, with sorrow, that there
are influences at work that will undo much
that has been done, and hinder progress, unless
God in his mercy interposes. The streams of

266 Forty Yea7's Among the Zulus.

intemperance and vice flowing into Natal
imperil not only the spiritual, but the physi-
cal existence of the natives. A large body of
Christ's servants are needed at once to counter-
act those influences. The Zulus are in a
transition state. Much will be lost by delay.
The remark lately made by Mr. Stanley in
reference to the importance of reinforcing
Christian missions in Central, will apply equally
to South, Africa : " If we want to hold our
ground, we must not send little parties of
workers, as heretofore, but must pour in men
by the scores and even by the fifties."

Death and illness have sadly depleted the
number of missionaries. The few left in the
field, overburdened, ask with a pathos that
should reach the hearts of God's people at
home, —

''Do they come, do they come?

We are feeble and worn,

And we are passing like shadows away.

But the harvest is white. Lo, yonder the dawn I

For laborers, for laborers, we pray ! "

To those who may inquire, " Are the results
of your work among the Zulus commensurate
with the toil and money expended?" I reply:
If judged by worldly standards, they may not
appear so; but truly no serious-minded man
will gauge them by figures alone. No tabular
view can adequately represent what has been
done. Of this we are sure : it is God's work,
and it cannot be a failure. One has truthfully
said : " God's true missionary goes where He

JosiAH, Teacher in the Boys' High School at Adajis.


TJie Missionary Outlook, 267

sends him, and he succeeds, thougli all he may
do is to plow up the hard ground and gather
out the stones to leave a fair field for the sower.
And in God's eyes many a man who, by the
armful or wagonload, brings sheaves to the gar-
ner is only reaping from others' sowing."

If we could point to a single Zulu who has
been savingly converted, that alone would
prove that our labors have not been in vain.
But, thank God! we can adduce instances not a
few of self-denial, humility, holy living, resigna-
tion to the divine will, heroic faith, and joy in
the near prospect of death. I think 1 am safe
in saying that, as a rule, converted Zulus are
quite as consistent in their daily life as average
church members in Christian lands. It is un-
reasonable to suppose that, with the few advan-
tages they possess, they should rise speedily to
the standard of intelligent piety attained in
more highly favored countries.

What Rev. John McKenzie, formerly of the
London Missionary Society, has said in regard
to Bechuana Christians applies to Zulus : '' It
is not to be expected that a loquacious,
news-telling people, unaccustomed to solitude
and to consecutive thought or study, should,
on their conversion to Christianity, become at
once remarkable for their elevated spirituality
and for delighting in protracted seasons of
prayer, meditation, and communion with God."

Before closing this chapter, let me ask my
readers, especially those who are young, strong,
and qualified to engage in mission work, Do

268 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

you really believe that the gospel is the grand
instrument devised by God for the elevation of
the degraded ? And has the command, " Go,
teach all nations," lost any of its force since it
was given by the Master ? Have you individu-
ally and seriously inquired, with a desire to
ascertain God's will, " Is it my duty to carry
the gospel to the heathen ? " Should you do so,
would the cause of God in this land suffer from
your absence ? On the other hand, would not
an impetus be given to it, thus illustrating that
heavenly law, " There is that scattereth, and
yet increaseth " ? Go and tell the benighted
the story of Jesus and his love, and even they
will exclaim in the language of inspiration,
" How beautiful are the feet of them that . . .
bring glad tidings of good things ! " Go, and
if successful in your work, you will hear from
the lips of converted heathen what you cannot
hear if you remain in your native land : " For
our sakes you left home and kindred. You
were the only almoners of God's bounty to us.
You found us naked ; you have clothed us.
Ignorant, you have taught us. We delighted
in war ; you have taught us the principles of
peace. We were in the depths of degradation ;
you have raised us to sit together in heavenly
places in Christ Jesus. We will iiever cease to
thank God for sending you to tell us of the
great salvation." That will pay for all your
toil and sacrifices.



NATAL lies in the same latitude south as
New Orleans north ; is eight hundred
miles trom the Cape of Good Hope, and
seventy-live hundred miles from England.
Mail steamers from London reach it in about
twenty-five days, stopping at the Cape, Port
Elizabeth, and East London. It has an area of
twenty-one thousand two hundred and fifty
miles, and a seaboard of one hundred and eighty.
Vasco da Gam a, a Portuguese navigator, sight-
ed it on Christmas day, five years after Colum-
bus discovered America, and it received its name,
Terra Natalis^ in honor of that day.

The first attempt to colonize it was made in
1823 by a party of Englishmen with Lieuten-
ant Farwell at its head. Chaka, the Zulu king
at that time, ceded to them what now comprises
the colony. Soon after, the same Zulu potentate
made Captain Allen Gardiner, an Englishman.
a grant of the same territory, evidently not re-
garding the previous cession as bona fide. The
country was once thickly populated, but that
despot so devastated it by his armies that only
here and there could be found a few stragglers,
and they were in a state of starvation.


270 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

The first Christian missionaries to Natal
were those of the American Board, who landed
in 1835. Wars between the natives and Dutch
farmers, immigrants from the Cape Colony, and
afterwards between the English and Dutch,
kept the country in a state of insecurity till
18J:3, when it was proclaimed a British posses-
sion. Soon after, a governor was appointed,
and an executive council established. Quiet
having been restored, natives, fleeing from
tyranny and witchcraft in Zululand, entered
in large numbers.

The first object saluting the newcomer to
Natal is the lighthouse, a massive, costly struc-
ture, situated on a high bluff, visible from a
long distance. The coast, lined with thick
gnarled bushes, twenty feet or more in height,
interspersed with euphorbia, Kaffir boom, and
palm trees, presents a pretty appearance. The
rivers emptying into the ocean are indicated
bv the surf as it dashes over the sandbanks at
their mouths. Of these, twenty- three in num-
ber, only one is navigable, the Umzimkulu,
and that but a short distance. Until latel3%
entrance to the Natal harbor has been choked
by sand, and this has proved a serious obsta-
cle to colonial prosperity. At a great expense
breakwaters have been constructed, so that
ships drawing sixteen feet of water can now
enter with safety. Experts in engineering pre-
dict that a still greater depth of water will be
secured. The harbor, once entered, is all that
can be desired — sheltered, commodious, and

Facts Concerniny Natal. 271

sufficiently deep. The customhouse and ware-
houses along the docks, where ships load and
unload, remind one of English and American
ports. The contrast between 1849 and 1891 is
simply marvelous.

Telegraphic communication is established,
not only throughout Natal, but with the Trans-
vaal, Orange Free State, and various ports along
the eastern coast. A submarine cable between
Zanzibar and Aden brings the colony into com-
munication with Great Britain. Mail steam-
ers run constantly, the price of first-class pas-
sage being not far from two hundred dollars ;
second-class, one hundred and fifty. There are
lines of boats carrying cargo and a limited
number of passengers, having excellent accom-
modations, which make the passage in a longer
time and at reduced rates.

Natal has been called by its admirers an
" Elysium in South Africa " ; and not without
reason. Probably England has no brighter
gem among her colonies. For beauty of scen-
ery and salubrity of climate she is deservedly
distinguished. Perhaps allowance should be
made for the writer, who for twenty-three years
of his Natal life was not ill a single week, but
it is doubtful whether on- the globe there is a
spot where the atmosphere is clearer and the
sky brighter than during the winter months,
from May to October. The evenings are then
generally free from clouds, and the stars shine
with extraordinary brilliancy. In 1858 it was
reported that during tlie six months of winter

272 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

there were ninety-seven starlit evenings. An
English scientist remarked : '' The stars seem
half as large and half as bright again as they
ever do in England, and shine with a steady
effulgence." In regard to the moon he added :
" In the latitudes of this colony the moon
occasionally comes within four times its own
breadth of the zenith as it crosses the meridian.
At such times the moonshine is often of such
intense brilliancy that strong black shadows
are cast by it, and the smallest objects can be
distinctly seen by its aid."

During the winter there is very little rain;
sometimes for two or three months none at all.
The thermometer ranges, during that time,
from 40° to 60°. Snow falls occasionally in the
upper districts, but never on the coast, and
rarely is the frost severe enough within fifteen
miles of the sea to injure bananas or sweet
potato vines. The average temperature for the
three hottest and three coldest months, taken
from accurate observation is as follows : —

December, January, and February. Highest, 97°
5' ; mean, 72° 2' ; lowest, 53° 3'.

June, July, and August. Highest 83° 4'; mean,
.56° 7'; lowest, 31° 9'.

The colony rises in terraces above the level
of the Indian Ocean till it reaches the Drak-
ensberg or " Dragon's Mountains," a high range
which has sometimes been called the " Appe-
nines of South Africa." This range divides
Natal from the Transvaal and Orange Free
State. Some of the peaks are nearly eight

Facts Concemimj Natal. 273

thousand feet high, and during the winter
months are frequently capped with snow. In
summer the heat is as intense as during the
dog days of July and August in New England,
but the frequent thunderstorms are invariably
followed by cool days and nights. In regard
to these storms, Dr. Robert Mann observed:
'' They must be seen before a notion of their
character can be realized. Sometimes the end
of a great storm cloud looms from the horizon
with a splendid glow or brush of light bursting
from behind it at each discharge, and throwing
the black masses forward in strong relief. At
other times the foldino^s of the troubled and
twisted clouds are rendered conspicuous by
colored lines and sheets of fire, which exceed

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