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stock is the upper part of a bamboo cane, fif-
teen feet long. A dextrous driver soon im-
presses each ox in the span with a sense of
its responsibility, besides making the "welkin
ring" with a crack which on a still day is
often mistaken in the distance for that of a
rifle. A more exciting spectacle I have rarely
seen than that of three spans united, forty-
eight oxen in all, pulling a loaded wagon out
of a bog, or up a steep hill, the drivers shout-
ing and cracking their whips most furiously.
Mr. and Mrs. Wilder were to accompany us
to Amanzimtote, on their way to the Ifumi sta-
tion, and we prepared to take our first ride in
Africa. ''Start early," said Mr. Cato, "for
you may have to ride in the dark." At six
in the morning we said good-by to Durban,
and launched out into what to us were un-
known wilds. Neither the driver nor leader
understood a word of English, and as we did
not know Zulu we obtained no information
from our sable attendants. After a trek^ or
journey of ten miles, we " outspanned," that is,
unyoked, the oxen, to let them feed, and also
to refresh ourselves. In tiie wagon chest we
found all that was requisite : a kettle, matches,
dishes, knives, forks, bread, butter, tea, coffee,
sugar, etc. Mrs. Adams knew what we needed
and had kindly provided for us. This was the
first picnic we enjoyed in South Africa, an
antepast of many similar ones in the future.
At three p.m. we started, but were soon obliged

28 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

to halt. The oxen, unable to pull the heavy
wagon up a sandy hill, were turned out to
graze. The sun beginning to sink behind the
horizon, I remember debating with brother
Wilder as to which one of us should keep
watch at night, with a loaded riHe, to defend
the party from wild beasts. Our hearts were
soon gladdened by the unexpected arrival of a
new span of fresh and strong bullocks, sent
by Dr. Adams to our relief. A new driver also
came, who could speak a little English. " Are
you the new missionaries? How do you like
our country?" etc. The wagon was set in
motion and at nine o'clock a light was pointed
out to us as that of Dr. Adams' house. The
welcome we received more than paid us for all
our fatigue.



AN own brother and sister could not have
made our stay at Amanzimtote more
pleasant than did Dr. Adams and his wife.
Unremitting in their kindness to us in all
things, they helped us especially to get a good
start in the acquisition of the Zulu dialect.
They were model missionaries. Of the pioneer
band which left America in 1834, they had
clung to the Zulu field in the midst of great
discouragements. More indefatigable laborers
in the mission field I have never known.
They wrote but little for The Missionary
Herald, and on that account Christians in this
country knew little of them and their work.
The doctor's knowledge of medicine and uni-
form readiness to help the bodies of the
natives won for him easy access to their
hearts. He gained their confidence and affec-
tion. From a distance of forty or fifty miles
they came to him for consultation and help.
Improving every opportunity to sow the good
seed, he saw that they carried it with them
to their homes, and in after years the fruits
appeared. That the natives trusted him to
a remarkable degree is evident from the fact
that on one occasion, when they were inclined


30 Forty Years Among the Zulus,

to rebel against the English government, their
chiefs were sent to talk with the doctor and
obtain his advice before taking up arms.
Listening patiently to all their complaints, he
questioned them as to what would be the
result of the rebellion ; suggested the loss of
life and property that Avould follow, and
opened their eyes to some aspects of the case
which thev had not considered. Puttinof their
hands to their mouths in Zulu fashion, when
new light breaks in upon their minds, they
acknowledged the wisdom of their teacher and
went home resolved to keep quiet. I am glad
to say that Sir Theophilus Shepstone, secretary
for native affairs in Natal, took notice of this
act, and thanked Dr. Adams most heartily for
saving the colony from war.

Dr. Adams labored eleven years before he
saw any fruit. The first individual to come
out of heathenism — indeed the first Zulu
convert — was Umbulazi, a woman who had
fled from her kraal to the mission station in
a state of starvation. She often said to Mrs.
Adams, " God raised me from the dust of the
earth. When I first came to you, I was eating
herbs and grass, because I could get nothing
else. I cared for nobody and nobody cared
for me ; but the Lord told me to go to the
missionary and he would help me."

The image of that mother rises before me.
A poor woman, depressed by cruel treatment
and disowned by her nearest friends, had heard
this missionary preach the gospel of love, and

Study of the Language, 31

thinking that the bearer of such a message
must be merciful to her, an outcast, threw
herself down at his door, where he found her,
with her little son on her back, waiting for
admittance. Her whole appearance and man-
ners were repulsive, but the longing for sym-
pathy and love which her words indicated was
fully met by those faithful workers for Christ.
They had prayed and labored that even 07ie
soul might be given them, and what joy they
must have felt when after much instruction
the light of the gospel seemed to dawn on her
dark mind. Then she stood forth alone, a
professed believer in that new faith, which was
her comfort and support for nearly thirty
years, until death reunited her to those sainted
ones who had guided her to heaven. The last
time I saw her in her feebleness and blindness,
she took my hand and said, ''I am ready to
go home to my father and mother," meaning
the missionary and his wife. " The Lord has
been good to me. He has permitted me to see
great things." Is it not interesting to remem-
ber that the light of the gospel fust shone in
a woman's heart among the Zulus ?

The next convert was a woman with whom
Umbulazi was accustomed to pray in a cluster
of bushes near the station. Still another
woman, who was trying to become a witch
doctress, came to the station, and was soon
" clothed and in her right mind." Mrs. Adams
remarked in regard to her, " The last time I
saw that woman, T said to myself, ' You are

32 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

a hopeless case, surely.' " At the time of our
visit at Amanzimtote, there was considerable
religious interest, and the hearts of those faith-
ful workers were greatly encouraged. At a
communion season which we attended seven
persons were received into church fellowship.
The sermon that day was on the text, " Fear not,
little flock," etc. As it was in Zulu I could
not understand it ; but the deep attention given,
and tears that occasionally trickled down the
cheeks of the auditors, showed that it made
a deep impression.

Dr. Adams died in 1851, of overwork, at
the age of forty-five, and was buried at the
station which now bears his name. Mrs.
Adams remained in the field five years after
the death of her husband, and then, on account
of failing health, returned to this country.
She always looked back on her life in Africa
with joy, and on the morning of her last day
on earth spoke of her love for the missionary
band there and for the Zulu people. She
died in Cleveland, Ohio. Both Dr. and Mrs.
Adams laid a broad and deep foundation for
the future. Who can doubt that their reward
in heaven is great ?

We should have been glad to remain with
those good missionaries a 3^ear at least, to
become imbued with their spirit, and so accus-
tomed to their modus oj^erandi in mission work
that we could reflect it in after life. But the
custom in those days was to send newcomers,
as soon as possible, to their stations, so we

Study of the Language. 33

addressed ourselves, with all our might, to the
mastery of the language. No grammar or
dictionary had been published. Only a few
words had been collected to aid in the forma-
tion of sentences. The regularity and flexi-
bility of the dialect struck us at first with sur-
prise and pleasure, and the more we studied it,
the more we admired it. It is, like the Italian,
abounding in vowels, and is both pleasing to
the ear and easy to speak. There is great
poverty of words expressing moral thoughts,
but this is not surprising when we consider the
absence of such thoughts in the native mind.

Mr. Grout doubts " if the German, Greek,
or any other language can exceed the Zulu in
the scope and liberty it gives for the formation
of derivative words."

The names of persons in Zulu are derived
from circumstances connected with their birth.
For instance, if a small snake happens to be
seen or killed when a bov is born he is called
Unyokana, " a little snake.' If honey is plenti-
ful at such a time, the child is named Unyosi,
the name of that luxury. Should the infant
be a large one he receives the appellation Un-
gagumuntu, "as large as a man." If there
happens to be a fire at his birth, the babe is
named Unondilo, " with fire."

The time required to learn the language so
as to be understood by the natives depends
on the facility one has for the acquisition of
foreign tongues. Missionaries in Natal have
been known to preach in Zulu six months after

34 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

their arrival. A year or more is required
before one can catch what the natives say,
they speak so rapidly. Zulus are remarkably
patient, and do not laugh at mistakes made by
young missionaries unless they are calculated
to provoke their risibilities beyond control.
One who, perhaps, began to preach too early
had confounded the word lalmii^ meaning "go
to sleep," with lalelani^ signifying " give at-
tention." He began his sermon one Sunday
with the former, ^'-Lalani^ nouke (Go to sleep, all
of you)." Another missionary, in giving direc-
tions to a native lad in reference to knocking
to pieces some hard sods in the field, used the
word for wizards, ahatagati instead of amaga-
hati (sods), saying, ^^ Hamha u tyaye ahatagati
(Go and knock the wizards in pieces)." The
boy thought a difficult task was assigned him.
The wife of a missionary, wishing to have a
young man kill two ducks, had not noticed
that the word for men differed from that for
ducks in one letter : Amadoda (men), amadada
(ducks). She said to him, ^'-Hamha hulala ama-
doda amahili (Go and kill two men)." The
young man looking up with a smile asked,
"Which men shall I kill?"

Rev. Daniel Lindley.



I HAVE described the ox-wagon, a large
affair, but none too large for the mission-
ary's needs. Nor are the oxen required to
cb-aw it (twelve or fourteen in number) too
many for the rough roads, steep hills, and sandy
beds of the rivers. In addition to furniture,
dishes, food, and clothing, it was necessary to
take tools for house building. I was fortunate
in having for a companion and adviser the good
brother who gave us such a warm reception
wlien we landed. Mr. Lindley had said, " 1
will see you settled in your new home ; " and
his experience and tact were of incalculable
help. Esidum])ini lay fifty miles north of
Durban, and that was ray nearest market and
post office. We were three days on the jour-
ney, but the trip was enlivened by the narra-
tive Mr. Lindley gave of incidents connected
with his early life and African experiences,
which I will briefly record. When the Ameri-
can Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis-
sions decided to establish a mission in South
Africa, among the six heroic young men who
responded to the call was the son of Rev.
Jacob Lindley, D.D., an eminent Presbyterian
minister. That son was Daniel, and at the


36 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

time he was pastor of a church in North Caro-
lina. His people, some of them slaveholders,
were ardently attached to him, and when they
received the tidings that he had decided to go
to Africa, it is hard to say which predominated,
astonishment or indignation. I asked him how
he succeeded in getting away. He replied, - I
preached four sermons on the kingdom of God,
and one on the Great Commission, and if ever
I preached from my heart T did then. My
people saw that the call was from God, and
gave me up, saying, ^t is His will that you

should go.' " .11-.

It is to be regretted that no careful liistory
has been published of Mr. Lindley's labors,
trials, narrow escapes, disappointments at first,
but afterwards encouragements. Had he com-
mitted to paper his experiences, as he occasion-
ally gave them in public and private, they
would have been quite as interesting and
romantic as those of Rev. Robert Moffat.

Of this lamented brother, considered as a
preacher or platform speaker, I am not in dan-
ger of speaking too highly. Many in the
United States who heard him have said that
no foreign missionary surpassed him. Owing
to a keen knowledge of human nature, he
seemed to know just what to say to interest an
audience, and was always adequate to the occa-
sion. As a hint of the kind of missionary
addresses best adapted to interest and edify
public audiences, he related an incident which
came under his own observation. Seated in

Our Mission Station. 37

the vestry of a church in Connecticut, previous
to entering the pulpit, the pastor asked him
upon what he was about to speak. Mr. Lind-
le)'' replied that he always aimed in his mission-
ary addresses to tell the audience about the
people among whom he labored, their customs,
worship, etc., and the nature of his work among

them. Said Dr. : "I am glad to hear you

say this, for a few months ago we had here a
missionary from India who occupied a full hour
in trying to show my people how they might
save money for the heathen. One of my dea-
cons, a shrewd merchant, came to me and said:
* We Yankees do not need to be told how to
save money, but how to use it.' "

When it was decided that Mr. Lindley return
to America to spend the evening of his days,
there was great mourning on the part of his
friends, black and white. At the farewell
meeting, one of the native preachers, in a most
pathetic address, said : " We have met to bury
our father and mother. Our missionary knows
all, from the governor to the poorest man, and
he is called by all ' father.' His wife has taught
our wives, and by precept upon precept and an
unwavering example of goodness and faithful-
ness, has d(jne her work for Christ." A collec-
tion was then taken up of one hundred dollars,
which was sent to America, to be lield in trust
to " bury their fatlier and mother, when they
should die." A clergyman in New York City
spoke truly when he said, "Such demonstra-
tions from such a source are infinitely more

38 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

honorable to humanity and America, as nobly
represented by her missionary, than all the
victories that British soldiers have won in Asia
or Africa since Warren Hastings became master
of India."

Our ride to Esidumbini in an ox-wagon was
to me, a newcomer, full of interest. Occasion-
ally a large itihlam/u (reed buck) of a gray,
ashy color, with its beautiful horns measuring
fifteen inches or more from tip to tip, would
jump out of the long grass, run a distance of
fifty yards, then stop, turn around and look at
us. Mr. Lindley was not slow to seize his rifle,
and the poor buck paid the penalty of having
gazed too long at the disturbers of his quiet.
So numerous were antelopes of various kinds
and sizes, that there was no nece-ssity to go out
of our way for them. Stopjjiiig at a Dutch-
man's farm the last day of our ride, he sur-
prised me by giving away all the venison we
had in the wagon. When I asked him what
we should eat, he replied, "I will shoot another
buck to-morrow morning." He was as good as
his word. About sunrise, as I was boiling the
kettle for our coffee, I lieard the report of a
rifle, and then a voice saying, '' Send the
natives for a buck I have killed." It was a
fine animal, weighing about one hundred

On a beautiful afternoon we came in sis'ht of
my future home. The air was clear, and. as
we reached the end of a long table-land, a deep
and wide valley, filled with undulating hills

Our Mission Station. 39

and windiiiof streams with an occasional water-
fall, suddenly opened on our view. On one
side was a dense thicket sloping toward a
river six miles distant, where elephants, lions,
buffaloes, leopards, hyenas, and other wild
beasts held undisputed sway. In the kloofs^ or
ravines, were trees of considerable size, but the
hills abounded with the low, prickly mimosa,
amid which we discerned clusters of native huts.

How to descend into this valley from the
table-land, with no wagon path, was a puzzling
question. Ledges of rock occasioned great risk
of upsetting the wagon. As a native boy led
the oxen by the strap attached to their horns,
we helped to keep them from going too fast by
throwing stones at their heads shouting, " Ah,
now ! Ah, now ! " and as the sun was sinking
])ehind the horizon we outspanned by the side
of a beautiful stream.

Before making preparations for supper, Mr.
Lindley said to me, " Brother Tyler, this valley
is to be your home. Let us take possession of
it in the name of King Immanuel." We knelt
on the ground by the side of tlie wagon, and
a prayer ascended to heaven from the lips of
that good missionary which I shall never forget.
It was that his young, inexperienced brotlier
might at all times "have an untiring patience
and an unwavering faith," qualities which I
found essential in my subsequent career. After
a day or two of advice and assistance, Mr.
Lindley returned home, and I was thrown upon
my own resources.

40 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

It is impossible to write of Mr. Lindley, and
not mention his wife, one of the most devoted
missionary ladies who ever set foot on African
soil. Belonging to the pioneer band, Mrs.
Lindley suffered great privations and hard-
ships, but throughout all she labored inces-
santly and always cheerfully and with bright
hopes for the future. Notwithstanding her
large family and the cares which devolved
upon her, she found time to teach the natives
as well as her own children.

She would be most accurately represented
with a baby on her lap, pointing out the letters
to a Zulu kneeling beside her, or explaining to a
company of native women a portion of the Bible.

Her labors were not in vain. A number of
native preachers, two of whom were ordained,
received their first religious impressions from
her earnest appeals. She died in New York
City, November 22, 1877. Mr. Lindley died in
Morristown, N. J., September 22, 1888, at the
age of eighty.

At the funeral service at the Fourth Avenue
Presbyterian Church in New York, the follow-
ing remark was made : '' The world stoops to
honor the memories and achievements of men
who have won great successes in war, politics,
and business by merely selfish methods and for
selfish objects. Some day or other it mil place,
far above all these heroes of an hour, the men
who have emulated the spirit and equaled the
achievements of the founders of the Christian


A Zulu Kkaal.



THE place for building selected, and the
trees cut and brought out of the kloofs
on native shoulders, I found it necessary to
use the wagon in hauling the timber, so my
bedroom and parlor had to be given up. My
wife was at a mission station twenty miles
away. Where should I lodge ? In a kraal
surely, if I could obtain permission of its

A kraal throughout South Africa is simply
a collection of huts arranged about a circular
fence of thorns which encloses the cattle fold.
This fence is eiglit or ten feet high, with a
stronger and larger one outside the huts, wall-
ing in the whole. Tlie number of huts corre-
sponds to the number of wives belonging to
the owner or headman. There are, however,
in various parts of South Africa, military
kraals with two liundred liuts or more, in
whicli are quartered the king's soldiers, young
and middle-aged men, ready to enter the field
at a moment's call. The huts are made of
long wattles or poles, the ends of which are
fastened in the ground, the tops being bent
over and lashed together with the " monkey
rope," a vine well suited for the purpose. A


42 Forty Years Among the Zulus.

strong basket-like roof is thus constructed,
which is supported by horizontal poles resting
on two or more upright posts. The covering,
of long grass, is kept from being blown away
by small rods sharpened at each end, bent bow-
like, and fastened to the network underneath.
On the top of the hut skulls and horns of
oxen are frequently placed, probably designed
as ornaments. To a newcomer approaching
a kraal, the huts bear a strikmg resemblance
to large haycocks. They are impervious to
rain, and are made so strong that no wild
animal, .except an elephant, has been known
to destroy them. Their location is ordinarily
on a hillside, to prevent the rain from settling
near them or entering the pits in the cattle
fold in which their grain is kept. _ Indian corn,
with other cereals, and beans are thus stored
away from the weevils and wliite ants. These
pits are about six feet deep and as large as
a hogshead, but shaped more like a jar, with
a covering of fiat stones and earth. The en-
trance to a Zulu hut is about two feet high in
the middle and three feet wide at the base.
The inhabitants go in and out on their hands
and knees. The door is of pliant sticks woven
together and made to correspond in size to the
opening. In royal ki-aals there is generally one
hut surpassing nil others in the beauty and skill
with which it is constructed. The principal
pole or wattle spanning the entire arch is called
'•'•intingo jenkosikazi (the wattle of the queen)."
The rainbow has the same designation.

Life in a Kraal. 43

The interior of a well-kept Zulu habitation
is not so repulsive as one might suppose who
has never inspectt'd it. First, the iloor pre-
sents the appearance of polished ebony, having
been made of a glutinous kind of earth which
lias passed through the mouths of innumerable
white ants. This is pounded liard, rubbed
with smooth stones, and then smeared with
fresh cow dung. Some Zulu women take pride
in having their floors shine so that you can
almost see your face reflected in them as in a
mirror. The fireplace is a saucer-like excavation
in the center of the floor, with a rim around it
six inches high to keep the firebrands and ashes
from scattering. Around this the inhabitants
sit or lounge, chatting, singing, scolding, snuff-
ing, smoking, or dozing. At night grass mats
are spread over the floor, on which they sleep
with their feet towards the fire in cokl weather.
Their pillows are small wooden stools, about
five inches high, on which they rest their necks,
not their heads. To foreigners this not only
appears uncomfortable, but too suggestive of
a guillotine to be agreeable ; but the Zulus are
too proud of their elaborate lieaddress to brfng
it into contact with the oround.

Calabashes for sour milk, earthen pots (home-
made) for water or beer, or for cooking pur-
p(5Sesr'constitutc the chief utensils of a Zulu

The natives are very fond of meat of various
kinds : beef, mutton, venison. Pork is also
eaten; and lard for anointing their bodies is

44 Forty Years Among the Zulus,

a great luxury. They dislike eggs and have
an abhorrence for fish. They cultivate Indian
corn, pumpkins, amadumbi, a species of caladi-
ura, the root of which is eaten ; and, since
introduced by the whites, beans and sweet
potatoes are favorite vegetables. Indian corn
is their staple breadstuff, but it is usually
eaten boiled like mush. Stewed pumpkin is
also mixed with Indian meal. Thickened sour
milk is to them a luxury. Missionaries and
other foreigners, after they have become accus-
tomed to it, also greatly like it. In hot
weather it is the nearest approach to ice cream
of anything obtainable in Africa. New milk
is turned into a calabash and left to sour, fresh
milk being added daily, and when it is properly
soured a plug at the bottom of the calabash is
removed, the whey escapes, and the milk is
230ured into an earthen dish. It is about the
consistency of "bonny-clabber." Boiled corn,
ground on stones and mixed with sour milk,
is food of which the Zulus never tire.

Another article of food, or drink rather, is
beer brewed from musty Indian corn. Well-

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