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appointed for cases among the natives, who are
allowed the privilege of appeal to a higher
court. Should the matter in dispute be of the
value of five hundred pounds, an appeal can be
made to the privy council in England.

Natives, on certain conditions, may come out
from under native law and be governed precisely
as white men. Few, however, seem disposed to
avail themselves of this privilege. Doubtless
the reason is that under purely English law they
would not be allowed to exchange cattle for
women and practice polygamy. Those who con-
form to English customs and dwell in furnished
houses of European construction are exempt
from the annual hut tax. The great mass pre-
fer to live, as did their fathers, in Zulu style.

As respects ecclesiastical affairs in Natal,
the largest denomination is that of Wesleyan
Methodists, but Presbyterians, Congregation-
alists. Episcopalians (Church of England), and
Roman Catholics are well represented. There
are two Baptist churches and one Jewish syn-

Colonial education is under the direction of
a council, composed of ten members, with two
superintendents, one for the European, the

U3IZIXYATI Waterfall, Ixanda, Xatal.

Physical Features, 291

other for the native, schools. There are several
collegiate institutions which compare favorably
with those in other countries.

NataFs exports are sugar, wool, hides, horns,
tallow, arrowroot, ginger, cayenne pepper, tea,
ivory (from the interior), and the bark of an
acacia tree, useful for tanning purposes.

Imports are chiefl}- timber, furniture, agri-
cultural implements, leather manufactures, car-
riages of various descriptions, clothing, grocer-
ies, ironmongery, machinery, ardent spirits, etc.

The revenue is derived principally from the
customs charges, auction dues, duty on firearms,
sale of stamps, gunpowder, crown lands, tax-
ation of Europeans and natives, transfer dues,
excise, post offices, licenses, etc.

The native hut tax amounts in the aggre-
gate to <£ 75,000 per annum, and the custom
dues on blankets and beads, purchased to a
large extent by natives, reach the sum of X15,-
000. The following comparative statement of
the value of imports and exports and customs
receipts for the years 1888 and 1889 shows
the rate of progress : —

IMPORTS. 1889. 1888.

Value of imports . . . £4,527,015 £2,890,468
Customs revenue . . . 369,689 3 1 290,084 8 1


Colonial £957,132 £941,562

Non-Colonial '099,186 '476,309


Total exports . . . £1,656.318 £1,417,871

1 These figures include rough

gold to the value of £584,933 £31)1,(343

292 Forty Tears Among the Zulus.

According to a late estimate, the combined
trade of the colony for 1889 was not far short
of six millions sterling.

Railways are being pushed with rapidity
both to the Transvaal and Orange Free State.
The Grand Trunk Line has reached Charles-
ton, on the border of the Transvaal, only one
hundred and thirty miles from Johannesburg,
the greatest "mushroom city" in Africa. This
railway is said to be " unequaled in English
colonies for profit." It increased the past year
to such an extent that, according to a pub-
lished estimate, after paying all expenses, a
sum of one hundred thousand pounds would
accrue to the general revenue of the colony.

Various industries now occupy the attention
of Natalians, besides the cultivation of tea and
sugar cane. Some are engaged in ostrich
farming, a few in raising ground nuts (pea-
nuts) for the oil. One farmer obtained three
hundred bushels from a single acre.

Sericulture is attracting attention, the govern-
ment affording a little aid. Queens and eggs
are imported from Italy. The mulberry grows
finely, and there appears no reason why this
industry should not prove a success. The most
lucrative business in the upper districts is sheep
farming. It is said that a man witli a mod-
erate capital invested in land and slieep is
pretty sure to obtain a good return.

With the influx of the Anglo-Saxon race
into South Africa, the native question is one of
deep interest. Zulus in the service of Euro-

Phyi<ical Features. 293

peans are generally obedient and peaceful, but
the influence of their hereditary chiefs is great.
Should any real or supposed wrong lead those
chiefs to combine against the whites, the result
would be war and bloodshed. Let us hope and
pray for better things. Instead of believing
that they are " doomed like the redskins to
fade away before the fiercer energy and tougher
fiber and the higher mental power of their pale
brethren," as Hepworth Dixon predicted would
be the case with the blacks in our southern
states, we cherish the belief that they will im-
prove under the just and benign authority of
England, and, living peacefully alongside of
the superior race, will rise gradually but surely
to a high standard of Christianity and civiliza-
tion. If in the course of divine providence
this occurs, it will be, as Froude the historian
observed, the "solution of a problem worth
more than all the diamonds of Kimberly."





From latest statistics, the Gordon Memorial Mission
in Natal (Scotch), in charge of Rev. James Dalzell,
M.D., and his wife, is in a prosperous condition.
This mission was founded in 1<S().S by the Countess
of Aberdeen, to commemorate the purpose of her
son, the late Honorable James H. H. Gordon, to devote
his life to mission work in South Africa, a purpose
not executed owing to his early death. A farm was
purchased in the upper part of Natal, which is
thickly populated by natives, and Dr. Dalzell, with
his zealous wife, is here laboring most successfully.
Church members in full standing, April, 1890, were
113. Number of pupils in the schools connected with
the station, 322.

Two sisters of Mrs. Dalzell, the Misses Lorimer,
have a Zulu Girls' Home, to which their services are
given gratuitously. The late Dr. Somerville, '' the
world's evangelist," in his visit to South Africa
visited this station and spoke of it in the highest

At Impolweni the Free Church of Scotland has an
interesting mission in charge of He v. James Scott,
with a church membership of 163, and two schools,
with 122 pupils. There are live branch stations con-
nected with Impolweni. Also at Maritzburg there is
a flourishing native church under the superintendence
of Rev. Mr. Bruce.

The Hanoverian (German) Society has, according
to latest reports, in Natal and Zululaud : —

Missionaries, white, 25

Native helpers, 50

Stations, 22

Church members, 1,782


296 Forty Years Amowj tlie Zulus.

Church of the Province of South Africa (English

Episcopal) : —

Ordained laborers, white, 5

Ordaiued laborers, native, 3

Lay laborers, white, 4

Lay laborers, native, 18

Lady assistants, white, 3

Stations, 12

Baptized Zulus, 1,641

Its chief centers of labor are Durban and Mar-

The superintendent of native missions in Natal,
Rev. A. Ikin, d.d. (Church of England), reports: —

Native converts, 475

Stations for Sunday services, 16

Night schools, 8

Day schools, 5

"White evangelists, 3

Native evangelists, 23

The Swedish (Lutheran) Church has three mis-
sionaries laboring in Natal and Zululand, and not
without success.


One peculiarity of the Zulu language is the dicks
derived from intercourse with the Hottentots. They
are what are called dental, palatal, and lateral,
owing to the Aanner in which they are spoken.
The dental is made by compressing the tip of the
tongue between the teeth and hastily drawing it
back. The letter c is used to denote it. The palatal
is a cracking sound which the tongue makes in tlie
roof of the mouth, and is represented by the letter
q. The lateral is a sound like clucking to a horse,
caused by the tongue and double teeth united. The
letter x represents it. Dr. Lepsius in his Standard
Alphabet suggested characters for these clicks, but
missionaries in Zululand are not inclined to adopt
them. The letters used for them are always in

Appendix. 297

There is another sound in the hiuguaj^e, liappily
occurring- only in a few words, pronounced as a
guttural from the bottom of the throat. It is not
a click, but, according to a philologist, " a peculiar,
hard, rough sound that seems to be made by con-
tracting the throat and giving the breath a forcible
expulsion, at the same time modifying the sound
with a tremulous motion of the epiglottis." Only
Zulus, and whites born among them, can express it.

Each class of nouns has a prefix wliich undergoes
a change in forming the plural from the singular.
In one class the prefix is um, which in the plural
is changed into ab(( ; for instance, umuntu (person),
ahantu (persons). Another class has the prefix in,
which in the plural is changed to izin; for example,
inkomo (cow), izinkomo (cows). In still another
class. Hi is changed to amay as ilizwi (word),
amazici (words). The possessive is formed in a
singular manner. Each class of nouns having its
preformative letter, that letter is used in forming
this case, lo standing for nouns beginning with u
in the singular, and b for the plural. Thus ami
(of me) umfana (boy), becomes in the possessive
nmfana wami (my boy) ; plural aba, abafana bami
(my boys). In another class, in being the prefix in
the singular, y is used, making yami, in the plural,
zami; thu.^, inkonio yami (my covf), izinkomo zami
(my cows). In forming the possessive his or her,
the basis is a (of) and ke (him). For example, in
the class commencing with um, we have umfana
wake (his boy), plural abafana bake (his boys).
With in for prefix, y is used, as inkomo yake (his
cow), plural, izinkomo zake (his cows). For the
possessive their, the ground form is abo; for ex-
ample, abantwana babo (their children), izinkomo
zabo (their cows) .

Great simplicity is apparent in the construction of
verbs. Take, for example, the verb love, ukutanda,
uku being the sign of the infinitive, and tanda the

298 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

root. JSFgi is the pronoun of the first person, and
ya the auxiliary. Ngi ya tanda (I love) ; second
person, ii ya tanda (thou lovest) ; third person, u
ya tanda (he loves) ; plural, si ya tanda (we love) ;
ni ya landa (ye love); ha ya tanda (they love).
Imperfect tense, nga tanda (I was loving) ; wa
* tanda (thou wast loving) ; ica tanda (he was lov-
ing). Perfect tense, ngi tandile (I have loved); u
tandile (thou hast loved) ; etc. Pluperfect, hengi
tandile (I had loved) : u he tandile (thou hadst
loved) ; etc. Future, ngi ya kit tanda (I will love) ;
u ya ku tanda (thou wilt love) ; etc. The impera-
tive is the root, tanda.

Rev. Lewis Grout, for fifteen years a missionary
in Natal, author of a Zulu grammar and a booli
entitled '^Zululand," justly remarks in regard to the
verbs: ''One root will often give us a large stem
with a good number of branches and no small
amount of fi'uit. Thus from the verb hona, see,
we have honisa, cause to see; honisisa, show, show
clearly; honela, see for; honelela, see for each other;
bonisana, cause each other to see, show each other;
honakala, appear, be visible; honakalisa, make vis-
ible; uniboneli, a spectator; umbonelo, a spectacle;
umhonisi, an overseer; umboniso, a show; isihono,
a sight, curiosity; isiboniso, a vision; isihonakalo,
an appearance; isibonakaliso, a revelation; and all
this without going into the passive voice ; as bonwa,
be seen; bonisuxiy caused to be seen; bonisiswaf
cause to be clearly seen; et cetera.^^


Mr. Melmoth Osborn, c.m.g., British commissioner
and chief magistrate in Zululand, attributes the late
political revolution, which rendered the expatriation
of the Zulu chiefs necessary, to the intrigues of
Dutch farmers who had settled in the country.
'' The Boers," he says, '' assisted the Usutus to
expel Usibepu, causing frightful bloodshed, and then

Ap2^enclix. 290

quarreled with their allies in regard to the division
of the laud. The Boers, in truth, ran all over the
country and respected no man's rights. They poi-
soned the minds of the Zulus against us by inciting
them to rebellion. What they said was simply this:
* We [the Boers] made Mpande king over you. He
ruled you as an independent sovereign and lived and
reigned to a good old age. Now the British have
taken your country and deposed your king. This
would not have happened had you stuck to us,' etc.
The Boers indeed proclaimed Dinizulu king on the
death of Cetywayo, and intrigued with Ndabnko
(Dinizulu's uncle and Cetywayo's full brother) to
oust the British from Zululand. Lucas Meyer antl
his colleagues even went so far as to perform the
scriptural ceremony of anointing Dinizulu, and they
encouraged him to ride about on a white horse, *and
to flout British authority in every way possible. I
should remark that pensions had been granted to
the principal chiefs to compensate them for the loss
of any advantages attaching to their position. These
were refused by Dinizulu and his uncle, Ndabuko,
who was the principal and most dangerous oflender.
In consequence of the dispute between the Boers and
Ndabuko over the division of the land, Sir Arthur
Havelock, as special commissioner, made an agreement
with the Boer representatives, dated October 22, 18.s6,
by which a. certain line was drawn and the Boers were
to be kept within the territory known as the New
Republic. The Boers, however, did not respect the
line of demarcation, and I, who was doing my best
to preserve order and prevent injustice to the Zulus,
proclaimed the country to be under British protection.
Afterwards it was annexed to the British crown, and
magistrates w^ere appointed to administer justice and
secure good order. The Zulus — the vast majority
of them — were anxious to become British subjects;
it was only the royal household and a small section
of the people inflamed by the Boers, and those

300 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

Zulus that were included in the New Republic, who
atiempted to resist. The Boers said to ihe Zulus:
' Look at us ; the British came and took our country,
but we beat them and drove them out. AVhy don't
you do the same?' Dinizulu asserted his supposed
right to rule as an independent king. He even put
people to death, and seized the cattle of others. The
magistrates and oflScers of the government were
ignored; communications were made direct to the
special commissioner, Sir Arthur Havelock ; and
Dinizulu posed as an independent ruler, of whom
the Queen was but the equal and no more. The
country was in a very serious state, and I foresaw
that worse trouble was impending. There was only
one possible remedy. I consider it would be a
disastrous mistake to allow the exiled chiefs to go
bac^ to Zululand. From the moment of their de-
parture the country has been peaceful ; but if they
were permitted to return there would only be a
repetition of what occurred after Cetywa>o's res-
toration. There was fearful bloodshed, and misery
to women and children, immediately after that event.
Zululand is now as quiet and prosperous as any
country on earth, and does not cost the British
taxpayer a single penny for its internal adminis-
tration. British rule is accepted by all the Zulus,
as is evidenced by the hundreds of cases which they
bring before the resident magistrates every month."





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Online LibraryJosiah TylerForty years among the Zulus → online text (page 17 of 17)